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Baedeker's Reiseliandbuclier, 



Belgien und Holland, mit 2 Karten und 14 Planen. Achte 
Auflage. 1863 1 Thlr. 10 Sgr. 

Deutschland, nebst Theilen der angrenzenden Lander bis 
Strassburg, Luxemburg, Kopenhagen, Krakau, Lem- 
berg, Ofen-Pesth, Pola, Fiume. Mit 20 Karten und 
54 Stadtplanen. Eilfte Auflage. 1864 3 Thlr. 

D-avaii3 einzeln: 
Mittel- und Nord-DeutSChland, mit 7 Karten unci iO l'luiien. Eilfte 



ROBERT W.WOODRUFF 
LIBRARY 



Auflage. 1864. 

Oesterreioh, Sii 

33 Tlanen. Eilfte 

Oesterreich, mi 

Siidbayern, Til 

Eilfte Auflage. 18 

London und s 

Continent nach 
10 Planen. 186 

Ober-Italien bis 
balm- und Hanj 
Mit -t Karten i 



Paris und Umg 
Boulogne und 
Paris. Mit 1 Kane una id rianen. 




1 Thlr. 10 Sgr. 
mit 13 Karten unci 
2 Thlr. 

ilfte Auflage. 1864 

1 Thlr. 10 Sgr. 

arten und 9 Planen 

1 Thlr. 

leiserouten vom 

2 Karten und 

. 1 Thlr. 10 Sgr. 

lebst den Eisen- 
md nach Italien. 

Auflage. 1863. 

1 Thlr. 10 Sgr. 

iavre, Dieppe, 

vom Rhein bis 

vierte Auflage. 1862. 

1 Thlr. 10 Sgr. 



Rheinlande, die, von der Schweizer bis zur Hollandischen 
Grenze. Mit 14 Karten, 12 Planen und 14 Ansichten. Drei- 
zehnte Auflage. 1864 1 Thlr. 10 Sgr. 

Schweiz, die, nebst den benachbarten Ober-Italischen Seen, 
Savoyen und angrcnzenden Theilen von Piemont, der 
Lombardei und Tirol. Mit 14 Karten, 7 Stadtplanen und 
6 Panoramen. Zehnte Auflage. 1864 1 Thlr. 22 Sgr. 

The Traveller's Manual of Conversation: em Handbuch 
fiir Reisende, enthaltend ein Wortverzcichniss, kurze Fragen, 
Phrasen und Gesprache, englisch, deutseli, franziisisch und 
italienisch. Sechzehnte Auflage 1 Thlr. 



Mai 1S64. 



Baedeker's Gnide-Books. 



The Rhine from the Dutch to the Swiss Frontier, with 15 maps, 
12 plans and 4 views. Second edition. 1864. 1 Thlr. 10 Sgr. 

Switzerland, the Italian lakes, Savoy and the adjacent 
portions of Piedmont , Lombardy and the Tyrol, with 
12 maps, 7 plans and 6 panoramas. Second edition. 1864. 

1 Thlr. 22 Sgr. 

The Traveller's Manual of Conversation in English, Ger- 
man, French and Italian; together with a copious Voca- 
bulary and short Questions in those languages. Sixteenth 
edition, revised and augmented. 1864 1 Thlr. 



Belgique et Hollande, avec 2 cartes et 14 plans de villes. 
Troisieme edition. 1864 1 Thlr. 10 Sgr. 

Italie septentrionale. Piemont, Lombardie, Venise, les lio- 
magnes, et les chemins de fer et principales routes postales 
vers l'ltalie. Avec 4 cartes et 15 plans de villes. Deuxieme 
edition. 1863 1 Thlr. 10 Sgr. 

Les Bords du Rhin de Bale a la frontiere de Hollande. 
Avec 15 cartes, 12 plans de villes et 4 vues. Sixieme 
edition. 1864 1 Thlr. 10 Sgr. 

La Suisse, ainsi que les lacs avoisinants de l'ltalie septen- 
trionale , la Savoie" et contrees limitrophes du Piemont, 
de la Lombardie et du Tirol. Avec 12 cartes geographiques, 
7 plans de villes et 6 panoramas. Sixieme edition. 1864. 

1 Thlr. 22 Sgr. 



The Doldenhorn and Weisse Frau. Ascended for the first 
time by Abraham Roth and Edmund von Fellenberg. With 
11 coloured engravings, 4 woodcuts and a coloured map 
in the scale of 1 : 50,000. Coblen: 1863. 

May 1864. 



THE RHINE. 



MONEY-TABLE. 



English and French gold, as well as French and Belgian silver, is current 
in the entire Rhineland. 

The pound sterl. or sovereign is worth in the larger commercial towns 
6 thalers, 20 silbergroschen = 11 florins, 40' kreuzers = 25 francs. — But in 
small towns the same exchange cannot be expected, as there are not the 
same opportunities for reselling foreign coin and bills as in larger towns. 

Prussian paper-money, exclusively issued by the government (notes of 
1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 500 thalers), is of the same value as gold or silver, 
and is received with equal favour in Prussia and in the surrounding German 
states. 

Prussian silver-money is current throughout Germany, the Austrian 
dominions excepted. 



Engl 


ish money. 


French 
money. 


Prussian money. 


South Ger- 
man money. 


i 


s 


d 


Fr. 


Cts. 


Tldr. 


Sgr. 


Pf- 


Fl. 


A>. 


1 


— 


— 


25 


— 


6 


20 


— 


11 


40 


— 


17 


1 


21 


55 


5 


21 


— 


10 


— 


— 


16 


— 


20 


— 


5 


10 


— 


9 


20 


— 


15 


— 


IS 


75 


5 


— 


— 


8 


45 


— 


12 


— 


15 


— 


4 


— 


— 


7 


— 


— 


10 


— 


12 


50 


3 


10 


— 


5 


50 


— 


8 


6 


10 


77 


2 


25 


— 


5 


— 


— 


6 


— 


7 


50 


2 


— 


— 


3 


30 


— 


4 


— 


5 


— 


1 


10 


— 


2 


20 


— 


3 


— 


3 


75 


1 


— 


— 


1 


45 


— 


2 


— 


2 


50 


— 


20 


— 


1 


10 


— 


1 


8 


2 


15 


— 


17 


— 


1 


— 


— 


1 


7 


2 


— 


— 


16 


— 


— 


57 


— 


1 


— 


1 


25 


— 


10 


— 


— 


35 


— 


— 


10 


1 


8 


— 


8 


6 


— 


30 


— 


— 


9'A 


1 


— 


— 


8 


— 


— 


28 


— 


— 


6 


— 


62 


— 


5 


— 


— 


18 


— 


— 


* l A 


— 


50 


— 


4 


— 


— 


14 


— 


— 


2'/, 


— 


25 


— 


2 


— 


— 


7 


— 


— 


2 


— 


22 


— 


1 


8 


— 


6 






1 





11 


_ 





10 


— 


3 






73 


— 


6 


— 


— 


6 


— 


2 






Va 


— 


4 


— 


— 


3 


— 


1 



HANDBOOK FOE TRAVELLERS 

ON 

THE RHINE, 

FROM HOLLAND TO SWITZERLAND. 



K. BAEDEKER. 



With 15 Maps and 13 Flans of towns. 



SECOND EDITION, REVISED AND AUGMENTED. 



COBLENZ: 

KARL BAEDEKER. 
1864. 

LONDON: EDINBURGH: 

WILLIAMS & NOfifGATE. WILLIAMS &NORGATE. 

14 Henrietta Street, Covent Garden. 20 South Frederick Street. 

The right of Translation it reserved. 



PREFACE. 

The principal object of the following volume is to 
render the traveller as independent as possible of land- 
lords, coachmen and guides, and thus enable him the 
more thoroughly to enjoy and appreciate the objects of 
interest he meets with on his tour. 

The entire contents of the book have been compiled 
from the personal experience of the editor, and the 
country described has within the last few years been 
repeatedly visited by him solely with the view of 
gathering fresh information. 

The Maps and Plans, the result of much care and 
research, will be of essential service to the traveller, 
and enable him at a glance to select the best routes &c. 

Railway, Steamboat and diligence time-tables, as 
well as information respecting telegraphic communication, 
are contained in u HendscheV s Telegraph" (10 Sgr.), 
published at Frankfurt on the Main, and issued 
monthly during the summer season. Implicit reliance, 
however, cannot be placed on such publications, notwith- 
standing the care with which they are compiled, and 
the traveller is recommended to obtain the necessary 
information from the local time-tables as he proceeds 
on his journey. 

Careful attention has been devoted to the subject 
of Hotels, on which so much of the tourist's comfort 



vi PREFACE. 

depends. In addition to the more splendid establish- 
ments, the names of houses of less pretension have been 
introduced, to meet the convenience of a large portion 
of the travelling public. Those hotels which the editor 
and his friends have found particularly comfortable and 
moderate are indicated by asterisks (*), which must 
however be received with caution. Exactitude is im- 
possible where changes of management are frequent and 
where the treatment the traveller meets with is very often 
contingent upon circumstances which can be neither 
altogether controlled nor foreseen. 

The fairness of the charges in the different hotels 
enumerated has been invariably tested by the personal 
experience of the editor, or from an inspection of 
numberless bills with which he has been furnished from 
numerous quarters; but it is hardly necessary to remark 
that the constant fluctuations in the price of provisions 
cannot fail to influence Hotel charges generally. Carriage 
fares and fees to guides are also liable to similar 
variations; but these items of expenditure, if given 
approximately, will prove of service to the tourist, in 
enabling him to form a fair estimate of the demands 
which can justly be made upon him. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

I. Skeleton Tour xi 

II. Steamboat Navigation xiv 

III. Hotels and fees xvu 

IV. Remarks on the Geology of the Rhine xix 

V. Wine xxi 

Fall of the Rhine xxix 

Average breadth of the Rhine xxix 

Depth of the Rhine xxix 

Length of the Rhine xxx 

Abbreviations xxx 

Route 

1. From Brussels to Aix-la-Chapelle 1 

2. Aix-la-Chapelle 6 

3. From Aix-la-Chapelle to Diisseldorf, Crefeld and Ruhrort .... 10 

4. From Aix-la-Chapelle to Cologne 1- 

5. From Rotterdam to Diisseldorf IS 

6. Diisseldorf IS 

7. From Diisseldorf to Dortmund by Elberfeld 20 

S. From Dortmund to Diisseldorf by Oberhausen 23 

9. From Diisseldorf to Cologne 24 

10. Cologne 25 

11. From Cologne to Crefeld and Cleve 39 

12. From Cologne to Frankfurt by Giesseu 40 

13. The Rhine from Cologne to Bonn 42 

14. Bonn 43 

15. The Rhine from Bonn to Bemagen 48- 

16. The Seven Mountains (Siebengebirge) 53 

17. The Valley of the Ahr 5& 

18. The Rhine from Remagen to Coblenz 61 

19. Brohlthal, Laacher See, Lava quarries of Niedermendig 69> 

20. Coblenz 7a 



viii CONTENTS. 

Route Page 

21. Ehrenbreitstein 80 

22. From Coblenz to Wetzlar. Ems and the Valley of the Lahn . . 82 

23. From Coblenz to Wiesbaden. Railway journey 87 

24. The Rhine from Coblenz to St. Goar V0 

25. The Rhine from St. Goar to Bingen 98 

26. Bingen 105 

27. The Niederwald 107 

28. From Bingen to Saarbriicken 109 

29. Kreuznach and its environs 112 

SO. From Saarbriicken to Treves and Luxembourg 114 

31. Treves 117 

32. The Moselle from Treves to Coblenz 121 

33. The Volcanic Eifel 126 

34. The Rhine from Bingen to Mayence. The Rheingau 133 

35. Mayence 133 

36. From Mayence to Cologne. Railway journey 146 

37. Wiesbaden 149 

38. Schwalbach and Sehlangenbad 154 

39. Frankfurt 156 

40. From Frankfurt to Mayence and Wiesbaden. Taunus Railway. 
Excursion to the Taunus 166 

41. From Frankfurt to Heidelberg 171 

42. The Odenwald 175 

43. Heidelberg 179 

44. Mannheim and Schwetzingen 186 

45. The Bavarian-Rhenish Palatinate. Donnersberg and Haardt . . . 188 

46. From Mannheim to Saarbriicken. Ludwigshafen-Bexbach and Prussian 
Saarbriicken line 195 

47. Worms 198 

48. Speyer 200 

49. From Heidelberg to Carlsruhe 205 

50. Carlsruhe 206 

51. From Carlsruhe to Baden 208 

52. Baden and its Environs 210 

53. From Baden to Strasburg 216 

54. Strasburg 217 

55. From Strasburg to Mayence 222 



COJNTEN'TS. ix 

Route _ Page 

56. From Strasburg to Bale 226 

57. The A'osges. Northern part. From Strasburg to Saarburg . . . 229 

58. The Vosges. Southern part 231 

59. From Baden (or Strasburg) to Freiburg 236 

60. Freiburg and its Environs 238 

61. From Freiburg to Bale 244 

62. Badenweiler and its Environs. Biirgeln, Blauen, Belchen, Miinster- 
thal . . . . ^ 245 

63. The Black Forest (Baden portion) 249 

a. Murgthal, Horuisgrinde, Mummelsee. From Baden to Gernsbach 

and Allerheiiigen 250 

b. Allerheiiigen, Waterfalls of Biittenstein, Kniebisbader, Water- 
falls of Tryberg, Kinzigthal 253 

c. Hollenthal, Feldberg, Wiesenthal, Wehrathal, Albthal .... 258 

64. From Waldshut to Bale 263 

65. Bale 264 

Index 269 



Maps. 

1. General Map, after the index. 

2. The Rhine from Bonn to Diisseldorf and from Diisseldorf 
to Emmerich, the Westphalian lines and the Cologne- 
Dttsseldorf, Aix-la-Chapelle line; Routes 3, 5—14 and 38, 
between pp. 10 and 11. 

3. The Rhine from Coblenz to Bonn, Laacher See, theValleys 
of the Brohl land the Ahr; Routes 15—20 and 38, between pp. 50 
and 51. 

4. The Seven Mountains; Route 16, between pp. 54 and 55. 

5. The Rhine from Bingen to Coblenz, Rhine-Nahe and 
Rhine-Lahn lines; Routes 20 — 29 and 38, between pp. 90 and 91. 

6. The Niederwald; Routes 26 and 27, between pp. 106 and 107. 

7. The Eifel; Route 33, between pp. 128 and 129. 

S. The Rheingau; Routes 23 and 34—38, between pp. 134 and 135. 
9. The Taunus Mountains; Routes 37, 39 and 40, between pp. 16S 
and 169. 

10. The Odenwald, Routes 41—43, between pp. 176 and 177. 

11. The Rhenish Palatinate, northern part; Routes 28 and 29, 45—47 
and 55, between pp. 1S8 and 189. 

12. The Rhenish Palatinate, southern part (Haardt); Routes 45 
and 46, between pp. 192 and 193. 

13. The Vosges Mountains, southern part; Routes 57 and 58, between 
pp. 232 and 233. 

14. The Black Forest, northern part (en virons of Baden), Routes 
51—56, 63 a. and b., between pp. 210 and 211. 

15. The Black Forest, southern part; Routes 56, 59—63 c, 64 and 65, 
between pp. 246 and 247. 



I. Skeleton Tour. 

The following plan for a 6 weeks' tour of the Rhine will 
be found to be the most convenient and expeditious ; it begins 
with Frankfurt and ends with Dortmund: — 

Days. 

Frankfurt (R. 39) l" 

On foot: Taunus (Konigstein, Soden, Homburg, R. 40) 1 

Darmstadt (R. 41) % 

On foot: Melibocus and Odenwald (R.R. 41 and 42) . 1 

Heidelberg and environs (R. 43) 1 

Carlsruhe (R. 50) V 2 

Baden and environs (R. 52) 1 

On foot: The Black Forest, Murgthal, Allerheiligen, 
Renchthal, Kniebisbader, Tryberg falls, Kinzigthal 

(R. 63 a. and b.) 3 

From Offenburg to Freiburg (R. 59) 1 

On foot: Hbllenihal, Feldberg, Wiesenthal, Wehraihal 

(R. 23 c.) 2 

Bale (R. 65) V, 

On foot: Badenweiler and environs (R. 62) 2 

From Freiburg to Breisach (R. 60), Colmar and St. 

Hippolyte (R. 58) 1 

On foot: The Vosges (R.R. 57 and 58) 3 

Strasburg (R. 54) 1 

To Saarburg and back by railway (R. 57) 1 

From Strasburg to Landau (R. 55) y 2 

On foot : Haardt Mountains, Madenburg, Trifels, Max- 
burg, Neustadt (R. 45) 2 

From Neustadt to Speyer (R.R. 46 and 48) l / 2 

Worms (R. 47), Mayence (R. 35), Wiesbaden (R. 37) . . 2 
On foot: The Rheingau from Eltville to Riidesheim 
(R. 34) and Bingen. Rochus-Chapel and Scharlach- 

kopf (R. 26) 1 

Excursion to Kreuznach, Minister am Stein, Oberstein 

and back to Bingen (R.R. 28 and 29) 1 

From Bingen by steamboat to Bacharach, on foot to 

Caub, Oberwesel, St. Goar and environs (R. 25) ... 1 
By steamboat to Stolzenfels, Coblenz and Ehrenbreitstein 
(R.R. 20, 21 and 24) 1 



xii SKELETON TOUR. 

Ems and Nassau (R. 22) by railway 1 

By Moselle-steamboat to Alf, on foot through the vol- 
canic Eifel (R.R. 32 and 33) 3 

Treves and environs (R. 31) 1 

By steamboat from Treves to Coblenz (R. 32) .... 1 
By steamboat to Andernach (R. 18), on foot to Nieder- 
mendig, the Laacher See, the Brohlthal (R. 19). From 
Brohl by steamboat to Remayen, Apollinarisberg 

(R. 18) 1 

The Valley of the Ahr to Altenahr (R. 17) (on foot 

2 days) by carriage 1 

By steamboat to Kordgswinter (R. 15), on foot through 

the Seven Mountains (R. 16) 1 

Bonn and Cologne (R.R. 10 and 14) 2 

By Railway to Aix-la-Chapelle (R.R. 2 and 4), in the 

evening by Railway to Diisseldorf (R. 3) 1 

Diisseldorf and Elberfeld (R.R. 6 and 7) 1 

On foot from Elberfeld to Hagen (Wupper valley, Ennep 

road) Railway to Dortmund (R. 7) 1 

From Dortmund by railway (R.R. 8 and 9) in 4 hrs. 
back to Cologne. 
The rapidity of railway communication is taken into account 
in these calculations. The pedestrian excursions are all within 
the reach of any tolerable walker. 

It may strike some that six weeks is an unreasonable period 
to devote to a journey which, with the modern accessories to 
speed, it is possible to perform in a single day, but it need 
hardly be stated that a very imperfect acquaintance with the 
beauties of Rhenish scenery is to be obtained by those whose 
impressions are formed from the window of a railway carriage, 
or even from the deck of a steamer. Such cursory glances 
may satisfy those who are making the Rhine simply the high- 
way to the more gigantic, but scarcely more impressive and 
instructive scenery of Switzerland; it is hoped, however, this 
volume may find favour with those who desire an intimate 
acquaintance with this beautiful country and its countless and 
unrivalled attractions, too many of which have been unexplored, 
and must ever remain sealed to those who will not be tempted 
to diverge from the oft-trod track. Whilst the editor of this 
work hopes to be the means of opening fresh sources of pleasure 
and instruction to the traveller, each individual, being the best 
judge of his own resources, must avail himself of the time, 
means, strength and inclination he has at his own disposal. 

The railways by which in different directions the Rhine- 
land is intersected, and the numerous steamboats which navigate 
its rivers, afford so many opportunities for travelling, that the 



SKELETON TOUR. xm 

enterprising tourist need ever pass an unprofitable day. Much 
discernment is of course necessary to determine where the 
public conveyances should be employed and where abandoned, 
as in many instances the best objects and points of observation 
are only accessible to the pedestrian or by private conveyance. 
Much valuable information on these points will , it is hoped,, 
be afforded in this work. Those who are in delicate health, or 
would desire to escape from the bustle of high roads and public 
conveyances, are recommended to the following places, which 
are particularly "Well adapted for repose after the fatigue and 
excitement of travelling: Schloss Biirgebi (p. 247), especially 
for single gentlemen; Freiburg (p. 238); Achern (p. 217), 
Oppenau, Allerheiligen (p. 216), the latter for gentlemen; 
Carlsruhe (p. 206), Weinheim (p. 174), Zwingenberg (p. 172); 
Neustadt in the Haardt (p. 196); the baths of Cronthal in 
the Taunus (p. 170); Niederwalluff (p. 137) and Geisenkeim 
(p. 134) in the Rheingau; Lorch (p. 174), Oberwesel (p. 99), 
St. Goarshausen (p. 97), Camp (p. 95), the latter for gentlemen, 
on the Middle-Rhine; Honnef (p. 56), at the foot of the 
Seven Mountains. 

The traveller need hardly be reminded that a superfluity 
of luggage is a sad hindrance to the complete success of a- 
tour. It is a source of expense, anxiety and trouble, and he 
who would spare his pocket many an inroad, and his temper 
many a trial, will provide himself with as small a quantity 
as possible of those articles which are always more or less 
the "impedimenta" to travelling. For a tour of two or three 
weeks the editor's entire equipment consists of an umbrella 
sufficiently stout to serve the purpose of a walking stick, a 
Mackintosh, and a small travelling bag slung over the shoulder, 
containing a couple of flannel shirts, a pair of worsted stockings, 
slippers, and the necessary articles of the toilette. Opportunities 
for having linen washed and shoes mended (always to be 
accomplished in a single night) occur constantly during the 
traveller's progress, rendering a large supply of clothing totally 
unnecessary. More extended tours entail of course the necessity 
of a somewhat longer catalogue of requisites, but under all 
circumstances the tourist is strongly recommended to avoid 
being encumbered with more than he can conveniently carry 
himself. The comfort of being able to quit a steamboat or 
railway station without detention need only be experienced to 
be appreciated. Travellers may often advantageously and at 
a trifling expense send on their luggage through the agency 
of the post. 



XIV 



II. Steamboat Navigation. 

The Rhine is navigated by more than 100 steamboats, from 
the local vessels of fifteen or twenty horse power to the 
powerful tug-steamers of upwards of four hundred. During 
the last few years the average number of travellers availing 
themselves of this mode of transit has been upwards of one 
million annually. Since the completion of the Rhenish rail- 
way a considerable saving of time is effected by only employing 
the steamers on those portions of the river which are re- 
markable for the striking beauty of the scenery upon its banks. 
The following vessels of the united (since 1853) Cologne and 
Diisseldorf Company are recommended for their speed: "Hohen- 
zoller," "Merkens," "Loreley," "Prinz von Preussen," "Prinzessin 
von Preussen." Those to be avoided as "slow coaches" are the 
"Elisabeth," "Konigin," "Mannheim," "Victoria" and "Ger- 
mania." These boats ply during the summer months to the 
number of six or seven a day. The vessels of the Nether- 
lands Company are too uncertain to be depended upon for short 
distances, and are principally employed for the transmission 
of merchandise. 



Tariff of Fares. 


Single ticket. 


Return ticket 
(valid for 1 year). 




Cabin. 


Steerage. 


Cabin. 


Steerage. 


From Mannheim to 


Thlr. 

1 
3 
3 
6 

1 

2 

2 
5 

2 
2 
5 


Sgr. 

6 

18 

27 
24 

14 

9 
23 
27 

6 
12 
26 
12 

14 
18 
27 

3 
17 

3 


nir. 

1 

2 
2 
4 

1 
1 
3 

1 
1 


Sgr. 

4 
12 
18 

6 

19 
10 

6 
15 

18 
24 
18 
27 
18 

9 
12 
18 
12 
21 
12 


Thlr. 

1 

2 
3 

4 
7 

1 
1 
1 
3 
3 
6 

1 
2 
3 
6 


Sgr. 

9 

24 

5 

9 

24 

10 

15 

12 

5 
16 

10 
24 

18 
24 

5 
20 

6 
12 


Tlilr. 

1 

2 
2 
5 

1 
2 

2 
4 

1 

2 
4 


Sgr. 
6 




,. 




23 




15 
15 




27 






I Mainz i 
From \ or \ to 
1 Biebrich 1 


s 




19 




n 












19 


From Bingen to 
St. Goar 


s 
1 9 




1f> 




n 




an 




4 
8 



STEAMBOAT NAVIGATION. 



xv 



Tariff of Fares. 


Single ticket. 


Return ticket 
(valid for 1 year). 




Cabin. 


Steerage. 


Cabin. 


Steerage. 


From Coblenz to 


Thlr. 

1 

1 
4 

1 
1 

3 

1 

2 

3 

1 
2 
2 

2 
1 
2 
2 

2 
5 


Sgr. 

6 
18 
27 

6 
20 

6 

8 
12 
23 

15 

9 

23 

9 

6 

8 

23 

23 

8 

14 

8 
12 
15 

15 

17 

12 
12 
27 

15 


Thlr. 

1 
2 

1 

2 

1 

1 

2 

1 
1 

1 

1 
1 

1 

3 


Sgr. 

4 
12 
18 
24 

3 
24 

5 

8 
15 
20 

8 

15 

6 

4 

5 

15 

5 

15 

9 

5 
8 
10 
20 
10 
20 

21 

28 
18 
28 

20 
10 


Thlr. 

1 
1 

2 
5 

1 
1 

2 

1 

4 

1 

2 
3 

3 

1 

3 
3 

3 

2 
3 
4 

3 

7 


Sgr. 

9 
24 

5 
15 

3 

9 
12 
18 



15 

9 

12 

5 
9 

12 

5 

20 

12 

18 
24 
12 
18 
24 
15 

24 

6 
3 

18 
10 

24 
15 


Thlr. 

1 
1 
3 

1 
1 

2 

1 

2 

2 

1 

2 
2 

2 
1 

2 

2 

2 

5 


Sgr. 
5 




15 




23 




12 
15 

8 


St. Goar 


12 




23 








15 


From Bonn to 


8 




19 




23 




6 


From Cologne to 


8 
23 
23 

8 

12 

15 




s 




12 




15 








15 


From Oiisseldorf to . 


4 




12 
12 




From Rotterdam to 


27 
15 



The first-class, or state cabin, situated in the stern of the 
vessel and connected by folding doors with the public cabin, 
is of limited dimensions and rarely occupied except by invalids 
and persons of the highest distinction. It may be engaged 
for a sum equal to sixteen times the cabin-fare. The second- 
class cabin is frequented by the ordinary travelling community, 
and the passengers are of course free to any part of the deck. 
Third-class, or steerage passengers, are limited to the fore part 
Baedeker's Rhine. ** 



xvi STEAMBOAT NAVIGATION. 

of the vessel as far as the funnel. The portion of the deck 
appropriated to cabin passengers is protected from the sun 
by an awning. 

2 children under 12 years of age are charged one fare. 
1 child in the cabin pays steerage fare. 

1 adult with a child in the steerage pays cabin-fare; children 
in arms are free. 

Tickets must if possible be taken before embarking. 
Passengers failing to do this should obtain them from the 
conductor immediately on going on board, otherwise they are 
liable to be called upon to pay the fare from the steamer's 
first point of departure, a custom not unknown on English 
railroads. 

Each passenger is allowed 100 pounds of luggage free, for 
which he must either be responsible himself, or have its safe 
custody ensured on board, the charges for which are as follows : 
From Mannheim to Cologne: 3 Sgr. for each trunk, 

2 „ for a travelling bag, 
1 „ for a hat box; 
from shorter distances, as from Mannheim to Coblenz, or from 
Coblenz to Cologne, half the above charges are made. This 
precaution saves much trouble and prevents occasional loss. 
Where articles are missing the following compensation is given : 
for a trunk 30 Thlr., for a travelling bag 10 Thlr., for a hat 
box 5 Thlr. 

Single travellers unencumbered with luggage are recom- 
mended not to take their tickets till the steamer is in sight, 
as in case of detention the alternative of the railroad is open 
to them. 

Passengers provided with tickets of not less than 20 Sgr. 
in value are at liberty to break their journey, provided they 
signify their intention to the conduetor before he collects the 
tickets. Should the journey be resumed at a station nearer 
the traveller's destination than that at which he disembarked, 
the ticket ceases to be valid for the intervening stations. 

Towards the end of summer or the beginning of autumn 
Rhine fogs begin to prevail, in consequence of which the 
punctuality of the steamers it not to be relied on, and travellers 
are frequently subjected to a very vexatious detention. Should 
the steamer be more than three hours behind the time specified 
in the time-tables, the fare may be reclaimed. 

Refreshments are provided on board the steamers in- the 
style of the hotels and at similar charges. Although it is a 
rule of the Company that a tariff of charges shall be con- 
spicuously exhibited, it is not always to be seen, and the 
following items are therefore given: 



HOTELS. xvn 

Coffee with bread and butter 8 Sgr. 

Table d'hote at 1 o'clock 20 „ 

— at a later hour 1 Thlr. — „ 

y 2 bottle of good table wine 6 „ 

Cup of coffee 2 „ 

Dinners "a la carte" are not recommended. 
Travellers starting at an early hour in the morning will 
find the breakfast furnished on board more enjoyable than a 
hurried meal before leaving the hotel. Passengers are strongly 
recommended to. pay for what they order "on delivery." If 
left to his own discretion, the waiter will defer tendering 
his account until the point of the traveller's disembarkation 
is in sight, when the hurry and bustle of the moment too 
readily favour imposition. 

Travellers should be on their guard against the importunities 
of waiters who offer spurious books, maps &c. for sale at 
exorbitant prices. 

III. Hotels &c. 

It is found that little variation occurs in the accommodation 
and charges of first-class hotels in the principal towns and 
watering-places throughout the whole of Germany, but it not 
unfrequently happens that in old-fashioned hotels of unassuming 
exterior, as much real comfort combined with more moderate 
charges is found as in the modern establishments , where 
magnificence of decoration sometimes usurps the place of com- 
fort. The editor has therefore endeavoured to the best of his 
ability to direct the attention of the discerning traveller to 
houses of this description, premising at the same time that 
few hotels are deserving of unqualified praise or blame. As 
has been already remarked, the treatment of a guest varies 
greatly according to circumstances; a change of waiters some- 
times disorganizes the entire system of an establishment; but 
the attention a traveller meets with depends mainly upon his 
own demeanour. Those who travel with a superabundance of 
luggage, who are difficult to please, who find indiscriminate 
fault, and who impose unnecessary trouble, must not be sur- 
prised if they find their bills swell into proportions for which 
they are not prepared. To such a class of travellers the 
charges mentioned in this volume will scarcely ever apply. 
The editor here hazards a few observations on two vexed 
questions in connection with hotel management : the payment 
of servants, and the highly obnoxious charge for "bougies." 
As regards " service," the editor entertains a strong conviction 
that the majority of travellers prefer a fixed and moderate 

**2 



xvni HOTELS. 

charge being appended to the bill, but which shall insure them 
against importunities for private donations. This desirable 
practice is observed in the majority of respectable hotels; 
where it is not, the following fees may suffice: 5 Sgr. or 
18 kr. for the head waiter and half that sum for the porter 
per diem. 

On the subject of the charge for bougies two opinions 
cannot exist; the cost of lights should be included in the charge 
for apartments, a small percentage being added if necessary. 
It constantly occurs that the merits of a really good and 
otherwise respectable hotel are overlooked in the irritation 
created by this paltry charge. Not only is the ordinary demand 
of 5 Sgr. exorbitant in itself, but the candles placed in a room 
are frequently charged for, even when not used; and although 
upon remonstrance the demand cannot be maintained, alter- 
cation and dissatisfaction inevitably result. If hotel-keepers 
combined to discontinue this vexatious practice, they would 
be conferring a boon upon their customers and essentially 
contributing to their own respectability and interest. 

Where the traveller remains for a week or longer at an hotel, 
it is advisable to pay, or at all events to call for, his account 
every two or three days, by which means erroneous insertions 
are more easily avoided. Verbal reckonings are also highly 
objectionable. A waiter's arithmetic is faulty, and the faults 
are seldom found to be in favour of the traveller. A habit 
too often prevails of presenting the bill at the last moment, 
when mistakes or wilful impositions must be submitted to, for 
want of time to investigate them. Those who purpose starting 
early in the morning will do well to ask for their bills on 
the previous evening. 

The habit of putting clothes and boots outside the bed-room 
door to be brushed is sometimes attended with inconvenience. 
The editor was once unfortunate enough to be despoiled of a 
great portion of his wardrobe through this incautious act. 

English travellers too often impose considerable trouble 
by ordering things almost unknown in German usage; and if 
ignorance of the language is combined with unacquaintance 
with the customs, misunderstandings and disputes too often 
ensue. They are therefore strongly recommended to acquire 
if possible such a proficiency in the language as shall render 
them intelligible to the servants, and above all to conform in 
their orders and requirements to the manners and habits of 
the country. For this purpose Baedeker's "Travellers' Manual 
of Conversation" will prove a useful companion. 

Valets de place generally charge 1 florin or 20 Sgr. for 
half a day, and 1 — iy 3 Thlr. for an entire day. This sum 



GEOLOGY. xix 

is slightly in excess of the tariff fixed by the police, but 
cannot be regarded as exorbitant. 

IV. Remarks on the Geology of the Rhine. 

For Geologists the maps of the Rhine-province and Westphalia by von 
Dechen (Berlin , pubd. by Schropp) are of particular value. They are ad- 
mirably executed according to the Prussian Ordnance maps, in the proportion 
of 1 : 80,000. The following sections have been published (price 1 Thlr. each): 
Ochtrup, Tecklenburg, Ltibbecke, Cleve, Coesfeld, Minster, Bielefeld, Hoxter, 
Geldern, Wesel, Dortmund , Soest, Warburg, Grejeld, Diisseldorf, Liiden- 
scheid, Berleburg, Aachen, Coin, Siegen, Alt ml en, Malnmdy, Maijen, Bern- 
castel, Trier. • 

From Bale to Bingen the valley of the Rhine is lake-like 
and filled with more recent deposits, but at the latter place 
it suddenly changes its character and becomes so narrow, that 
barely room is afforded for the high-roads and railways which 
skirt it on either side. The river rushes impetuously between 
almost perpendicular rocks of considerable height, intersected 
here and there by narrow gullies. Towards Coblenz the 
valley gradually expands, the hills become less abrupt, and 
the rocks disappear. From Coblenz to Andernach a broad 
basin extends itself on both sides of the stream, which at 
the last-named place again assumes the character of a narrow 
rocky defile. Near Bonn the river again gradually widens, 
and the "Seven Mountains" appear, forming the grand closing 
scene of the picturesque portion of the Rhine. This chain of 
mountains, in diminished proportions, accompanies the Rhine 
on its right bank as far as Cologne, Diisseldorf, and nearly 
to Duisburg; below the mouth of the Ruhr the country presents 
a uniformly flat appearance. 

Thus the Rhine valley between Bingen and Bonn intersects 
a widely extended range of high land, stretching W. as far 
as the Schelde above "Valenciennes, and E. to the Diemel 
near Stadtberge, and consisting of upheaved and much contorted 
strata of slatey-grauwacke and quartzose-rock, one of the oldest 
formations in which fossils are found. Formerly geologists 
reckoned these slate and grauwacke formations among the 
so-called transition rocks, but since the fossiliferous strata have 
been more accurately classified, the Rhenish slate mountains 
are believed to hold the second place according to age among 
the fossiliferous formations. The oldest of these is, according 
to the eminent geologist Sir Roderic Murchison, called the 
Silurian system, and that to which the Rhenish slate Mountains 
belong, the Devonian system. All other fossiliferous formations 
are more recent. 

From Bingen to the confluence of the Sieg below Bonn 
all the strata intersected by the Rhine belong to one and the 
same epoch, as they contain the same organic remains. These 



xx GEOLOGY. 

strata consist of many different kinds of clay-slate, the purest 
modification of which is the roofing-slate. The latter is yielded 
in great abundance by various quarries on the banks of the 
Rhine, the most important of which are those of Caub (p. 100), 
whence it is sent in all directions and even as far as Switzer- 
land. The clay-slate forms transitions to the kind of sand- 
stone called grauwacke; it is here mostly fine-grained, and, 
in combination with a quartzose cementing matter, passes into 
quartzose-rock , which, on account of its great hardness and 
indestructibility, assumes the most grotesque shapes, and between 
Bingen and St. Goar greatly enhances the beauty of the Rhine 
valley. 

The S. limit of the range of mountains intersected by the 
Rhine is formed by the Taunus, of which the Great Feldberg 
rises to the height of 2708 ft., and the W. limit by the Soon- 
wald, Idarwald, and Hochwald, the highest point of which is 
the Walderbeskopf (2518 ft.). So great a height is not attained 
by the Westerwald, Eifel, Hohe Venn, or any of the other slate 
mountains in the range. 

In proportion to these heights are also the hills which 
bound the valley of the Rhine ; they are highest where the 
river intersects the Taunus and the Soonwald , but decrease 
in height farther down. 

Between the periods when the Rhine first began to cut a 
passage for itself through the above mentioned highlands, and 
when the strata forming these highlands were deposited at 
the bottom of what was then an ocean, a vast interval of 
time must have elapsed. In this enormous interval all the 
fossiliferous systems in the world must have been formed. 
The formation of the Rhine valley from Bingen down to the 
sea is more recent than the deposits of the middle section of 
the Tertiary system, called by Sir Charles Lyell Meiocene, in 
which the clays of Vallendar and the brown coals of the 
Westerwald, the Seven Mountains, and the neighbourhood of 
Bruhl are found. Of an equal age with these tertiary formations 
are the basalts of the Rhine (p. 73), which occur in the most 
grotesque shapes on the slopes near Linz , Kaisersberg and 
Ockenfels, on the Erpeler Ley, in the Unkeler Bruch (where 
in 1846 a considerable landslip took place, see p. 52), at 
Rolandseck (at the foot of which the railway has laid bare 
some remarkably situated columns), at Petersberg, Nonnen 
stromberg, and many other peaks of the Seven Mountains. 

The Rhine valley, ancient as it is in the ordinary sense 
of the word, is then, geologically considered, of very recent 
formation; and the extinct volcanoes, numerous cones of which 
may be seen from the Rhine at Neuwied, such as the Camillen- 



WINE. xxi 

berg and the peaks of the Humme'rich at Plaidt and Kruft, 
are still more recent. From the peak at Pornich a stream 
of lava descends into the valley of the Rhine, the large per- 
pendicular columns of which may be seen from the river (p. 187). 
The valley had nearly attained its present depth when the 
eruption which produced this stream of lava took place. This 
is proved by the fact, that all the other lava streams in the 
vicinity of the Laacher See and the Eifel have been poured 
into valleys already formed. The pumice-stone, which extends 
over the whole basin of Neuwied, the only place in Germany 
where this volcanic product is found, must have been dis- 
charged at a still more recent date than most of the lava- 
streams. 

In the flat parts of the valley, through which the Rhine 
flows, at first narrow, and then gradually widening, are found 
beds of loam and rubble which the stream has deposited. 
Similar masses are also met with on the terraces parallel 
with the river, at a height of 400 — 800 ft. above the level of 
the water. The strata could only have been deposited by 
the agency of flowing water, and must have been deposited 
long before the valley attained its present depth. These 
terraces are distinguishable from the peaks formed by the 
uncovered slate by their long horizontal ridges; they prove 
that the Rhine valley has been gradually hollowed out by the 
action of water, though its rugged aspect might give rise to 
the conjecture that it had been the scene of some mighty 
convulsion of nature. 

V. Wine. 1 

Wine is a subject which the traveller who visits the land 
of the grape will naturally expect to be treated of. It is far 
too comprehensive to receive justice in a work necessarily so 
limited as a guide-book, but as a highly important article of 
commerce, as a peculiar feature of the country, the object of 
the unwearying industry of a large population, as forming an 
article of luxury by which the most homely taste and the 
most refined palate may alike be gratified, and lastly as a 
poetic theme from the days of Anacreon to the present time, 
no work of this character could be considered complete, which 
did not make some brief mention of the grape, its culture 
and produce. 



1 For fuller information on this subject, the traveller is referred to 
"Some Words on Rhine Wines," an interesting pamphlet which may be, 
procured of the principal booksellers hi the Rhineland. 



xxn WINE. 

The recent liberal modification of English duties upon 
foreign wines has of course given an increased impetus to the 
traffic in this article between Great Britain and other countries. 
Possibly one of the earliest and least satisfactory results of 
this relaxation has been that an immense quantity of inferior 
wine of fictitious body and sweetness has been thrown upon 
the English market, by which the public taste for the Rhenish 
vineyards can hardly be improved; but, when that shock is 
recovered from, there can be little doubt that the Rhine wines 
of the second and third class will, from their moderate price 
and wholesome and agreeable qualities, take their proper place 
at the English table, from which they have been hitherto 
partially excluded by oppressive fiscal regulations, now happily 
removed. Smith in his "Wealth of Nations," alluding to the 
duties and prohibitions with which the English and French 
have mutually oppressed each other's industry, observes that 
"the spirit of hostility, which has subsisted between the two 
nations ever since 1667, has hitherto hindered them from 
being moderated on either side;" but a happier era is now 
inaugurated, ignorance and prejudice have veiled their faces 
before modern enlightenment, and the recent commercial 
treaty between Great Britain and France, the benefits of which 
England has extended to other countries, forms an epoch in 
liberal legislation, the importance of which it is impossible to 
over-estimate. 

We do not believe with the over-sanguine that the wines of 
Germany, or any other country, will ever supplant what may 
be termed the national beverages of Great Britain. A bottle 
of Hock, albeit the bouquet emitted from its graceful neck be 
ever so fragrant, will stand a poor chance by the side of a 
foaming "pewter," when a thirsty mechanic is the arbitrator 
of their respective merits; nor do we believe that the stal- 
wart young athletae of England, after their exertions in the 
"outrigger" or the cricket-field, will ever be proof against 
the blandishments of the exhilarating and strength-supporting 
production of the "immortal Bass;" but we decidedly anti- 
cipate that with increased facilities there will be a growing 
partiality for the sound and wholesome produce of the Rhenish 
vineyards, before which many prejudices will fade away. No 
error has been more prevalent than that the Rhenish and 
Moselle wines possess an injurious acidity. The celebrated 
chemist Liebig on the contrary affirms, that not only is the 
exquisite bouquet of the Rhine wines owing to the free acid, 
but that some of their most salutary properties arise from the 
tartar present in them. To this he attributes the immunity 
enjoyed by the inhabitants of the banks of the Rhine and 



WINE. xxin 

Moselle, indeed of all who use the- German wines, from the 
uric acid diathesis ; and if Liebig should be considered under 
the influence of national partiality, Dr. Prout, and many others 
who have investigated the subject without prejudice or favor, 
may be mentioned as entertaining the same opinion. There 
cannot be a greater error than indiscriminately to denounce 
the acidity of wine — the kind of acid present is, however, an 
important point, and tartaric acid is the best; but there is 
another advantage possessed by Rhenish wines, which stands out 
in prominent relief, namely the total absence of brandy, with 
which the wines of Spain, Portugal and Sicily are invariably 
saturated, to the utter destruction of their natural flavour and in- 
jury to the health of the consumer. Dr. McCulloch has forcibly 
pointed out the evils of adding brandy to wine. The pure 
light wines of Germany produce an agreeable exhilaration of 
mind, very unlike the mere physical excitement, almost 
amounting to ferocity, which results from the immoderate use 
of the largely brandied wines so much in vogue in England; 
the diseases which attend spirit-drinkers, chiefly disorders of 
the liver, are commonly met with amongst consumers of wine 
to which brandy has been adventitiously added, though such 
maladies rarely, if ever, follow even the intemperate use of 
pure wine. It is evident that the addition of alcohol to wine 
is unnecessary for its preservation, for it is notorious that 
Rhine wines sometimes retain their excellence for a century; 
yet in these the quantity of alcohol is seldom more than eight 
or nine per cent, that is, in professional terms, 17 — 21° of 
proof, according to Syke's Hydrometer, used in the Test-office 
of the London custom-house — indeed the very property of 
keeping is mainly attributable to the fact that the fermentation 
is more perfect in Rhenish wines than in those of Spain and 
Portugal, in which latter countries fermentation is checked 
by the addition of brandy, while with the white wines of 
France, the same object is effected by sulphuration — pro- 
cesses by which the richness and sweetness of new wine are 
artificially retained. 

The connoisseur is generally in the habit of giving the 
preference to France as a wine-growing country, and calls it 
in his enthusiasm, par excellence "the vineyard of the earth," 
and doubtless the wonderful fertility of her soil , and her 
delicious temperature, varied though it be, give her a proud 
pre-eminence over the rest of the globe; within her sunny 
regions every description of wine is produced, Champagne of 
different degrees of excellence, Burgundy, as a red wine un- 
rivalled in its perfection, the exquisite produce of the Gironde- 
and la Drome, and the luscious wines of Herault. But yielding, 



xxiv WINE. 

as one in candour must, the palm to France for her red wines, 
Germans may view with just pride their noble river, perhaps 
the most beautiful stream in the world, on the banks of which 
from Mayence to Bonn , a distance of 90 M., the cultivation 
■of the vine may be seen in the greatest possible perfection, 
the result of which is the production of a variety of white 
wines with which no other country can compete. 

In Germany the wine-culture may almost be said to assume 
the form of a passion, which pervades all classes from the 
prince to the peasant. The reigning potentate has his vine- 
yards, and might almost be called a wine-merchant on an 
extensive scale, and his Kellermeister is an official, the im- 
portance of whose office it would be difficult to overrate. The 
peasant, too, owns his little patch of vineyard, which he 
cultivates with assiduous care and affection. 

It must be admitted that the traveller meets with no in- 
considerable difficulty in procuring that which in his imagination 
must be of very easy attainment, namely a bottle of good 
wine. As in a sea-port town in England it is often difficult 
to obtain good fish, the voracious maw of the great metropolis 
absorbing all that comes within its reach, so, in the very 
garden of the vine, unanticipated obstacles to the hoped-for 
■enjoyment present themselves. If the frugal traveller, fresh 
from England with the taste of Port and Sherry hardly out 
of his mouth, contents himself with ordering a bottle of the 
•ordinary table-wine, which he sees is very palatable to the 
unvitiated taste of the natives, he is likely to be little captivated 
•by his first impressions of the highly-extolled produce of the 
Rhenish grape, and if his eye wanders over the "Weinkarte" 
in search of the rarer productions of the Rheingau — to say 
nothing of the bewilderment generally attendant upon such a 
search — he will find that he can only gratify his longings 
at a cost equal to, if not exceeding, his whole day's ex- 
penditure, for a bottle of Johannisberger or Steinberger cannot 
•be obtained at an hotel at less than four thalers a bottle. It 
is a well-known fact that the prices charged by the inn-keepers 
for the table d'hote dinners with their endless variety of 
dishes, frequently followed by ice and fruit, are wholly un- 
remunerative, and they are consequently compelled to put a 
profit upon their wines of about one hundred per cent. This 
is a difficulty not easily overcome, and the readiest solution 
we can offer the traveller, between the Scylla of the very 
cheap, and the Charybdis of the expensive wines, is to re- 
commend him, should the table-wine not prove sufficiently 
palatable, to order a bottle of Rhine or Moselle at a thaler, 
or a thaler and five groschen (about 2 fl.), at which price the 



WINE. xxv 

most fastidious taste ought to be gratified. In the wine-gardens 
and other places of public resort, it is the custom among the 
natives to order simply white or red wine at six, eight, or 
ten groschen (20 — 36 kreuzers) a bottle, by adopting which 
course a fair estimate may be made of the ordinary wine of 
the country. 

4 The Rheingau, a district of about 15 M. in length, pro- 
duces the finest wines of the Rhine. Here is situated Schloss 
Johannisberg, a most favoured spot, yielding a wine, up to a 
recent period considered without a rival. When it is stated 
that these celebrated vineyards are confined to a space of 
about 40 acres, it may be easily seen how little of this rare 
product falls to the share of the ordinary public. The first 
quality can only be obtained in the most favourable seasons ; 
the grapes are selected with the utmost care from the ripest 
bunches — not a drop of the precious juice is allowed to 
escape — the yield, under the most auspicious circumstances, 
is therefore very limited. This may be considered as the 
veritable nectar, which the vulgar lip seldom profanes. It 
was, until recently, the custom to sell these wines only in bottle, 
but this practice is now abandoned, and they are now sold 
in the cask at Schloss Johannisberg by public auction. This 
celebrated wine is less remarkable for its strength than for 
its raciness, the delicacy of its flavour and its bouquet. The 
other wines of the immediate vicinity are distinguished by 
the name of Johannisberg -Klaus ; the vineyards belonging to 
Count Schonborn also yield a wine highly esteemed. There 
is also "Johannisberger" produced from the vineyards at the 
side of the Schloss and the village of that name, but these are 
inferior to many of the other productions of the Rheingau. In 
this neighbourhood are . the districts of Rudesheim and Geisen- 
heim, the first of these producing a fine and generous wine, 
the principal characteristics of which are mellowness and body. 
Bingen, on the left side of the river, is a favourable district 
for strong wines; the hill in the rear yields Scharlachberger- 
Below Bingen, on the opposite side of the Rhine, is Assmanns- 
hausen, the red wine of which holds a high rank in the 
estimation of the connoisseur, and in good vintages bears no 
mean comparison with Burgundy of the best class, being made 
from the same species of grape, but unfortunately, like the 
latter, is often seriously impaired by travelling. The "Marco' 
brunn" vineyard, situated between Hattenheim and Erbach, pro- 
duces a wine of exquisite flavour and bouquet, but the wine 
which competes most successfully with Johannisberger, and 
indeed trenches closely upon its celebrity, is the Steinberger, 



xxvi WINE. 

produced from an estate belonging to the Duke of Nassau on 
the hill at the back of Hattenheim, and cultivated with the 
utmost care. Many circumstances contribute to the increasing 
reputation of the Steinberg wine. The Duke of Nassau, it 
is well known, spares no expense in the cultivation of his 
vineyards, upon which the utmost care is bestowed under the 
personal supervision of the Duke's Kellermeister and his sub- 
ordinates. The estate of Johannisberg is held by the head of 
the Metternich family as a fief of the crown of Austria. In 
the hottest seasons the lightness of the soil of the Johannis- 
berg vineyard is occasionally detrimental to the perfection of 
the yield, the grapes being apt to ripen before they attain 
their proper size and maturity. This was the case in 1857, 
which, with 1858 and 1859, are the three best years in 
succession on record, when the Steinberger reached a marked 
pre-eminence over its rival, a circumstance owing principally 
to the heavier nature of the soil. Hochheim, though situated 
on the Main, is considered to yield a Rhenish wine of a very 
superior quality. 

It may not be out of place here to name a respectable 
house from which the above-mentioned first-class wines can 
be procured. To connoisseurs and purchases of Hock and Moselle 
we can highly recommend among others Messrs. H. Sf J. Espen- 
schied, of Coblenz, their cellars being well known on the Rhine 
as containing a choice variety of wines of the first growths, 
such as Steinberg, Johannisberg, Marcobrunn, Grafenberg, 
Rudesheim, &c. 

The valley of the Ahr may be regarded as the most N. 
point at which the culture of the grape is brought to any 
perfection; its light and wholesome red wines are chiefly 
consumed in the neighbourhood of their growth. Walporzheimer 
and Ahr-Bleicherte, when procured from respectable sources, 
without the "improvements" introduced by the chemist Chaptal, 
and subsequently "improved upon" by Dr. Gall, are of a ruby 
colour, strenghtening and astringent in their properties, and 
bear a resemblance to Burgundy of an inferior class. 

Whilst thus briefly dwelling upon Rhenish wines in general, 
mention must be made of the effervescing wines which were 
first manufactured 40 years ago at Esslingen, Wiirzburg and 
Treves, but with indifferent success, and subsequently in 
Mayence, Hochheim and Coblenz, in which latter place there 
are now six thriving manufactories. These wines are known 
generally in England under the denomination of sparkling 
Hock and Moselle, and are distinguished from the French 
wines by the predominance of the flavour of the grape, a 



WINE. xxvu 

quality they owe to the comparatively small quantity of cognac 
used in their preparation. It is well known that in the inferior 
qualities of genuine champagne the flavour of cognac, or some 
other spirit, conceals the want of flavour of the wine. In 
England the consumption of these wines is considerably on 
the increase. It must, however, be confessed, that, in their 
unsophisticated state, they do not find the same favour among 
the Germans ; and to show the extent to which prejudice can 
be carried, it may be mentioned that at Hochheim not only are 
the bottles labelledwith the names of the first French growers, 
but the brands on the corks , the metallic covering of the 
bottles, and peculiarities in packing are so closely imitated 
that the most practised eye does not detect the deception, 
and in this disguise are these wines freely consumed in the 
country of their manufacture. The process is exactly similar 
to that of Champagne, for which it often does duty in England. 
When obtained in unexceptionable quarters, it is a light and 
most agreeable beverage, but unscrupulous individuals too 
often employ the process as a vehicle for getting rid of wine 
of very inferior quality, sweetness and effervescence concealing 
for the moment the real nature of the article. 

In bringing these few remarks to a conclusion, it may not 
be out of place to caution the traveller against employing any 
other than the most respectable wine-merchants. The art of 
adulteration is unhappily widely known, and, what is worse, 
the label and cork are not always guarantees that the wine is 
what it professes to be. It may also be stated that excellence 
of quality is wholly incompatible with lowness of price. Good 
wine bears a high price even on the spot where it is grown. 
What is a light and agreeable beverage in Germany will hardly 
pass muster in the English climate, especially where the palate 
is often cloyed with the strong wines of Spain and Portugal. 
As a light, agreeable, and wholesome summer beverage the 
Rhenish wines of the 2nd and 3rd class may of course be im- 
ported at a very moderate price, the duty upon such in bottle 
being now reduced to 2s. bd. per gallon; but the highest class 
of Rhine wine, of which Marcobrunner may be taken as a 
good sample, cannot be drunk in England under six or seven 
shillings a bottle. 

For the convenience of the traveller a list of some of the 
best known Rhine and Moselle wines is appended; it might 
be extended considerably, but it would be found impossible 
to discriminate between the numberless wines of third and 
fourth- class growth. 



xxvni 



WINE. 



Wines. 


Where grown. 


Class. 


Properties. 


Johannisberg . . . 

Riidesheimer-Berg 
— Hinterhaus . 

Marcobrunn .... 
Hochheiin-Dom-De- 

Grafenberg .... 
Geisenheim-Rothen- 


Rheingau. 
do. 

do. 
do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 


I. 


Raciness, delicacy, bouquet. 

The above properties combined 
■with strength. 
l Mellowness and body ; the first. 
K from the Orleans, the latter 
J from the Riessling grape. 

Fine flavour and bouquet. 

Mellowness combined with pe- 
culiar aud excellent flavour. 

Of almost equal standing t» 
Marcobrunn. 

Great delicacy and flavour. 


Johannisberg -Klaus 
Rauenthaler-Berg . 

Hattenheim .... 
Geisenheim .... 


do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 


II. 

iff. 


Mellowness. 
Mellowness. 


Generally char- 
acterised more 
by bouquet than 
mellowness. 


Assmannshausen . 


do. 


I. 


Fine red wine resembling Bur- 
gundy. 


Rupertsberg .... 
Deidesheim .... 

Konigsbach .... 


Rhenish Bavaria, 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 


III. 

IV. 

> >> 


1 Possess more mellowness and 
[ body than bouquet and flavour. 


Scharlachberg . . . 

I,iebfrauenmilch . 
Laubenheim .... 


Rhenish Hessen. 
do. 
do. 
do. 


II. 

iit. 


) Possess body and flavour, but 
I less delicacy and raciness than 
I the wines of the Rheingau. 




Rhenish Prussia 
do. 


in. 


J Agreeable light wines. 




Ehrenbreitstein. 


IV. 


A good full-bodied red wine. 


Walporzheim - . . 
Ahr-Bleichert . . . 


Valley of the 
Ahr. 


in. 


\ Good and wholesome red wines; 
J astringent. 


Scharzhofberg . . . 
Brauneberg .... 


Moselle, 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 


i. 

if. 
in. 

.5 


Light, wholesome and agreeable 
1 wines of peculiar fragrance, 
( recommended to persons of 
sedentary habits. 



XXIX. 



Fall of the Rhine. 



Height above the 


evel of the 


sea of 










Feet. 




Feet. 


The Toma-See, source of the 




The Rhine 


at Bacharach ... 211 




7241) 


11 n 


,, the Lurlei 






205- 


The Rheinwald Glacier, source 




11 11 


„ St. Goar . 






197 


of the Hinter-Rhein .... 


6822 


11 11 


„ Boppard . 






192 


Reichenau, at the confluence of 




11 11 


„ Coblenz . 






179 


the Vorder- and Hinter-Rhein 


1804 


■1 11 


,, Neuwied . 






165 


The Lake of Constance . . . 


1089 


11 11 


,, Andernach 






161 


The Rhine at Bale 


752 


11 11 


„ Brohl . . 






156- 


., ,, ., Strasburg . . . 


448 


li 11 


,, Bonn . . 






134 


., ., ,, Speyer .... 


304 


11 11 


„ Cologne . 






115 


., ., ,, Mannheim . . . 


284 


11 11 


„ Diisseldorf 






82 


,, ., ,, Mayence . . . 


256 


11 11 


„ Wesel . . 






48- 


,, ., ., Bingen .... 


232 


11 11 


„ Emmerich 






31 



Average breadth of the Rhine. 



Feet. 

At Bale 528 

,, Strasburg 744 

.. Mannheim 1200 

., Mayence 1380 

„ Bingen 1608 

Between Bingen and Coblenz . 1200 

At Coblenz 1116 



Feet. 

At Neuwied 1260' 

„ Unkel 840 

„ Bonn 1488 

„ Cologne 1212 

„ Worriugen 1992 

„ Diisseldorf 1140 

,, Schenkenschanz (Dutch front.) 2544 



Depth of the Rhine. 

Feet. 

Between Bale and Strasburg 3—12 

„ Strasburg and Mayence 5—24 

„ Mayence and Bonn 9 — 72 

At the Lurlei 72 

Between Bonn and Cologne 10—3O 

At Cologne 18 

., Miilheim 25 

Between Miilheim and Diisseldorf 12—31 

At Diisseldorf above the town 62 

., „ below the town 23 



XXX 

Length of the Rhine. 

Engl. Miles. 

From Bale to Strasburg 83 '/« 

Strasburg to Lauterburg 28y 6 

Lauterburg to Mayence 33V3 

Mayence to Biugen 17-/ 3 

Bingen to Coblenz 38>/ 3 

Coblenz to Cologne 58 2 / 3 

Cologne to Diisseldorf 34 

Diisseldorf to Emmerich 65% 

Emmerich to Briel (North Sea) 97% 



From Bale to the North Sea 456 3 / 4 

An annual sum of 125,000^. is expended on the construction of dams and 
other river-works. Of this the government of Baden pays upwards of 
40,000^., that of Prussia almost as much. 



Abbreviations used in the Handbook, 

K. = room N. = north 

L. = light S. = south 

B. = breakfast E. = east 

D. = dinner W. = west 

S. = supper r. = right 

exc. W. = exclusive of wine 1. = left 

inc. W. = inclusive of wine min. = minute 
A. = attendance hr. = hour. 

M. = English mile. 



NB. The best hotels and everything particularly worthy of note are 
indicated by an asterisk. 



1. From Brussels to Aix-la-Chapelle. 

By express train in 5 hrs. ; fares 18 fr. 37, 13 fr. 2 c. Custom-house 
formalities on arriving at the station of Aix-la-Chapelle or Cologne. The 
finest views between Louvain and Liege are to the right. The entire 
district between Liege*and Aix-la-Chapelle is replete with interest. 

Brussels (Hotel de Bellevue, *de Fiandre, de l'Europe, 
de la Grande Bretagne, de France, de la Regence, Windsor, 
all in the upper part of the town, near the park; * Hotel de Suede, 
de l'Univers, de Saxe, de 1' An gleter re , des Etrangers, de Hol- 
lande, in the lower part of the town; of the second class: 'Hotel de 
Brabant, Grand-Monarque, Belier; more moderate: * H 6 tel Callo, 
*des Brasseurs, for travellers of moderate requirements), see Baedeker's 
Belgique et Ifollande. 

Shortly after the train has left the handsome Station tin 
Nord, the royal palace of Laeken is seen rising above the 
fertile meadow-land on an eminence to the 1. The stream which 
winds through the pastures is the Senne. To the r. stands the 
Chateau of the Marquis van Assche. In 10 min. stat. Vilvorde 
is passed. Near this little town, the most ancient in Brabant, 
to the 1. of the line, is an extensive Penitentiary, with numerous 
windows resembling loop-holes, capable of receiving 2000 con- 
victs. In 25 min. the train stops at the station of 

Malines, Flem. Mechelen, Ger. Mecheln. {Hotel de la Grue, 
Hotel de Brabant, both in the market-place, near the cathedral; 
St. Antoine, rue d'Egmont; St. Jacques, in the Corn-market; 
table d'hote in all at 1 o'clock. Near the station, Cour Im- 
periale , unpretending and reasonable. " Dejeuner de Malines," 
a dish regarded as a triumph of Belgian culinary skill , may 
be ordered by the curious). Malines is the central point of 
all the Belgian railways , which here diverge in four different 
directions; travellers should therefore be careful to avoid 
mistakes in case of a change of carriage. Malines is equi- 
distant (15 M.) from Brussels, Antwerp and Louvain. 

The town , situated on the Dyle, with a pop. of 33,855, is 
reached by the rue d'Egmont. It contains handsome squares, 
broad and regular streets and palatial edifices , but is entirely 
destitute of animation, Malines labours under the imputation 
of being a century behind other Belgian towns in commercial 
prosperity — a circumstance mainly attributable to the supineness 
and want of enterprise of its corporation. In 1551, when the 
Brussels and Antwerp canal was constructed, this intelligent 
body exerted their influence to prevent its approach to the 
Baedeker's Rhine. \ 



2 Route 1. MALINES. From Brussels 

town. Two centuries later, on the construction of the canal 
from Louvain to Antwerp , a similar infatuation pervaded its 
councils , and at a more recent date they declined to permit 
the railway to traverse the precincts of the town, which is in 
consequence visited by a very small proportion of the vast 
concourse of travellers which annually passes through its 
station. As an archiepiscopal residence it is a place of some 
importance. By a bull of Pius VII. in 1802 the cardinals of 
Malines were authorized to exercise ecclesiastical jurisdiction 
over the bishoprics of Mayence, Treves and Aix-la-Chapelle, 
a privilege they enjoyed till 1821. 

The * Cathedral of St. Rumbold (St RomOaud), com- 
menced in the 12th and completed in the 15th cent., is a 
structure of no great architectural merit; the clumsy, unfinished 
tower is visible for miles round. The construction of the 
latter (340 ft. ; proposed height 480 ft.) was commenced in 
1452, with the aid of the contributions of the pilgrims who 
in that year resorted to the cathedral to purchase the indul- 
gences granted by Pope Nicholas V. on the occasion of the 
Turkish war. A stone in the wall of the platform bears the 
name of "Louis XV.," who ascended to this point in 1746. 
The dial of the tower-clock is 48 ft. in diameter. 

The interior of the church (nave 90 ft. high, 39 ft. broad) 
is imposing, and contains several fine pictures which merit 
inspection, especially the *Altarpiece by Van Dyc./c, in the S. 
transept, representing the Crucifixion, painted in 1C27, ju- 
diciously cleaned in 1848. This is considered one of this 
great master's finest works, and is remarkable for the ad- 
mirable disposition of the figures and the profound grief and 
resignation expressed by the Virgin (sacristan's fee 1 fr.). In 
the N. transept: Adoration of the shepherds, by Quellyn; on 
the same side two altarpieces in chapels : Circumcision , by 
Michel Coxcie, a native of Malines and pupil of Raphael, 
painted in 1587, and the Last Supper by Wouters. Adjacent 
to the latter, in the last N. chapel, is a marble monument by 
the Liege sculptor Jehotte to the archbishop Count Mean 
(d. 1831), who is represented kneeling before the angel of 
death. The passage round the choir contains a number of 
pictures by Herreyns and others , dating from the commence- 
ment of the present century, as well as 25 smaller paintings 
of the van Eyck school, all representing scenes from the life 
of St. Rumbold. The Pulpit is of carved wood, of the kind 
frequently seen in Belgian churches; below is represented the 
Conversion of St. Paul, above it John and the women at the 
Cross, and Adam and Eve with the serpent. The Choir contains 
several episcopal monuments of the 17th cent, and modern 



to Aix-la-Chapelle. M ALINES. 1. Route. 3 

stained glass. A sum of 400/. is annually expended on the 
restoration of the edifice. 

The Grande Place contains several ancient buildings, among 
others Les Halles, dating from 1340, now the guard-house, 
and the Beyard, or Town-hall, of the 15th cent. 

The * Stat ue of Margaret of Austria (d. 1530), daughter 
of Maximilian I. and Mary of Burgundy, celebrated as a 
diplomatist, regent of the Netherlands and tutoress of Charles V., 
was erected in 1849, as the inscription records. The epitaph 
she jestingly composed on herself after her second betrothal 
(with the Infante "John), during a storm whilst on her way to 
Spain, is well known: "Ci-git Margot, la gente demoiselle, qu'eut 
deux maris et si mourn t pucelle" ; and her motto: "Fortune 
infortune fort une." 

In the vicinity of the cathedral is the Church of St. John, 
an insignificant edifice, but remarkable for its *High-altar- 
piece with wings, representing the Adoration of the Magi, by 
Rubens, which he himself considered one of his best works. 
On the inner side of the wings : the Beheading of John the 
Baptist, and the Martyrdom of St. John the Evangelist; on the 
outer side : the Baptism of Christ, and St. John in the Island 
of Patmos, both in Rubens' best style. The carved pulpit 
represents the Good Shepherd. 

The Church of Notre Dame, the first to the 1. on 
approaching the town from the station, contains (in a chapel 
behind the high-altar) Rubens' celebrated Miraculous Draught of 
fishes, an admirably coloured picture with wings, painted in 
1618 for the Guild of Fish-mongers for the sum of 1000 florins. 
The Botanical Garden contains a bust of the eminent botanist 
Dodonseus , a native of Malines. 

The Dyle, which intersects the town, and G M. below it 
falls into the Nethe, forming the Rupel, is subject to the rise and 
fall of the tide, whence the erroneous conjecture that Malines 
derives its name from maris linea, the boundary of the sea. 

As the train approaches Louvain, stat. Wespelaer is passed, 
to the r. of which are seen the estate and park of the family 
of Marnef , a favourite resort of the townspeople of Louvain. 
The park contains a profusion of grottoes , Chinese bridges, 
Greek temples , and a motley array of statues and busts of 
the Greek mythological deities, literary and other celebrities, 
Rousseau, Voltaire, the Prince of Orange etc. According to 
the partial judgment of the vicinity, this is the most attractive 
property in Belgium ; those who have leisure may test the 
accuracy of this opinion. 

Louvain, Flem. Leuven, Ger. Lowen (* Hotel de la Suede; 
Cour de Mons; Sauvage), comp. Baedeker's Belgique et Hollande. — 

1* 



4 Route 1. TIRLEMONT. From Brussels 

The traveller who is detained at Louvain should not fail to 
visit the **H6tel deVille, a magnificent edifice in the later 
Gothic style, erected in 1448-63, and the Gothic *Church 
of St. Peter, dating from the 15th cent., and remarkable for 
the symmetry of its proportions. The carved wooden stalls 
in the Church of St. Gertrude also well merit inspection. 

Tirlemont, or Thienen {Hotel des quatre saisons, at tin- 
station; Plat d'Etain, Hotel de Flandre, both in the marker- 
place; at the station, "Buffet-restaurant turife"), occupies an 
extensive area, the town-walls being nearly 6 M. in circumf., 
but is thinly populated (12,178 inhab.). The * Church of 
St. Germain, believed to date from the 9th cent., is one of 
the most ancient Christian edifices in existence; the well- 
preserved tower is incontestibly of Roman origin. Tirlemonr 
was the birth-place of the celebrated Jesuit Bollandus, the 
author of the Acta Sanctorum. Those who continued the work 
after his death termed themselves Bollandists. 

On leaving Tirlemont the train traverses a lofty embank- 
ment, affording an extensive view. In clear weather the Lion 
and the Prussian monument on the field of Waterloo may 
be distinguished in the distance to the r. 

Between the stations of Esemael and Landen the line inter- 
sects the plain of Neerwinden, the scene of two important 
battles. In the first the allies under William III. of England 
were defeated in the Spanish war of succession by the French 
under the Marshal of Luxembourg, July 29th, 1693; in the 
second the French under Dumouriez and Louis Philippe, at 
that time "General Egalite," were defeated by the Austrians 
under the command of the Duke of Coburg, and driven out 
of Belgium. 

Landen was the birthplace of Pepin of Landen, ancestor 
of Pepin the Little and Charlemagne, and "major-domo" of 
the French King Clotaire II. He died here in 640 and was 
interred on the hill which still bears his name. With him 
commenced the ascendancy of the Carlovingian line. 

From Landen a branch-line diverges to Aix-la-Chapelle, pursuing a some- 
what shorter but less interesting route. The principal stations are St. Trond, 
Has&elt (capital of the province of Limburg, the scene of a victory gained 
by the Dutch over the Belgians, Aug. 6th, 1831) and Mmtricht. 

Beyond stat. Waremme, the line intersects the well-preserved 
Roman road, termed by the people of the country the Road 
o/Brunhilde, from Bavay (Bavacum Nennorum) near Mons to 
Tongues, 9 M. to the S. E. of Waremme. The Hesbaye, a 
district of which Waremme was formerly the capital, was 
noted for the strength and bravery of its inhabitants, as the 
old proverb testifies: "Qui passe dans le Hesbain est combattit 
le lendemain.'" 



to Aix-la-t'hapelle. LIEGE. 1. Route. 5 

The undulating, agricultural district of Brabant, with its 
somewhat phlegmatic Germanic inhabitants, is quitted near' 
stat. Ans (450 i't. higher than Liege) for a mining tract of 
country with a Walloon population of Celtic origin, distinguished 
by the activity and vivacity of their disposition. 

As the train descends the rapid (1 : 30) incline to Liege, 
a fine view of the populous city and the animated valley of 
the Meuse is obtained. 

Liege, Flem. Luik, Ger. Luttich (* Hotel de Suede; * Belle- 
cue; * Hotel d'Angjeterre; Hotel de I' Europe ; Hotel Schiller, etc.), 
pop. 97,544; conip. Baedeker's Belgique et Hollande. — The 
traveller whose time is limited should visit the Palais de 
Justice, the Church of St. Jacques, the Cathedral 
(St. Paul), and, for the sake of the view, the Citadel. 

On quitting Liege the Meuse is crossed by the handsome 
Pont du Val Benolt. Numerous lofty chimneys afford indication 
of the industrial prosperity of the district. The extensive 
zinc foundry of the Vieil le-Montagne company is next 
passed, and the Ourthe , which is here joined by its affluent 
the Vesdre, crossed. Chinee, the first station beyond Liege, 
is another manufacturing town. 

Chaudfontaine (Grand Hotel des Bains; Hotel d'Angleterre) 
is a small, but picturesquely situated watering-place, a fa- 
vourite resort of the inhabitants of Liege. The warm spring 
(104° Fahr.), which rises on an island in the Vesdre, is 
pumped up and conveyed to the bath-estab. by means of a 
large water-wheel. Since 1862 Chaudfontaine has enjoyed 
the amenities of a "Cursaal." 

Before entering the tunnel , the picturesque castle of La 
Jiochette is seen on an eminence to the 1. As Le Trooz is 
approached , the traveller perceives the ancient castle of that 
name, perched on the rocks to the r. of the line. For upwards 
of a century a manufactory of gun-barrels has been established 
in the building. Farther on , to the r., the castle of Fraipont. 

Between stat. Nessonvaux and Pepinster, to the r. of the 
line, stands the Chateau de Masures (masure = ruined house), 
erected by the late Vicomte Biolley, a wealthy manufacturer 
of Verviers, and said to occupy the site of a hunting-seat of 
King Pepin. At Pepinster (Pepin's terre) a branch line 
diverges to Spa (Hotel d'Orange; Hotel Britannique; Hotel 
tie Flandre , de York, de Be/levue, etc.; Cour de Londres, mo- 
derate), 7y 2 M. distant; see Baedeker's Belgique et Hollande. The 
next stat. Ensival, to the 1. of the line, is almost contiguous 
to Verviers. 

Verviers (Hotel du Chemin defer, at the stat. ; Hotel des Pays- 
Bas, in the town), with 28,691 inhab., is a busy, commercial 



6 Route 2. AIX-LA-CHAPELLE. 

town of recent origin, and consists almost exclusively of 
manufactories , the residences of their owners and the habit- 
ations of the operatives. In Verviers and its environs up- 
wards of 350,000 pieces of cloth, worth 3,020,000/., are 
annually manufactured. The town itself contains nothing 
worthy of note. 

As stat. Dolhain, a modern town, picturesquely situated 
in the valley of the Vesdre, is approached, the ancient fortress 
of Hamburg is seen on an eminence. This is almost the 
sole remnant of Limburg, the once flourishing capital of the 
duchy of that name, destroyed by Louis XIV. in 1675. The 
castle was the family seat of the powerful ducal family of 
Limburg, to which the. emperors Henry VII., Charles IV., 
Wenceslaus, and Sigismund of Germany belonged. The view 
obtained from this eminence is fine, but scarcely sufficiently 
so to arrest the passing traveller. Pedestrians, however, will 
be well repaid by a walk (8 — 10 hrs.) from Dolhain by Ver- 
viers to Liege. 

Herbesthal, the first Prussian village, is the frontier- 
station (luggage examined at Aix or Cologne). Beyond stat. 
Assenet, the village of Lontzen and the castle of Welkenhausen 
lie to the 1. of the line. The train crosses the valley of the 
Geul by a handsome viaduct of 17 arches, 120 ft. in height. 
To the 1. lies the village of Hergenrad, and in the distance 
beyond, the Eineburg or Emmaburg, situated on the brow of the 
wooded mountains, a country residence of Charlemagne, where, 
according to tradition, the intimacy between the emperor's 
daughter Emma and his secretary Eginhard was formed. 

The train next passes through two tunnels of 540 ft. and 
2350 ft. respectively, reaches stat. Ronheide, and finally descends 
by a considerable incline to Aix-la-Chapelle. 

2. Aix-la-Chapelle. 

Hotels. 'Hotel Dremel (Grand Monarque, K. 20, L. 6, B. 12, 
A. 8 Sgr.) and "Hotel Nuelle us, opposite to the Elisenbruunen, both 1st class 
hotels with corresponding charges. Hotel Frank or Bellevue. Dragon 
d'Or. 'Hotel Hoyer (Imperial Crown Hotel) very good (R. and B.l^, 
D. inc. W. 22%, A. 5 Sgr.) Hotel de l'Empereur, with baths. Grand 
Hotel, more a boarding house. — Of the 2nd class: "Hotel Schlemmcr 
(Elephant) ; * K 6 n i g von Spanien, "Hotel Royal, Hotel du chemiu 
de fer, all three near the Rhenish railway station. 

Bavarian beer in the rock-cellars at the foot of the I/ousberg (p. 9). 

Restaurant in the "Kliippel to the E. of the Elisenbrunnen ; 'Bernarts 
in the Adalbertstrasse. 

Carriage (Vigilante) for 1 pers. 5 Sgr. from the station to the town. 

Porcelain and Glass at Gerdes-Neuber's, not far from the Elisen- 
brunnen, opp. to the Kliippel. 

Railway to Cologne see R. 4, to Diisseldorf, Crefeli), Ruhrort R. 3, to 
Mastric/it 5 trains daily in 1 hr., to Landen expr.-tr. in 2 J / 4 hrs., to Antwerp 




:J lliglli l^llllJI 2 j : i 3 1 s J 1 1 111! 

^r s •« <^ s <5 «? s N H ° N ^ ^KJk m n ^^ P f*| n ^ *-» c *s -^ ^ 

— *>» w "*i ■* W <*i i»: ^ ^ :« *i." *<i *i < *>'N t/ a 9$ Sri "^ **3 *** **■ *d ai ^ 



Town-hall. AIX-LA-CHAPELLE. 2. Route. 7 

5 train-, in 4'/ J — 6, to Oxlend 3 trains in 7— 9'hrs., to Paris (pr. Krjuelines) 
2 cxpr.-tr.-.. in'liy, hrs. 

Telegraph Office at the station of the Rhenish railway. 

English Church in the Anna .Ntrasse. Resident chaplain. 

Aix-la-Chapelle, or Aachen, contains but few reminiscences 
of its ancient grandeur as an imperial city. Almost the only 
buildings of a remote date which still exist are the cathedral, 
the corn exchange, townhall, and some of the gates. It now 
presents the appearance of a prosperous modern town with 
its numerous manufactories, handsome streets and well-stocked 
shops. Of the Aquisgranum or Civitas Aquensix of the Romans, 
the station of the Legio prima, no trace is visible. Even the 
reminiscences of Charlemagne, the founder of Aix-la-Chapelle, 
which was his birthplace and favorite residence, and the second 
city in his empire, are but scanty. From his death (814) to 
1531 Aix-la-Chapelle was the scene of the coronation of all 
the German emperors (37), and was called par excellence 
the free city of the holy Roman empire. The insignia of 
empire were here preserved till 1793, when they were taken 
to Vienna and deposited in the Imperial treasury. A large 
proportion of the population (54,000, 2000 Prot.) is engaged 
in manufactures of various kinds (cloth, needles, machinery, 
looking-glasses). 

Aix-la-Chapelle has frequently been the scene of Imperial 
diets, ecclesiastical convocations, and congresses, the last of 
which was that of IS 18, at which three monarchs (Prussia, 
Austria, Russia) were present, and in which it was determined 
to recal the German troops still in France. In May, 16(38, 
the peace between Louis XIV. and Spain was here concluded, 
and the second peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, of October, 1748, 
terminated the Austrian war of succession. 

The Town-hall (Rathhuus), erected in 1358, contains a 
hall restored in the ancient style, and decorated with * frescoes 
by Rethel and Kehren , and small statues of 36 German 
emperors. 

Frescoes in the Kaisersaal. 1. The emperor Frederick Redbeard 
at the grave of Charlemagne; 2. Fall of the " lrinensaule" ; 3. Battle with the 
Saracens at Corduba; 4. Conquest of Pavia in 774 ; all by Rethel. 5. Baptism 
of Wittekind and Alboiu; (i. Coronation of Charlemagne in St. Peter's at 
Kome ; 7. Construction of the Cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle ; 8. Abdication of 
Charlemagne and Coronation of his son Louis; all by Kehren. — The town- 
council hall contains portraits of Fred. William III., Napoleon, Josephine, 
the emperors Leopold II , Charles VI. and VII., the empress Maria Theresa, 
and lastly the oldest and most celebrated portrait of Charlemagne by au 
unknown master. 

Towards the W. stands the Graniisthurm, an ancient semi- 
circular tower, which formerly belonged to the Imperial palace 
and connected it with the cathedral. The square tower on 
the E. side dates from the commencement of the 13th cent. The 



8 Boute 2. AIX-LA-CHAPELLE. The Cathedral. 

fountain in front of the Rathhaus is decorated with a statue of 
Charlemagne, of little value as a work of art, erected in 1620. 

The Cathedral, or Munsterkirche, consists of two distinct 
parts in different styles of architecture. That portion erected 
by Charlemagne in 796 — 804 and consecrated by Leo III., 
improperly called the nave of the church, is an octagon of 
50 ft. in diameter, surrounded by a sixteen-sided gallery and 
terminating in a cupola; it is one of the most remarkable 
monuments of early Christian architecture, but its effect is 
unfortunately much marred by modern disfigurements. The 
marble and granite columns which support the octagon were 
brought from Rome and the palace of Ravenna. They were 
wantonly broken by the French in 1794 and taken to Paris, 
but were brought back in 1815 and restored to their places 
in 1845 at the expense of the late king Fred. William IV. 
Under the gilt chandelier, presented by Frederick Barbarossa, 
is the tomb of Charlemagne, indicated by the inscription 
"Carolo Magno." This tomb was opened in the year 1000 by 
Otto III. and the body of the great emperor found, seated on 
a marble throne, used afterwards for the coronation ceremonies, 
and still to be seen in the gallery, or u Hochmunster , \ The 
ancient sarcophagus of Parian marble, in which the remains 
of Charlemagne reposed for 50 years after the opening of his 
tomb, has also been placed here ; on the front is represented 
the Rape of Proserpine. 

The lofty and elegant * Choir, added to the original part 
of the edifice in 1353 — 1413, but in a totally different style, 
contains good modern stained-glass windows, representing 
scenes from the life of the Virgin. The Pulpit, richly adorned 
with gold, precious stones, and carved ivory, was presented 
by Henry II. (The sacristan uncovers the pulpit and sar- 
cophagus, 1 — 3 pers. 15 Sgr.) 

The Sacristy contains the so-called "Great llelics," which are held in 
the highest veneration by the superstitious ; they consist of a robe of the virgin, 
the swaddling clothes in which tlie infant Saviour was wrapped, the bloody cloth 
with which the body of John the Baptist was covered after his execution, and the 
cloth with which Christ was girded when on the Cross. These are publicly ex- 
hibited only once in seven years, and attract vast crowds of religious devotees. 
Among the numerous Smaller rflicx are the leathern girdle of Christ, a part of 
the true Cross, the girdle of the Virgin, A'c, all of which are preserved in 
curious and richly ornamented caskets and monstrances. Among the treasures 
are exhibited the skull, gigantic arm- (really leg) bone, and hunting-horn of 
Charlemagne. The smaller relics are shown for a fee of 1 Thlr. for 1 — 8 pers. 

The church-doors, as well as the brass gates of the arch- 
ways of the upper gallery, date from the time of Charlemagne, 
the peculiar Cloisters with their short pillars belong to the 
12th and 13th centuries. 

On the r. and 1. sides of the principal entrance are a brazen 
wolf and pine-apple of Roman origin, supported by modern 



Sulphur Springs. AIX-LA-CHAPELLE. 'J. Route. 9 

pillars. They formerly belonged to a fountain in the fish- 
market; the water flowed from small apertures among the hair 
of the wolf, or, when these were closed, from holes in the 
pine-apple which crowned the summit of the fountain. 

The other churches of Aix-la-Chapelle contain few objects 
of sufficient interest to detain the traveller. — Near the cathedral 
is situated the * Corn -Exchange (PI. 15), decorated with 
statues of the 7 electors, probably of the 12th cent. 

The celebrated warm Sulphur-springs , known as early as 
the Roman period, rise partly in the town and partly in the 
neighbouring village of Burtscheid. The principal is theKaisers- 
ijuelle (on the slope of the market-hill, in the Hotel de l'Em- 
pereur), which supplies the Kaiserbad, the Neubad, the "Queen 
of Hungary," and the Elisenbrunnen. The Quirinusbad and 
the three lower springs in the Gomphausbad are somewhat less 
powerful in their effects. 

In the gardens near the pump-room of the Elisenbrunnen 
(PI. 14) a band plays from 7 to 8 a.m. during the season. 
Near it is the handsome Theatre (PI. 20), in the broad street 
leading from the railway station into the town. 

The old Curhaus (PI. 16) in the Comphausbadstrasse, 
erected in 1782, on the E. side of the town, contains ball, 
reading, refreshment and other rooms (adm. 5 Sgr.), open from 
10 a.m. (reading-room from 8) to 10 p.m.; adjoining it is the 
new Cursaal, opened in 1863. Music in the garden from 
3 to 4 V, o'clock. 

Burtscheid, or Borcette (St. Charles; Rosenbad; Schwertbad), 
now connected with Aix-la-Chapelle by a series of new build- 
ings, is also celebrated for its baths. The Kochbrunnen (156°Fahr.) 
with the other warm springs, unite their waters and form the 
so-called Warm, brook, separated by a footpath from the Cold 
brook; both of which unite in the Warm pond, l / 2 M. from 
Burtscheid. 

The *IiOUSberg, u wooded eminence 200 ft. in height, 
2 M. distant from the Rhenish station, and 3 / 4 M. from the 
Pont-Thor, is intersected with walks and pleasure grounds; 
at its base is the Felse/djierkeller (rock beer-cellar, p. 6). The 
summit commands a fine survey of the busy town and environs 
of Aix-la-Chapelle and the undulating country in the vicinity; 
to the E. is the rich, grassy Soersthal, with numerous country 
residences and coal-mines. The white Wallfahrtskirche (pilgrims' 
rhurch), on the adjacent Salvatorberg, is a conspicuous object 
in the landscape. 

The Frankenburg (p. 12) which is situated 1 M. to the E. 
of the station, was once a hunting seat of Charlemagne. The 
ancient ivy-grown tower belongs to the original building, but 



10 Route o. EMMABURG. 

the principal part dates from 1642. The pond which surrounds 
the castle was once a large lake, in which, according to an 
ancient tradition, the magic ring of Fastrada (R. 35), the last 
wife of Charlemagne, was sunk, and attracted the monarch to 
this spot, where he sat for whole days gazing pensively on 
the lake, and mourning for his lost consort. 

About 3 / t M. farther in the same direction is Trimborn, 
a grove where a Roman legion-stone and a gigantic sarcophagus 
were discovered. The artificial ruin at the entrance is con- 
structed of the fragments of a chapel of the time of Charlemagne. 

A marble monument, erected on the Treves road, a few 
minutes' walk to the S. of the town, marks the spot where 
the three monarch s met in 1818 to express their gratitude for 
the victory of Leipsic. 

The grounds and promenades of the Carlshohe, 3 / 4 M. 
from Runheide (station on the line towards Belgium), afford 
the finest view of Aix-la-Chapelle. 

In the vicinity of the Geul-viaduct (on the line towards 
Belgium, 3 3 / 4 M. to the S.W- of Aix-la-Chapelle) stands the 
ancient castle of Emmaburg-, from which Eginhard, the private 
secretary of Charlemagne, is said to have abducted the princess 
Emma. Near it are the extensive cadmia mines and zinc 
foundries of the society Vieille Montague, in the parish of 
Moremet, neutral ground belonging to Prussia and Belgium 
in common. 

3. From Aix-la-Chapelle to Dusseldorf, 
Crefeld, and. Ruhrort. 

By Railway to Di'isseldorf in 2 1 /., hrs.; fares: 2 Thlr. 9, 1 Thlr. 22. or 
21 Sgr. ; to Kuhvbrt in 3% hrs. ; faros: 2 Thlr. 25, 2 Tlilr. 4, or 26 Sgr. 

This line forms the N.W. side of the triangle described 
by it in conjunction with the Cologne and Aix-la-Chapelle, 
and the Cologne and Crefeld lines. Travellers proceeding by 
this route from Aix-la-Chapelle to Dusseldorf effect a saving 
of J hr., and, on the journey to Oberhausen and Berlin, of 
2 hrs. The second-class carriages are not inferior to those 
of the first class on the Rhenish-Belgian line. The country 
which is traversed presents little to interest the tourist in 
search of the picturesque, but is, in a commercial point of 
view, a district of great importance, and one of the most in- 
dustrial and densely populated (720 inhab. to 1 sq. M.) in 
Prussia. 

The line has two stations at Aix-la-Chapelle, one at the 
Marsckierthor, near the Rhenish station, another at the Templer- 
bend, near the Pont-Thor. It intersects the walls of the 



CREFELD. 3. Route. 11 

town and passes by the foot of tile Lousberg (p. 9), At 
Richterich the Mastricht line diverges to the 1. and joins the 
Liege and Lowen line at Landen. (From Aix-la-Chapelle to 
Mastricht in 1 hr.) 

At Kohlscheid, opposite to Bardenberg , both mining 
villages, the line begins to descend the pretty and animated 
W'urmthal, at the extremity of which Herzogenrath (French 
Rolduc) with its old castle, situated 200 ft. lower than the 
last-mentioned stations, is reached. On the heights to the 1. 
is seen the ancient abbey of Klosterrath. 

Near Geilenkirchen are seen the castles of Rimbury, Zv:ei- 

fjriigyen, and beyond it, Trips. The train now leaves the Wurm, 

traverses the fertile and undulating Duchy of Jiilich, crosses 

the grassy plain of the Roer between Ldndern and Baal, passes 

Erkelenz, an ancient town with fine church of the 14th cent., 

and a ruined castle, Wickrath, and Rheydt (Kriisetnann). 

Schloss Dyck, seat of the Prince of Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck, with beauti- 
ful park and grounds, contains one of tiie finest collections of cacti in Europe, 
(*Inn opp. to the gate of the chateau). Sc/iloss Licdberg, on an eminence 
3 M. N. from the latter, commands an extensive view. 

Gladbach, or Munchen-Gladbach (Herfs), Viersen (Hilyers), 
the next stations, as well as the neighbouring towns of Oden- 
kirchen (Krosch), Dulken (Siemes), and Suchteln (Hont), 
lie in one of the richest manufacturing districts in Germany, 
which previous to the American war annually imported upwards 
of 4 million pounds of cotton-yarn from England, and can 
boast of one of the most considerable silk and velvet manu- 
factories (at Viersen) on the continent, as well as numerous 
other branches of industry. The workmen employed in these 
establishments are an industrious and thriving race, and 
generally own the cottages and gardens they occupy. 

At Gladbach the line to Kleinenbrucb. , Neuss (p. 39), Obercassel, and 
Diisseldorf, diverges off to the r. 

The Crefeld train continues in a N. direction, crosses the 
North Canal, commenced by Napoleon as a means of com- 
munication between the Rhine at Neuss and the Meuse, 
and reaches Crefeld (*0berheim, l{. and B. 18 Sgr., D. inc. 
W. 20 Sgr. ; * Wilder Mann), seat of the principal silk and 
velvet manufactories in Prussia. The quantity of raw silk 
imported in 1853, principally from Turin and Milan, exceeded 
750,000 lbs. The Crefeld fabrics, worth 1,500,000/. annually, 
vie with those of Lyons in quality and finish, and are largely 
exported to America. 

The population (14,000 in 1835) now amounts to 51,000, 
of whom 13,000 are Protestants, and 1000 Anabaptists; the 
latter settled here, where they found protection under the Princes 
of Orange (1600 — 1702), when they were banished from the 



12 Route 4. STOLBERG. 

Duchies of Jiilicli and Berg. In 1702 Crefeld and the ad- 
jacent County of Meurs became Prussian. In June 1758 
Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick gained a victory over the 
French under the Prince of Bourbon-Conde in the vicinity of 
Crefeld. The battle field is marked by a monument. (Railway 
to Cologne see R. 11). 

The train next passes Uerdingen , a manufacturing town 
on the Rhine, and reaches Homberg, the terminus of the line. 
Passengers are conveyed by steamboats from here to Ruhrort 
(* Cleve Hotel), to the station of the Cologne and Minden 
railway, on the opposite bank of the river. 

The Ruhr, which unites with the Rhine at Ruhrort, forms 
an excellent harbour, capable of accommodating 400 vessels, 
the best river-haven in Germany. The productive coal-mines 
of the Ruhr yield 1 % million tons annually, about half of 
which is exported to Holland and the remainder conveyed 
in barges, towed by tug-steamers, of which Ruhrort alone 
possesses 16, to the Upper Rhine. Opposite to the station 
are the extensive iron-works (6 blast, and 108 puddling fur- 
naces) of the Phoenix Company. From Ruhrort by a branch 
line to Oberhausen (p. 24), a station on the main line, in 
20 min. 



4. From Aix-la-Chapelle to Cologne. 

By the Rheni.sh Railway in 1%— 2 hrs.; fares: 2 Thlr. 15, 1 Thlr. 5.1, 
;>nd 1 Thlr. 8 S^r. Return-tickets valid only for day of issue and day 
following. 

Few lines in Germany exhibit such varied forms of railway 
engineering in so short a distance as that between the Belgian 
frontier and Cologne. The viaducts near Aix-la-Chapelle and 
over the Geul and the tunnel of Konigsdorf are among the 
most remarkable structures of the kind in Germany. 

On leaving the station the train crosses the valley of the 
Wurm and passes close by the Frankenburg (on the 1.), once 
the favourite residence of Charlemagne; it then passes through 
the Nirmer Tunnel (V, M.), traverses the Reichsbus'ch wood, and 
stops at the Kanibacher Muhle, the stat. for the flourishing and 
rapidly increasing town of Stolberg (Hissel; Welter). 

The mines of Stollberg and its environs were first worked in the 
17th cent, by the Protestants who were banished from France and Aix-la- 
Chapelle, and to them the town is indebted for its present prosperity. Tin- 
principal products of the district are zinc, lead, and silver; there are also 
numerous manufactories of various descriptions, the coal for the supply of 
which is found in abundance in the neighbourhood. Scarcely another locality 
in the whole of Germany exhibits so many branches of industry within so 
small a space. The number of workmen employed in these different establish- 
ments amounts to upwards of 12,000, and the annual value of the zinc, lead, 
silver and coals yielded by the mines exceeds 450.0(1(1/. 



ESCHWEILER. 5. Route. 13 

The train now traverses a most picturesque district, with 
numerous coal-mines and iron-foundries, crosses the Imle and 
enters a tunnel, on emerging from which, it stops at 

Stat. Eschweiler (Raisin), a manufacturing town.. Farther 
on, to the 1., near the village of Nothberg, lies the Rbttger 
Schloss , an old castle with four towers. The potter}' village 
of Langerwehe, on the hillside, now comes in sight. To 
the r., on the hills, are several villages, among which is 
Werth, said to have been the birthplace of the celebrated 
imperial general Johann von Werth, who gained many victories 
over the French "and Swedes in the 30 years' war, and in 
July, 1636, even penetrated as far as Paris itself. The blue 
mountains in the distance to the r. are the spurs of the Eifel. 

To the r. the view is now bounded by the Hochwald, a long 
ridge of hills, from which in the distance rises the variegated 
sandstone peak of Burgberg. At the base of the wooded heights 
lies the village of Merode with a handsome old turreted castle 
of the same name, seat of a wealthy Belgian family. The 
Roer is next crossed, and the train stops at 

Stat. Diiren (Bellevue), the Marcodttrum of Tacitus, a busy, 
manufacturing town, situated in a fertile plain. Beyond stat. 
Buir, the church-spire of Kerpen is seen to the r. Stat. 
Horrem is situated in the luxuriant vale of the Erft. On 
the 1. stand the castles of Frenz and Bemmersbach or Horrem. 
This valley abounds with castles of the Rhenish nobility, who 
have founded an institution for the education of their sons 
at Bedburg, 6 M. to the N.W. of Horrem. The valley of the 
Erft is soon quitted by the Konigsdorf tunnel, 1 M. in length, 
on emerging from which 

Stat. Konigsdorf is reached. Farther on, to the r. in 
the distance, is seen the village of Brauweiler, with its ancient 
Benedictine Abbey, now a reformatory aud workhouse. The 
old Abbey Church, erected at the commencement of the 13th cent., 
in the late Romanesque style, contains an engraved tombstone 
of the 15th cent., and some ancient frescoes on the vaulted 
ceiling of the chapter-house, both valuable in the history of art. 

As Cologne is approached the line traverses a rich and 
fertile plain, studded with detached houses and factories. The 
hills to the r. are the spurs of the Vorgebirge, a low range 
of hills which commence on the 1. bank of the Rhine between 
Cologne and Bonn. Cologne s. R. 10. 

5. From Rotterdam to Diisseldorf. 

By Steamboat daily (Diisseldorf Co. dep. at 6, Netherlands Co. at 
3 a.m.; the former in connection with the Gen. Steam Nav. Co. three times 
a week, the latter with the "Batavia" once a week, in 24 lirs. ; less fatiguing 



14 Route H. ROTTERDAM. From Rotterdam 

and expensive than by railway; fares: 2 Thlr. 4, 1 Thlr. 13 Sgr, ; 100. lbs. of 
luggage free. 

By rail May in C%hrs.; fares: 6 Thlr. 16, 4 Thlr. 22, and 3 Thlr. !)%Sgr. 
The principal stations are Gouda, Ariiheim, Emmerich (Prussian custom- 
house), Wesel and Oberhausen. 

Rotterdam ('New Bath Hotel ; *St. Lucas; Arend; Adler's 
Engl, and American Hotel; Weimer; Verhaaren; the last two for 
travellers of moderate requirements), see Baedeker's Belgique et Hollande. 

Soon after the steamer has quitted the " Boompjes" or 
quay, with its handsome rows of houses and animated traffic, 
the machine-factory and wharf of 

r. Fijenoord is reached. It belongs to the Netherlands 
Steamboat Co. and employs upwards of 700 hands. Permission 
to inspect this interesting estab. may be obtained from the 
director M. van Oord at Rotterdam. Ferry-boat to Rotterdam 
every quarter of an hour, fare 5 cents. 

1. Kralingen, with extensive salmon-fishery; the utmost 
care is here employed to ensure the security of the dykes 
which confine the river. 

r. Ysselmonde, opp. to the influx of the Yssel (not to be 
confounded with the river of that name in Guelders) into the 
Meuse (Maas). The turreted chateau in the vicinity belonged 
to a former burgomaster of Rotterdam. 

r. 't Huis ten Donk, a handsome country residence, sur- 
rounded by trees which extend to the water's edge. 

1. Krimpen, near the confluence of the Leek (as the Rhine 
is here termed) and the Meuse. 

r. Kinderdijk , a long row of nes>t. houses, with numerous 
windmills, derives its name (= children's dyke) from a tra- 
dition that some children in a cradle were here landed in 
safety during an inundation. 

1. Lekkerkerk, protected by long dykes from the inundations 
of the Leek. 

r. Streefkerk, with a picturesque church. 

1. Schoonliooen; r. Nieuw/oort. 

r. Ameyde, where the Zederick Canal intersects the entire 
island of Betiuce; 1. Juarsveld. 

1. Vreeswyk, whence on the arrival of the steamboats a 
diligence runs to Utrecht, and also a passenger-boat on the 
canal which here connects Utrecht with the Rhine. Vreeswyk 
is the limit of the rise and fall of the tide. 

r. Vianen (Brederode). Between this and Culenborg are 
water-gates or sluices, by means of which the entire district 
may be laid under water in case of a hostile invasion. To 
the r., and farther on, to the 1., are situated two fortified 
block-houses, constructed for the defence of the river. 

r. Culenborg, with its low tower, surrounded by wood, 
was once the seat of the powerful counts of that name, who 



to Dasseldorf. ARNHEIM. 5. Route. 15 

acted a prominent part in the struggles of the Dutch in 156t> 
to liberate themselves from the Spanish yoke. 

1. Wyk by Duurstede, now a fortress, the Batavodurum of 
the Romans, was in the time of Charlemagne a flourishing 
commercial town. The steamboat here enters the Rhine, 
properly so called. The narrow river which diverges to the 1. 
retains the name of Rhine, and passing by Utrecht and Leyden, 
empties itself into the North Sea. 

1. The tower of Amerongen; then Elst, a long straggling 
village. 

1. Rhenen (Konig von Bohmen) possesses a Gothic church, 
the tower of which, erected between 1492 and. 1531, is the- 
finest in Holland. 

Halfway between Rhenen and Wageningen rises the Heimen- 
berg (*Ridder), a slight eminence commanding an extensive 
view. The Konigssitz, a bench on the summit, derives its 
name from Frederick, Count Palatine and king of Bohemia, 
who having been expelled from his territory after a battle 
near Prague in 1G20, repaired to Rhenen, where he lived in 
retirement under the protection of his uncle Prince Maurice 
of Orange. 

r. Opheusden, with a flying bridge. 

1. Wageningen, a small but ancient town of some im- 
portance, connected with the Rhine by a canal, and situated 
4 ] / 2 M. from the railway stat. Ede. 

r. The villages of Renkum and Heteren. 

The banks now become more elevated and picturesque ; 
the district to the 1. is termed the Veluwe, to the r. the Betuice, 
signifying respectively the barren and the fruitful tract. To 
the 1. the castle of Doorenward with its two towers; beyond 
it Duinhoog; then Oosterbeek, with several villas, birthplace of 
the Emp. Henry III. (1017). To the r. the spire of the village 
oiElsen; then the small castle of Meinerswijk. The wooded 
chain of hills to the 1., as Arnheim is approached, is sprinkled 
with country residences. 

1. Arnheim. (*Zon, outside the N.W. gate, the nearest 
to the railway* stat. and the pier of the Netherlands Co.; 
* Zwynshoofd [Schweinskopf, boar's head, a sign frequently 
seen in Holland] in the town; * Hotel de Bellevue; * Hotel des 
Pays-Bas, near the pier of the Diisseldorf Co. ; de Paauw, not 
far from the stat. good 2nd el. house.) — Arnheim with a pop. 
of 20,904 (Y 2 Rom. Cath.), was long the seat of the Dukes of 
Guelders, and is still the capital of the province of that name. 
An ancient proverb describes the inhabitants as: u Hoog can 
moed, klein van goed, een zwaard in de hand, is 't wapen van 
Gelderland" (High of mood, little of good, sword in hand, is 



16 Route 5. EMMERICH. From Rotterdam 

the coat of arms of Guelderlaud). The town, situated on the 
S. slopes of the chain of hills of the Veluwe, was newly 
fortified after its capture by the French in 1672. In 1813 
the French, who again occupied the town and possessed a 
strongly fortified camp in the vicinity, were expelled by the 
Prussians. 

Although a good specimen of a clean Dutch town, it offers 
little to detain the traveller. The Groote Kerk (large church) 
contains several monuments of Dukes of Guelders. The Town 
Hall derives its local appellation of Duivelshuis (devil's house) 
from the grotesque figures with which it is adorned. 

The environs far surpass those of any other Dutch town. 
The estate of * Hartjesberg, the property of a wealthy Dutch 
gentleman, deserves a visit (entrance near the railway stat., J / 2 M. 
to the N. of the town). The park and grounds are open to 
the public; the traveller, however, is recommended to apply 
to the custodian (at the lodge), for the sake of gaining access 
to the Belvedere, or tower, the prospect from which will 
amply repay the ascent. 

Immediately below the town is situated the Rehberg , a 
slight eminence laid out as pleasure-grounds. Higher up is 
the country-seat Heidenoord (or "rfe Koepel," = cupola); in 
the adjoining wood are walks and benches in all direction?. 
In the opp. direction, 3 M. to the E. of Arnheim, lies the 
flourishing village of Velp, the hills near which are studded 
with elegant country residences and pleasure-grounds. 

To the 1. the Yssel diverges to the N. and flows into the 
Zuider Zee. To the r. Uuissen. 

1. Haus Loo, or Candia, an old castle; then the village of 
Pannerden. 

Near the village of Millingeii a small gun-boat, moored in 
the middle of the stream, indicates the vicinity of the frontier. 

1. Lobith, the last Dutch village ; opp. to it lies the ancient 
frontier of Schenkenschanz, formerly considered the key of the 
Netherlands, and once situated at the bifurcation (now lower 
down) of the Waal and the Rhine. Near this spot Louis XIV. 
crossed the river, at that time nearly dry in* consequence of 
the unusual heat, June 12th, 1672, with a large army, for the 
purpose of conquering Holland. On this occasion the Prince 
of Conde was wounded. As Emmerich is approached, the 
wooded heights on which the town of Gleve (p. 17 and 39) is 
situated, are perceived to the r. 

1. Emmerich. (Holldndischer Ho/), the frontier town of 
Prussia, clean, and possessing as many Dutch as German 
features. The Munster church, at the lower extremity of the 
town, is in the transition style of the 11th — 12th cent. 



to Dusseldorf. XANTEN. 5. Route. 17 

(Railway by Arnheim and Utrecht to, Amsterdam in 4 hrs. ; 
fares 3 Thlr. 1G 1 /,, 2 Thlr. 20, or 1 Thlr. 23 ] / 4 Sgr.) 

r. Grieth. 

1. Rees, once strongly fortified. 

r. Xanten (Ingenlath), 2% M. from the Ehine, is a town 
of great antiquity, and was the Castra Vetera and Colonia 
Ulpia of the Romans, the head-quarters of the 30th (Ulpia 
victrix), the 18th, and 19th Legions, which were destroyed in 
the battle of the Teutoburgian wood. Here too stood the 
castle of the Nibelungen, and here Siegfried the dragon-slayer 
(p. 49) was born. On the Fiirstenberg , an eminence in the 
vicinity, was situated the PraBtorium of Quintilius Varus. 
The * Collegiate church of St. Victor, erected in 1213 — 1522, 
is a masterpiece of Gothic architecture. The choir, locked 
by a fine copper gate, is worthy of attention; the cloisters contain 
several tombstones valuable in the history of art. 

The traveller descending the river who wishes to proceed direct to Cleve 
should here leave the steamboat and take a carriage (1'4 Thlr.) to Calcar, 
the Gothic church of which contains a remarkably fine altar-piece by Johann 
of Calcar, and below it some admirably carved wood -work. Calcar was the 
birth-place of the celebrated Prussian General von Seydlitz (d. 1773), the 
conqueror at the battle of Rossbach. A handsome monument to this hero 
stands in the market-place. 

1. Wesel (* Dornbusch) , a strongly fortified town, with a 
population of 13,000 (7000 Rom. Cath.), is situated at the con- 
fluence of the Rhine and Lippe. The Rathhaus, or Town-hall, 
is a handsome building, and dates from 1396. St. Willibrord's 
church contains a marble tablet which records that Peregrine 
Bertie, son of Willoughb) 7 ' d'Eresby and Catharine, Duchess 
of Suffolk, was born here in 1555. The exiles, who were 
Protestants, and had fled from the persecutions of Queen Mary, 
were permitted by the magistrates of Wesel, as no other re- 
sidence could be found, to take up their quarters in the 
church, which was then unoccupied. — The boat then passes 
through the bridge which connects the Island of Bilderich 
with Fort Bliicher, the tete-de-pont of Wesel on the r. 

r. Orsoy, formerly fortified and frequently besieged. 

1. Ruhrort (p. 12), at the influx of the Ruhr, where the 
boats of the Netherlands Co. only touch. 

r. Homberg (p. 12), terminus of the Aix-la-Chapelle line, 
where the Dusseldorf Co.'s boats touch. 

r. Uerdingen (p. 12), whence the church-tower of Duisburg 
(p. 20) is visible rising from the plain. 

1. Kaiserswerth (p. 19). The walls and bow- windows of 
an old castle of the Hohenstaufen are visible from the river. 

1. Dusseldorf. 

Baedeker's Rhine. 9 



18 



6. Diisseldorf. 



Hotels. Prince of Prussia, Prince F rede rick and European 
Hotel, near the station. * B r ei denbacher Hof, Drei Ueichskrn- 
nen and Hotel Domhardt, in the town; charges: 11. 15, B. 8, D. 20 Sgr. 
— *K61ner Hof; 'Romischer Kaiser, a good seeoud-class house (U. 
and B. 20, good table d'hote 17 Sgr.) 

Cafes. Geisler, in the Mittelstrasse and on the Ananasberg in the 
Hofgarten; Jungius, Burgplatz 11, good supply of newspapers. The 
summer-theatre and the Harmonic Hall, where the musical festivals are held 
once a year, as well as "Oeisler's Garden" (refreshments), now belong to 
the town. 

Restaurants. Railway refreshment room at the Cologne -Minden 
station; *Stelzmann, opp. to the station; *Seuleii, *I)revermanu 
and Germer in the Carlsplatz. Railway refreshment room at the 
Elberfeld station. 

Exhibition of art in the Alleestrasse, 7S1; admission 5 Sgr. 

Carriages. For a drive in the down 5 Sgr., '/, hr. 10, 1 hr. 15 Sgr. 

English Church Service performed by a resident chaplain in the smaller 
Protestant Church, Bergerstrasse. 

Diisseldorf (46,849 inhab., of whom 8604 are Prot., and 
600 Jews) is a handsome and regularly -built town of com- 
paratively modern origin. It was chosen at the commencement 
(jf the 15th cent, as a residence by the Dukes of Berg, and 
on their becoming extinct in 1609, it continued to be the 
residence of the princes of the Palatinate till 1716, when 
they transferred their seat to Mannheim and afterwards to 
Munich. Under Joachim Murat (1806 — 8), and Napoleon 
(1808 — 13), Diisseldorf continued to be the capital town of 
the Duchy of Berg; in 1815 it became subject to the crown 
of Prussia. 

Diisseldorf may be called the Rhenish cradle of art; its 
Academy of Art (PI. 2) conducted (1822—26; by Cornelius, 
up to 1860 by Schadow (d. 1861) and subsequently by Bende- 
mann, enjoys a widely extended celebrity. It is situated in 
one of the wings of the Electoral palace, rebuilt since its 
almost total destruction by the French in 1794. 

All the valuable pictures of the once so celebrated Diissel- 
dorf Gallery, founded at the beginning of the 18th cent, were, 
during the unsettled times of 1805, taken to Munich by Max. 
Joseph, king of Bavaria, under the pretext of ensuring their 
safety. The town has since then been unable to recover 
them, and they form to this day the most valuable part of 
the collection in the old Pinakothek. 

The Gallery now contains a valuable collection of upwards of 14.000 
original sketches and drawings by tbe most celebrated artists of all schools, 
and 248 water-colour copies of Italian masters by Ramboux, affording a good 
survey of Italian art from the 14th to the With cent. It also contains a few 
good pictures. 

The * To wn-Collect ion (admission 5 Sgr., open from 9 to t> o'clock) 
in the r. wing of the Academy, recently commenced, contains some tine 
modern pictures. 



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Hofgarten. DUSSELDORF. 6. Route. 19 

The palace contains a Library, of some value; in the 
court is a marble statue of the Elector Johann Wilhelm, who 
was born in Diisseldorf (d. 1716). An * Equestrian statue 
of the same elector stands in the market-place. 

The churches of Diisseldorf present few features of archi- 
tectural interest. That of St. Andreas (PI. 9) contains 
several good modern pictures , and in a separate hall of the 
choir the embalmed remains of several electors, princes, and 
princesses of the place. St. Lambertus (PI. 15) belongs to 
the transition style of the 14th cent., and contains a marble 
monument to the "last two dukes of Cleves and Berg, erected 
in 1620. On one of the N. pillars is the tombstone of the 
celebrated chancellor Melchior Voetz (Voetius) (d. 1675). 

The handsome new Post-office buildings, near the railway 
stations, are erected in the Florentine palatial style; the black 
marble pillars which support the steps were brought from the 
Neanderthal (p. 20). 

The * Hofgarten (PI. 11) is tastefully laid out, and affords 
most delightful walks. Near the entrance is situated a large 
hot-house for tropical plants (Victorut-Reyia-Haus); near it a 
black marble pillar with bust of Queen Stephanie of Portugal, 
a princess of Hohenzollern (d. 1860). — The Jagerhof is 
fitted up as a princely residence, and was till 1848 seat of 
Prince Frederick of Prussia; since 1850 it has been occupied 
by the Prince of Hohenzollern -Sigmaringen. — The adjoining 
Jacobi's Garden was once the property of the eminent phi- 
losopher Fred. Henry Jacobi (d. 1819), and a favourite resort 
of many of the greatest men of the day, of Goethe and Herder 
among others. It now belongs to a society of artists, and is 
the central point of their social life. 

In the vicinity of Diisseldorf there are several excellent 
Protestant institutions of various kinds. Dusselthal, formerly 
a Trappist monastery , situated near the Cologne and Minden 
line, a little to the N. of the town, is now converted into a 
Protestant establishment for homeless children, 180 — 200 of 
whom are here educated. Connected with the institution is 
a seminary for teachers of the poor. 

The ancient town of Kaiserswerth (Pfalzer Hof), 1% M. 
W. from the Calcum station, which the train from Diisseldorf 
reaches in 20 min., is the seat of similar charitable institutions 
on a much greater scale than those above mentioned. They 
were founded by the Protestant pastor Fliedner in 1836, and 
comprise a hospital (500 — 600 patients), a training school for 
Protestant Sisters of Charity, Governesses' institution, orphan 
asylum, female Reformatory , and establishment for the cure 
of female lunatics. 

2* 



20 Route 7. DUISBURG. 

The old Church of Kaiserswerth, in the Romanesque style, 
erected in the 12th — 13th cent., contains an admirably exe- 
cuted Shrine of the 13th cent., in which the relics of St. Suit- 
bertus, who first preached the Gospel here in 710, are preserved. 
Of the ancient palace in which the Emperor Henry IV. once 
resided nothing is now left but a few fragments, called the 
"Konigsburg". 

In the wood to the 1. of the station of Grossenbaum is 
the Castle of Heltorf, property of Count Spee, which contains 
various treasures of art, among which may be mentioned some 
*frescoes of the older Diisseldorf school. 

Duisburg (Rheinischer Hof), the next station , is also a 
very ancient town, fortified by Charlemagne, from 1145 — 1201 
Imperial town, then a member of the Hanseatic league, and 
till 1818 seat of a university founded in 1655. The Salvator- 
kirche is a handsome Gothic edifice of the 15th century. 
Population 14,000 (Rom. Cath. 5000). The Rhenish- West- 
phalian Institution for Deacons , whose duty is to assist the 
clergy in attendance on the sick, convicts, &c, connected 
with a hospital, school for homeless boys, and Reformatory 
(the latter at Lintorf, 6 M. distant), is a Protestant establish- 
ment, and has a widely-extended sphere of utility. 

7. From Diisseldorf to Dortmund by 
Elberfeld. 

Cotnp. Map R. 4. 

By Railway in 3 — 4 hrs. ; fares: 72, 53, or 35 Sgr. (comi) , p. 23). The 
district traversed is picturesque and industrial; the grand construction of 
the line itself is an object of interest. Views to the 1. 

The station is by the "Prince of Prussia" hotel (p. 18). 
From the convent of Gerresheim (first station , fine church 
of the 12th cent.), the Archbishop Gebhard of Cologne 
(d. 1601) abducted the beautiful Countess Agnes of Mansfeld. 
After passing Erkrath (hydropathic estab.), the train ascends 
a steep acclivity to Hochdahl (large iron-foundry of Ein- 
tracht), which lies 480 ft. higher than Diisseldorf. 

One mile to the 1. of Hochdahl is situated the romantic Neanderthal 
(* Steineshof ; Holtliofer), a narrow wooded ravine through which the Dilsse I 
flows. The valley contains several limestone caverns, the largest of which, 
!I0 ft. long, 40 ft. broad, and 16 ft. high, was a favorite resort of the eminent 
Protestant preacher and poet Joachim Xetinder, who lived at Diisseldorf 
from 1640 to 1660. and from whom the valley derives its name. This cavern 
is best visited from the Steineshof, from which it is s / 4 M. distant. The 
quarries of the valley yield black and grey marble, which is cut into monu- 
ments, vases, &c. 

At Vohwinkel (stat. for Grii/rath and Sotingen) is the 
junction of the Prince William line (Steele-Vohwinkel), prin- 
cipally used for the coal -traffic of the Ruhr. 



ELBERFELD. 7. Route. 21 

The * Prince William Bailway traverses the mountains which form the boun- 
dary between the Wupper and the Kuhr, then continues along the narrow 
winding valley of the Deile, and at Dilldo rf enters the broad and picturesque 
valley of the Ruhr, which affords a most striking contrast to the ravine of the 
Deile. At the small town of Steele (Badenberg) the Prince William line 
unites with the "Bergisch-Markisch", which now affords direct communi- 
cation between Dortmund, Bochum, Steele, Essen, Muhlheim and Duisburg. 

At Sonnborn the train suddenly enters the valley of the 
Wupper, which it traverses, and then skirts the hillside, com- 
manding a view of Elberfeld in the valley below. 

Elberfeld (* Gurpfdlzer Hof; * Weidenhof, near the Dop- 
persberg stat. ; Maimer Hof; Post) , with a pop. of 54,000 
(12,000 Rom. Cath.), and the adjoining town of Barmen 
(Clever Hof), with 45,000, form together a series of streets 
of nearly 6. M. in length, intersected by the road, the railway, 
and the Wupper, which is the principal source of the industry 
of this nourishing manufacturing district. With the exception 
of some English towns, there is probably no spot in the 
world which is so densely populated. Its principal manu- 
factures are cotton, silk, ribbon, and turkey- red dyed goods. 
Some of the churches are handsome structures , but are all, 
like the towns themselves, of very modern date. 

One point in Elberfeld well deserves to be visited by the lovers of the 
picturesque — the * Elisenhbhe. situated in the Haardt , or so called "Eng- 
lish Grounds," which contain a statue of St. Suitbertus, an Englishman who 
tirst propagated Christianity in this district (d. at Kaiserswerth in 713). 
The summit of the tower commands a most magnificent and peculiar view of 
the whole valley of the Wupper, crowded with its numerous factories, hand- 
some private residences, and other buildings. 

The train next stops at the station of Barmen (see above), 
;ind Bitter shausen. At the latter the line crosses the 
Wupper, leaves the Duchy of Berg, and enters the Grafschaft 
Mark. The next station is Schwelm (Hotel Rosenkranz; Prinz 
von Preusseri), l / 2 hr. distant from Elberfeld by railway. 

Not far from the Schwelmer Brunnen, a mineral spring 
now seldom resorted to by invalids, begins a long and deep 
railway cutting, where numerous fossils are found; on emerg- 
ing from it at Milspe a most striking view is obtained of 
the valley of the Ennepe. (About 1 M. up the valley from 
the station is situated the Klutert, a large stalactite cavern.) 

At (Jevelsberg , a long straggling village on the Schwelm road, Count 
Frederick of Isenburg slew his cousin Engelbert, Archbishop of Cologne, 
on his return from the Diet of knights at Soest, before which he had sum- 
moned the Count to answer for his misconduct with regard to the Abbeys of 
Essen and Werden. The Count was condemned to death, and, when he was 
apprehended a year later, broken on the wheel at Cologne, 

The valley of the Ennepe is also noted as a manufacturing 
district, and contains numerous iron -hammers and foundries, 
especially at the station of Haspe. 

Hagen (Deutsehes Haus; Lunenschloss) , another manu- 
facturing town , lies 3 / 4 M. from the station. (Railway from 



22 Route 7. DORTMUND. 

Hagen to Siegen, or Ruhr-Sieg line, see p. 41). Soon after 
passing it, the train crosses the Volme, and a second time at 
Herdecke. The view to the N. W. is here bounded by the 
Ardey mountains which descend precipitously into the valley 
of the Ruhr. 

On one of these mountains, 4'/ 2 M. from Herdecke, rise the ruins of 
* Hohen-Syburg , once the fortress of Wittekind , the last Duke of Saxony, 
who for 32 years fought against Christianity and the Franconian power, till 
he was conquered and compelled to submit to the rite of baptism by Charle- 
magne in 775. The ceremony, so says the tradition, was performed by Pope 
Leo himself in the presence of the emperor, who became godfather to the 
heathen duke. The font still exists and the effigies of the emperor and 
Pope are still distinguishable above the door. The small church is ineoti- 
testibly one of the oldest in Germany. View very fine. * Inn near the ruin. 
At the foot of the hill the Lenne falls into the Ruhr. 

The train now skirts the Kaiserberg, where Charlemagne 
is said once to have had a camp. On an eminence of the 
r. bank of the Ruhr the picturesque village of Wetter, with 
a ruined castle, conies in view. On the opposite (1.) side, 
lies the picturesque village of Volmarstein (* Wekberg), with 
an old castle commanding a magnificent prospect, a spot much 
frequented by visitors from the neighbourhood. The train now 
crosses and follows the course of the Ruhr, and soon reaches 
the long straggling manufacturing and colliery-town of Wit- 
ten {Hotel Grdfe; * Glitz, on the 1. bank, opp. to the town). 
The background of the picturesque landscape is formed by 
the castle of Steinhausen, situated on a wooded eminence. 
Farther down the valley are the ruins of the castle of Har- 
denstein, in ancient times a seat of Wittekind (see above). 

The finest point of the valley of the Kuhr is at the small town of Blan- 
kenstein (Forstmann), 6 M. from Witten. "Gethmann's Garten, situated 
here, commands a noble prospect of the valley, and is much resorted to by 
lovers of the picturesque from the neighbouring towns. From Blankensteiu 
the traveller may proceed on foot by Hattingen to Nierenhof (4'/ 2 M.), a 
station on the Steele and Vohwinkel line. 

The tract of country from this point to the mouth of the 
Ruhr at Ruhrort (p. 12) is one of the principal colliery 
districts in Prussia, and yields considerably more than one 
third of the coal consumed in the kingdom. 

Dortmund (Romischer Kaiser, in the town; Bellevue, at 
the station; pop. 22,093, >/ 3 Rom. Cath.), which is reached 
in 25 min. more, one of the most important stations on the 
Cologne and Minden line, was once an imperial town and 
member of the Hanseatic league, and was governed by its 
own counts. Some of the churches are the only buildings 
which still bear testimony to the antiquity of the place. The 
choir (1421 — 50) of the church of St. Reinoldi contains old 
stained-glass windows, on some of the panes of which is 
represented the Imperial eagle in the Westphalian colours 
(green, black, and white). The altar is decorated with an old 



ESSEN. 8. Route. 23 

carved- wood Crucifixion, with the 12 Apostles; choir-stalls 
4a the late Gothic style of the 15th cent., pulpit, rich "renais- 
sance" style. The lofty and elegant * Marienkirche , nave 
Romanesque, choir Gothic, contains a picture, representing the 
Adoration of the Magi, painted at the commencement of the 
15th cent, by a master of the Westphalian school, a branch 
of that of Cologne. The Gothic Dominican Church (choir 
1353) also contains an altar-piece by a master of the same 
school, painted in 1508. The carved stone shrine near the 
high-altar also deserves inspection. 

In the history of the middle ages Dortmund is a place of great im- 
portance. When, on the fall of Henry the Lion (11^2), a complete state of 
anarchy and lawlessness prevailed throughout the whole of Germany, the 
celebrated Veh m gerich t, or Secret Tribunal, was formed in Westphalia, and, 
in the 14th and 15th centuries, had extended its sway over the whole empire. 
The number of the initiated, who were bound by the most fearful oaths to 
execute the decrees of the tribunal, is said to have exceeded 100,000. In 
Westphalia alone was the Frei>/raf, or president of the society, privileged 
to hold meetings for the purpose of receiving new members. Dortmund was 
the seat of the highest court, and here, in the " Konigshof tinder the linden- 
trees'', the Emperor Sigismund was himself initiated in the year 1429. Lat- 
terly, however, the tribunal degenerated to little more than a common police- 
court, before which the inhabitants of Dortmund and the vicinity carried 
their grievances. The last session held bv this societv here took place 
in 1303. 

One of the lime-trees in the Konigshof at Dortmund still 
exists, and is believed to be upwards of 400 years old. It 
stands on a slight eminence to the W. of the station. 

8. From Dortmund to Dusseldorf by 
Oberhausen. 

Com.p. Mop R. 4. 

By the Cologne and Mindeu line in 2 3 / 4 his. ; fares: 64, 43, or 
32 Sgr. 

The journey from Dortmund to Dusseldorf by this route is 
less interesting than that above described. The country tra- 
versed is one of those flat agricultural tracts so characteristic of 
many parts of Germany, and described by Tacitus, Germania 16. 

The principal place of interest on this line is Essen 
(Schmidt; Saner; Beryhaus; pop. 17,054, Prot. 6000), 1% M. 
from the station, one of the most ancient towns in the 
district, and till 1802 a free Imperial town. The * Minster - 
kirche (with octagonal choir of the 10th cent.), founded by 
the Emperor Otto III., contains a curious old brazen chan- 
delier, presented in 998 by the Abbess Mechtildis, sister of 
Otto III., and, among other treasures, four golden crosses, 
richly decorated with precious stones , presented in 974 by 
the Abbess Alhaidis, daughter of Otto I., and a MS. of the 
Gospels, with a covering of gold and carved ivory, a gift 



24 Route 9. OBBRHAUSEN. 

of the Abbess Theophanu (d. 1060). The Cloisters, as well 
as a fine altar-piece of 1522 by de Bruyn, were restored in 
1850. Essen is the central point of this extensive colliery 
district, and is surrounded by innumerable foundries and 
manufactories. Of these Krupp's Cast Steel Works deserve 
especial mention; the products of this vast estab. (portions of 
machinery, steel cannons, etc.) have acquired a European re- 
putation. To the S. of the town, at the Kettwiger Thor, is 
situated the station of the Witten-Duisburg-Oberhausen railway. 

The small and picturesquely situated town of Werden on the Ituhr was' 
once the seat of a very ancient Benedictine Abbey, where the ''Codex ar- 
genteus," a translation of the Gospels made in the 4th cent, by order of the 
Gothic Bishop TJlfiias, a most valuable specimen of the ancient German 
language, was formerly preserved. It fell into the hauds of the Swedes in 
the 30 years 1 war, and is now deposited at the university of Upsala. The 
* GHurch deserves particular inspection, especially the beautiful portal on 
the N. side. The crypt (1059) contains the stone sarcophagus of St. Ludgerus. 
(d. 809), the first bishop of Minister. 

Near Oberhausen (* Railway refreshment-room) is one 
of the most extensive foundries in this district, which employs 
1600 men and contains 8 different steam-engines. The land 
is poor and sterile, but its richness in coal renders it in 
many places worth 700 — 800/. per acre. 

Oberhausen is the most animated station on the line, and 
is daily passed by about 80 trains. 



9. From Dusseldorf to Cologne. 

Vorup. Map R. 4. 

JSy the Cologne and Minden Railway in l'/ 4 hr. ; fares: 30, 20, and 
15 SSgr. The express trains stop at the Central station at Cologne, the ordin- 
ary at Deutz (p. 38). — By steamboat in o hrs. (down in 1"/., hrs,). 
Conveyances see p. 18. 

Beyond stat. Benrath stands a handsome royal Palace 
among the trees to the 1., erected in 1756 — 60 by the Elector 
Palatine Charles as a residence for his widow. Beyond stat. 
Langenfeld the line crosses the Wupper (p. 21), passes close 
by the castle of Renschenberg (to the 1.), and at stat. Kiipper- 
steg crosses the Diihn. The river is approached at Miil- 
heim, a wealthy, manufacturing town, which owes its pros- 
perity to the Prot. citizens who emigrated from Cologne at 
the beginning of the 17th cent. Below the town, on the 
Rhine, lies Schloss Stammheim, a seat of Count Fiirstenberg, 
containing an extensive collection of engravings and portraits. 

The steamboat- journey from Dusseldorf to Cologne in 
somewhat tedious; the Rhine here presents no features of 
natural beauty, though some of the places on its banks possess 
an historical interest. 



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Hotels. On the- Rhine: "Hotel de Hollaude (PI. d.), K. 16, L. 6, B. 10, 
D. 20, A. 6Sgr.; Royal Hotel (PI. I); * Hotel de Cologne (PI. e), K. 
and B. 23, D. 17, A. 7 1 /, Sgr. — Near the Rhine: *H6tel de Russie (PJ. g), 
No. 4. Fried. Wilhelm Strasse ; Victoria Hotel, in the Heumarkt. — la 
the town: Hotel Disch (PI. a); 'Hotel de Mayeuce (PI. b); "Hotel 
de Vienne (PI. c), all three' near the post-office; in the two latter excellent 
tables d'hote (20 Sgr.) ; "Hotel dn Nord (PI. h), near the railway bridge. 
— Second-class houses: *Hotel Ernst and 'Hotel Kleff, K. and B. 20, 
D. inc. W. 18 Sgr.. both near to the central station; * Hotel de Paris 
(PI. k) Drususgasse 3, R. and B. 20, D. inc. W. 19 Sgr. ; 'Laacher Hof 
(PI. i), Near the Neumarkt, in the W. part of the town; 'Hotel du Dome, 
Domhof 7, D. 17 Sgr. — In Deutz (1st CI.) *Bellevue (PI. n), and *Prinz 
Carl (PI. o), U. 15, L. 5, B. 8, A. 6 Sgr. ; Hotel Fuchs. 

Restaurants. Hotel de Cologne; G ertrud enho f; 'Leui, Sand- 
liahn No. 1; ' Wanscheidt, in the Salomonsgasse; at the two latter beer 
may be procured, viands moderate; *Giirzenich Restaurant (entrance 
from the Martinsstrasse); "Kolner Banket- Haus" in the Schildergasse. 
'Refreslifflent-room at the central station. 

Cafes and Confectioners. 'Cafe du Dome; St. Paul, nearest to the 
central-station; Kobell, in the Schildergasse. — Mosler (best confectioner), 
Oben-Marspforten ; Reichard (good ices), Hochstrasse; Borse, in the 
Heumarkt, well supplied with newspapers. 

Oysters and Delicacies. Bettger and Co., kleiue Budengasse 6 (PI. r) ; 
room fitted up in the Moorish style. 

Public Resorts. The gardens of the hotels at Deut/. , which command a 
fine view of Cologne, and where a military band plays on summer evenings. 
The bridge of boats is a favorite promenade. The Bayenhaus on the Rhine, 
at the S. extrem. of the town. Zoological Garden (p. 37), Briihi 
(see R. 36). 

Theatre in the Coraodienstras.se, representations daily. Summer-thea- 
tre (Victoria-theatre), 5 — 8 p.m., at the Thurmchen (see above); 
another at the Konigshalle (see above). 

Concerts ouce a fortnight iu winter in the Giirzenich. Cologne is the 
seat of the Rhenish School of Music. 

"Diorama (PI. 8), Wolfsgasse 5, near the Neumarkt (p. 34). Admission 
lo or 10 Sgr. The second places are scarcely inferior to the first. 

Zoological Garden , 3 / 4 M. below the town nearly opposite to Miilheim ; 
grounds tastefully laid out, 'valuable collection of animals; adm. 10 Sgr. 
Adjacent to it is the Botanical Garden of the "Flora" company. 

military music daily at ll 1 /, (Sundays at 12) iu the Neumarkt. 

Baths. Warm at Siegen's, in the Schildergasse; in the floating bath- 
establishment, entrance from the bridge. Cold in the Rhine, below the 
Trankgasse, to the rear of the Rheiuau , and at the Bayenthurm; on the r. 
bank below the garden of the "Bellevue" in Deutz, near which is also the 
Swimming-bath, "» Sgr. 

Railway Stations. The trains to Binge n, Ai.r-la- Chapelle and Cre/eld, 
and the express trains oi the Cologne and Minden line (R. S) , start from 
the Cen tralstat i on ( N. from the Cathedral), ordinary trains on the 
Cologne and Minden, or Gk-ssen line (U. 52) start from Deutz. 

Steamboats, see Introd. Small sleamers ply continually to Miilheim 
(2 Sgr.), starting from the bridge of boats. 

Carriages. 1 — 2 pers. 5, 3 pers. 7'/.,, 4pers. 10 Sgr. for each drive within 
the town or to the stations. To Deutz at the same charges, with the addition 
of 6 Sgr. for bridge-toll. By time. For '/, hr. 1 — 2 pers. 7'/,, 3—4 pers. 
10 Sgr. For waiting, 2% Sgr. for every ten min. Before 7 a.m. and after 
10 p.m. 5 Sgr. more than the above fares is charged. 



26 Route 10. COLOGNE. 

Porterage from the steamboat to the carriage for 1 — 2 packages 1 Sgr., 
for each additional package 6 Pf. For a hand-cart into the town , with lug- 
gage not exceeding 3 cwt., 7 Sgr. 

Eau de Cologne. The best may be procured at oue of the firms Farina, 
opp. to the Jiilichsplatz, Hochstrasse 129, &c, and at Zanoli's, in the same 
street. 

Painted porcelain vases, fruit-baskets, &c, in the Drususgasse , opposite 
the new Museum. 

English Church Service performed by a resident chaplain at No. 8 
Rheingasse. 

Plan where time is limited: Cathedral , interior, and walk round the 
external choir-gallery (p. 28); St. Gereon (exterior and interior, p. 33, 
Pi. 36); Church of the Apostle* (exterior, p. 33, PI. 30); St. Maria im Ca- 
pitol (interior, p. :!4, PI. 40); Gurienich (p. 35, PI. 15); Facade of the 
Town-hall (p. 35, PI. 26); Museum (p. 36, PI. 45), iron bridge (p. 37). 

Two days. The above-mentioned churches from 7 to 10 a.m. The 

* Museum (p. 36), and Diorama (p. 25, PI. 8). In the afternoon the 

* Cathedral, the Arch /'episcopal Museum, walk along the Rhine and on the 
bridge, evening in the hotel-gardens at Deutz (p. 38). The principal 
churches &c. may be most conveniently visited in the following order: 
<-ursory glance at the Cathedral (p. 28. PI. 9) ; St. Cunibert (p. 32, PI 33); * St. 

Ursula (p. 32. PI. 49); Jesuits' (p. 32, PI. 20); St. Andreas (p. 32, PI. 29) ; 
through the Comodienstrasse (1. Courts of law, PI. 21; 1. Arsenal, PI. 54; 
r. Government buildings, PI. 27; I. Romans'' tower, p. 33); * St. Gereon 
(p. 33, PI. 36); * Apostles' p. 33, PI. 30), the new Mauritius Church 
<PI. 44); cross the Keuinarkt (1. the horses' heads, p. 34), past the Hospital 
(p. 34, PI. 4), to St. Peter's (p. 34, PI. 47); leaving the latter by the S. 
door in the Sternengasse , past Rubens' house (p. 34, PI. 19), to * St. Marien 
(p. 34, PI. 40); leave the latter by the N. door in the Lichhof, proceed to 
the * (iiirzenic), (p. 35, Pi. 15); Town -hall (p. 35, PI. 26); * St. Martin 
(p. 36, PI. 38); Minoritenkirche and the adjacent * Museum (p. 36). 

The names of the streets leading to the Rhine (W. to 13.) are painted 
red, of those parallel to the Rhine (N. to S.) black. 

[Police -station (PI. 23), Glockengasse 30. — Royal bank (PI. 2). 
Cacilienstrasse 4. — General post-office (PI. 24), Glockengasse 25 — 27. — 
Telegraph-office, at the Central station.] 

Cologne owes its foundation to the Ubii, who when hard 
pressed by the Suevi, removed their capital town from the 
r. bank of the Rhine to the 1., to the spot which the present 
city of Cologne occupies. Here, A.D. 50, Agrippina, the 
daughter of Germanicus, and mother of Nero, founded a co- 
lony of Roman veterans, which was called Colonia Agrippi- 
rtensis, and afterwards Colonia Claudia Agrippina. The new 
settlement soon became the capital town of Lower Germany. 
In 308 Constantine the Great commenced to construct a stone 
bridge over the Rhine, which connected Marspforten with 
what was then the island of St. Martin , and thence crossed 
to Deutz; the remnants of the pillars may still be seen when 
the river is very low. The present Rathhaus, or Town-hall, 
is believed to occupy the site of the Prcetorium of the Roman 
colony; from here the old Roman wall extended towards the 
Giirzenich (Merchants' Hall), and beyond it to the church of 
St. Maria im Capitol, past which the Rhine is said formerly 
to have flowed, and to have surrounded the present Alten- 
ruarkt, at that time an island. The above-mentioned bridge 



History. COLOGNE. 10. Route. 27 

formed a continuation of the present streets "auf der Briicke" 
and "oben Marspforten" ; it was, however, destroyed at the 
time of the Norman invasion, and in 960 taken to pieces by 
order of the Archbishop Bruno, who also caused the 1. arm 
of the Rhine to be filled up. 

In the middle ages (12th — 15th cent.) Cologne was a 
most flourishing commercial town. In 1201 it became incor- 
porated in the Hanseatic league, and as such had its principal 
depot at the Guildhall of London. In 1212 it became a free 
town of the empire. Subsequently the archbishops, who were 
continually at variance with the citizens, endeavoured to assert 
their authority over them, but were repeatedly thwarted; the 
city maintained its freedom, so that the archbishop Engelbert 
was compelled in 1262 to transfer his residence to Briihl, 
and afterwards to Bonn. Feuds between the nobles and 
the burghers, which occasioned the expulsion of a whole 
corporation of weavers in 1370, who migrated to Aix-la- 
Chapelle and Eupen, and of the Protestants in 1608, who 
settled at Crefeld, Elberfeld, Diisseldorf, and Mulheim, proved 
very prejudicial to the prosperity of the city. Cologne, how- 
ever, still held its rank as the first Rhenish town, and was 
moreover celebrated as a cradle of the fine arts. Some of 
the pictures of the Cologne school are to be seen at the 
Cathedral (p. 29) and the Museum (p. 36), whilst others are 
preserved at the old Pinakothek at Munich, to which they 
were taken by the well known picture -collectors Boisseree at 
the time of the French Revolution. The only names of cele- 
brity which have come down to our time are those of Meister 
Wilhelm (1380) and Meister Stephan (1410). The town like- 
wise boasted of a university, founded in 1388, and celebrated 
as a philosophical and theological school. In later ages, 
however, it lost its importance, and was finally abolished 
about the close of the last century. 

Until the occupation of the town by the French in 1794, 
Cologne had maintained its privileges as a free Imperial city, 
but had lost much of its ancient splendour and prosperity. 
By the peace of Campo Formio in 1797 it became subject to 
France, and was a town of the Roer Department, the capital 
of which was Aix-la-Chapelle. In 1802 its monasteries and 
other ecclesiastical establishments were secularized, and de- 
clared national property. On Jan. 14th, 1814, the Russians 
took possession of the place, and when, shortly afterwards, 
the town became Prussian, it began to recover its former 
importance. Since then it has rapidly increased in size and 
affluence, and the energy and and public spirit of its citi- 
zens have rendered it one of the most considerable commer- 



28 Route 10. 



COLOGNE. 



Cathedral. 



cial cities in Germany. The completion of the railway bridge 
in 1859, one of the most massive structures by which the 
Rhine is crossed, has given an additional importance to the 
place. 

The population of Cologne is 113,081 (12,338 Prot., 2990 
Jews), and the garrison consists of 4813 soldiers; Deutz has 
0739 inhabitants and a garrison of 1719. The majority of 
the streets are narrow and gloomy, and the 34 public squares 
are planted with trees. The kitchen-gardens and vineyards, 
which formerly occupied more than one quarter of the area 
of the town, are rapidly giving place to new streets and build- 
ings. Before the first revolution Cologne , once dignified 
with the name of "holy", contained upwards of 200 places 
of worship and ecclesiastical establishments; the number of 
churches is now 25, two of which are Protestant. 

The * * Cathedral l , or Dom, the grand point of attraction, 
justly excites the admiration and wonder of every beholder, 

whilst its still unfinished con- 
dition is suggestive of the 
abortiveness of human de- 
signs. The master - mind 
which planned this noble 
pile is unknown, and the 
original designs, the off- 
springs of his fertile brain, 
are for ever lost; could 
his dreams have been rea- 
Iflized, there is no doubt, 
S that, as now it is the most 
S- beautiful fragment in ex- 
" istence, so it would have 
been in its completion the 
most magnificent and stu- 
pendous edifice ever raised 
by human hands to the 
service of the Creator. The 
foundation-stone was laid 
by the Archbishop Conrad 
of Hochsteden (p. 60), Aug. 
14th, 1248, in presence of 
the Emperor William , the 
opponent of Frederick II. 




1 Caution. Travellers are recommended not to engage any of the 111;- 
»(.<-rous valets-de-place who are always hovering about, in and near the 
cathedra), as their services are perfectly unnecessary. The Nave with the 



Cathedral. COLOGNE. 10. Route. 29 

The first projector of a plan for the erection of a cathedra! 
was the Archbishop Engelbert I., surnamed "the holy", who 
was murdered on the Gevelsberg at Schwelm by Frederick 
of Isenburg in 1225, and whose bones are preserved in a 
silver casket in the treasury of the cathedral. The first archi- 
tect is believed to have been Meister Gerard of Riehl, a village 
near Cologne, to whom the Chapter made a grant in 1257 
in recognition of his valuable services. 

The construction of the sacred edifice progressed but 
slowly, chiefly owing to the continual differences between the 
archbishops and the townspeople, and the choir was not con- 
secrated till 1322, under Archbishop Henry (Count of Virne- 
burg). The building was subsequently proceeded with, but at 
last completely abandoned at the commencement of the 16th 
cent. Since then it fell more and more to decay, and was 
in 1796 converted by the French into a hay- magazine, its 
ruin being rendered more complete by the abstraction of the 
lead from the roof. 

The late enlightened king of Prussia, Frederick William IV., 
and his predecessor rescued the sacred edifice from total de- 
struction. The latter caused it to be examined by the eminent 
architect Schinkel in 1816, and from that time up to his 
death in 1840, he expended upwards of 200,000 Thlr. (30,000/.) 
upon its restoration. In addition to the above sum, donations 
and subscriptions amounting to 120,000 Thlr. (18,000/.) were 
devoted to the same object. During the reign of Fred. 
William IV. a sum of 1,500,000 Thlr. (225,000/.), more than 
half of which was contributed from the royal purse, was 
laid out on the building. The entire sum expended between 
1842 and 1864 has exceeded 300,000/. The interior of the 
cathedral has been completed since 1863. The partition which 
separated the choir from the central nave is now removed, 
so that the impression produced by the majestic proportions 
of the whole is most profound. The magnificent Southern 
Portal, 220 ft. in height, which alone cost 700,000 Thlr. 
(105,000/.) was finished in 1859, as well as the less elabo- 



stained-glass windows is open to the public the whole day, the choir, when 
divine service is not being performed. The following are the only autho- 
rized fees (1 — 5 pers.): 1. For opening the high-choir, the choir chapels, 
and the Dombild (cathedral picture), 15 Sgr. ; 2. For the attendant who 
conducts the visitors along the upper choir-gallery, round the exterior of 
the cathedral , and to the summit of the tower, 15 Sgr. ; 3. For opening the 
treasury, the shrine containing the relics of the Magi, and the Dombild, 
l'/2 Thlr. Cards to be procured from the Suisse, who is generally to be 
found in or near the transept. Any payment in addition to the above fees 
is entirely gratuitous. The treasury and shrine of the Magi possess interest 
for judges of art only. 



30 Route 10. COLOGNE. Cathedral. 

rate Northern Portal, both of which were exclusively designed 
by Zwirner (d. 1861), the talented architect who con- 
ducted the work since 1833. Upon the Southern Tower the 
crane with its long projecting arm (55 ft.), the landmark of 
Cologne, is exactly in the same position as it was 400 years 
ago, as may be seen from a painting in the Hospital of St. 
John at Bruges. The entire structure, exclusive of the tow- 
ers , is now nearly completed. The central tower (of iron) 
and the iron frame-work of the roof of the body of the 
church and transept were completed in 1861. 

The Cathedral stands on a slight eminence (55 ft. above 
the Rhine) which in the time of the Romans formed the 
S. E. corner of their camp. The interior is 421 ft. long and 
140 ft. broad; the transept is 234 ft. long, and the choir 140ft. 
high. The portion appropriated to divine service occupies 
an area of 70,000 sq. ft. The S. tower exhibits the most 
complete harmony of design, but has attained little more than 
V 3 rd (189 ft.) of the projected height (476 ft.). 

Stained-glass windows. The five windows in the N. 
aisle, executed in 1508 — 9, are considered among the finest 
existing specimens of the art. The new * windows in the 
S. aisle were presented in 1848 by King Ludwig of Bavaria, 
and prove that the almost obsolete art has in some respects 
re-attained, if it does not surpass, its ancient glory. 

Choir. Pedestals, which project from the 14 pillars of 
the central part, bear statues, of value as specimens of the 
sculpture of the beginning of the 14th cent. They represent 
Christ, the Virgin, and the 12 Apostles. The 9 frescoes by 
Steinle , and the tapestry, representing the Nicene creed , re- 
cently worked by ladies of Cologne, on the wall behind the 
choir- stalls, are worth inspection. The carved stalls them- 
selves belong to the 14th cent. Above the inner gallery of 
the high-choir is a series of admirable old stained-glass win- 
dows, representing the kings of Judah &c. 

Chapels. 1st (Maternus) on 1. (to the N.): Tombstone of 
Archbishop Philipp o. Heinsberg (d. 1191), in the form of a town- 
wall with towers, gates, and turrets, an allusion to the fact 
of his having been the founder of the fortifications of Cologne. 
Fine old carved altar-piece, representing the Passion. 

2nd. (Johannis) Tombstone of Archbishop Conrad of Hoch- 
steden (d. 1261), the founder of the cathedral. The altar of St. 
Clara, with paintings by the celebrated Cologne master Wilhelm, 
is also worthy of note. 

3d. (Engelbertus) in which the bones of Archbishop 
Engelbert con der Mark, now preserved in a silver casket in 
the treasury, reposed till 1633. 



Cathedral. COLOGNE. 10. Route. 31 

4th. (Chapel of the three kings. or Magi). Here are pre- 
served the bones of the Magi, which were brought from Con- 
stantinople by the Empress Helena, afterwards taken to the 
cathedral of Milan, and finally, after the destruction of Milan 
in 1164, presented by the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa to 
Archbishop Reinold of Cologne. The gorgeous shrine which 
contains the relics was constructed towards the close of the 
12th cent,, and was once richly adorned with gold, pearls, 
and precious stones, the greater number of which disappeared 
during the French dominion. Near this chapel repose the 
remains of the Electors of the house of Bavaria, and in front 
of it, under a stone without incription , is interred the heart 
of Marie de Medicis (p. 34). Opposite, at the back of the 
high-altar, is the tombstone of St. Kngelbert. 

oth. (Agnes Chapel). Contains the celebrated * Dombild, 
termed by Goethe "the axis on which the history of art on 
the Lower Rhine turns," a picture in compartments, repre- 
senting the Adoration of the Magi, St. Gereon and St. Ursula, 
and the Annunciation. It bears the date 1410, and is pro- 
bably a work of the Master Stephau (p. 27). 

6th. (Michael's Chapel). Tombstone of Archbishop Walram 
of Jiilich (d. 1349) Carved altar-piece of the 15th cent. 

7th. (Stephen's Chapel). Tombstone of the imperial 
General von Hochkirchen (fell in 1703 at Landau in the Spa- 
nish war of succession). Near it is the * tombstone of Arch- 
bishop Frederick of Saartcerden (d. 1414), admirably decorated 
with figures of saints. The chapel itself contains an altar- 
piece by Ocerbeck, representing the Ascension of the Virgin. 
The stained-glass windows were presented in 1857 by a so- 
ciety at Bonn und Minister, formed for the purpose of fur- 
thering the construction of the cathedral. 

The Schatzkammer or Treasury (entrance from the 
passage of the N. choir), contains a silver shrine with the 
remains of St. Engelbert, valuable ecclesiastical vessels, espe- 
cially one presented by Pope Pius IX. in 1848, the sword of 
office worn by the Elector of Cologne at the coronation pro- 
cession at Frankfurt (R. 39), priestly robes, 10 carved ivory 
tablets, &c. 

The visitor should by no means omit to walk round the 
* inner gallery of the choir and those on the exterior of the 
choir, or to ascend the now completed central tower (admission 
by card, see p. 29, by the S. Portal), as thus a better idea 
may be formed of the grandeur of the whole structure. The 
external gallery commands a magnificent * prospect over the 
sea of houses, the plain intersected by the Rhine and the 
Seven Mountains in the distance. 



32 Route 10. COLOGNE. Archiep. Museum. 

The Archiepiscopal Museum (Erzbischbfliche Museum), 
opposite to the S. side of the cathedral, containing a collection 
of ecclesiastical and other objects of art of the middle ages, 
occupies the site of the archiepiscopal palace of the middle ages. 

In the immediate vicinity of the W. Portal, at the end of 
the Unter-Fettenhennen Strasse, an old Roman inscription on 
the wall of the N. W. corner house of the Domkloster (cathe- 
dral convent) marks the place where the P/affenpforte, one 
of the ancient town gates, formerly stood. 

The remaining objects of interest in Cologne are enume- 
rated in the order recommended at p. 26. 

St. Cunibert (PI. 33), on the Rhine, in the N. part of the 
town, was consecrated by Archbishop Conrad in 1248, the 
same year in which he laid the foundation stone of the 
cathedral. It contains some fine old stained glass in the 
choir, and several small pictures of saints on gold ground, 
probably of the old Cologne school. 

* St. Ursula (PI. 49) is said to have been erected at the 
beginning of the 12th cent, by the Emperor Henry II. The 
choir to the 1. contains a monument, erected in 1658, to 
St. Ursula, an English princess, who, according to one of the 
many legends extant, on her return from a pilgrimage to 
Rome was, with her 11,000 virgin attendants, barbarously 
murdered at Cologne. The bones of these virgin martyrs are 
kept in cases, placed round the church. Ten old pictures of 
the Apostles, to the 1. of the S. entrance, are painted on slate, 
and bear the date 1224. Under the organ a Crucifixion in 
stone is well executed. 

The Jesuits' Church (PI. 20), erected about 1636 in the 
style peculiar to this order, is overloaded with decorations. 
The bells were cast out of the metal of the cannons taken 
by Tilly at Magdeburg, and by him presented to the church. 
The entrance hall of the Priests' Seminary, adjoining the church 
on the N., contains a handsome marble monument of the 
Master of the Teutonic order von Reuschenberg (d. 1603). 

The Church of St. Andreas (PI. 29), with Romanesque 
nave and raised Gothic choir, contains a richly-adorned modern 
side-altar, where the shrine (15th cent.) with the relics of 
Albertus Magnus, who lived and died in the contiguous Do- 
minican convent, is preserved. In the adjoining street -'Unter- 
Sachsenhausen'% are situated two palatial edifices, one the pro- 
perty of the Scliaaffhausen Banking Co., the other of the Co- 
logne Fire Insurance and the Hail Insurance companies. 

In the Comodienstrasse on the r. is the Theatre (PL 52), 
re-erected since its destruction by fire in 1859; on the 1. the 
Courts of Justice (PI. 21), the Arsenal (PI. 54), erected in 1601; 



St. Gereon. COLOGNE. 10. Route. 33 

oil the r. the palatial Government buildings (PI. 27). Farther 
W. in the same direction, at the corner of the Apernstrasse, 
is the Roman tower, inlaid with stones of different colours, 
which is believed to have formed one of the corners of the 
Roman town. The interior is undoubtedly of Roman origin, 
the exterior belongs to the middle ages , and the upper part 
is modern. After traversing the Steinfeldergasse the Church of 

* St. Gereon (PI. 36) is reached. This church, dedicated 
to the memory of the 408 martyrs of the Theban legion, with 
their captains Gereon and Gregory (afterwards the patron 
saints of Cologne)," who perished here in the persecution of 
the Christians under Diocletian, occupies the site of an ancient 
church, said to have been founded by the empress Helena. 
It was formerly known by the appellation of the church ad 
ttureos sanr.tos, from the circumstance of its being roofed with 
gilded metal plates. The nave is probably as ancient as the 
7th cent.; the choir belongs to the 13th, and is constructed 
in the transition style from the round to the pointed, the 
latter predominating. 

The entrance hall contains old tombstones of crusaders. 
The nave consists of a decagonal vaulted cupola, from the 
sides of which project the sarcophagi of the martyrs. Upwards 
of 200 of their skulls, some of them enveloped with velvet, 
are arranged round the choir under gilded arabesques. Traces 
of ancient frescoes have recently been discovered. (Attendant's 
fee for 1 — 3 pers. 10 Sgr.) 

About 100 yds. to the E. of the church, in the street 
planted with trees, is situated the Archiepiscopal Palace (PI. 12), 
in front of which stands the * Mariensaule, a handsome mo- 
nument erected in 1858 in commemoration of the promulgation 
of the doctrine of the immaculate conception. The statues 
are from drawings by Steinle. 

Farther to the N., in the Klingelpiitz, is the Arresthaas 
(PI. 7), a prison constructed in a radiating form. 

The * Apostles' Church (PI. 30) in the Neumarkt, a 
remarkably handsome structure with its towers, pinnacles, and 
cupola, was commenced in 1200, when the Romanesque style 
had attained its highest perfection. 

When the plague raged in Cologne in 1357, Richmodis von Lyskirchen, 
wife of the knight Mengis von Adocht, was attacked by the malady, and 
having fallen into a deathlike swoon, was interred in the Apostles' church. 
Being awakened from her trance by a thievish gravedigger in his attempts 
to possess himself of her ring, she returned to the house of her husband, 
who, imagining he beheld an apparition, declared he would sooner believe 
that his horses could ascend to the loft of his house than his departed spouse 
return in propria persona. Scarcely had the words escaped his lips, says 
the legend, than horses 1 hoofs were heard mounting the stairs, and their 
heads were speedily seen looking out of a window in the upper story of the 
Baedekek's Rhine. 3 



34 Route 10. COLOGNE. Hospital. 

house. (Two horses' heads are still to be seen, affixed to the upper story of 
the house with the tower on the N. side of the Neumarkt, where they were 
placed in commemoration of the miraculous event.) The lady recovered and 
lived for many years afterwards. 

[Near the Neumarkt is the Diorama (p. 25); the) Roman 
Tower (p. 33) is on the way from St. Gereon's to the Apos- 
tles' church.] 

The new Mauritius Church (PJ. 44) (Mauritius Steinweg) 
is an edifice in the Gothic style. 

The Hospital (PI. 4) is a large and handsome edifice; 
the patients are waited on by sisters of Charity. It may be 
inspected in the afternoon; the visitor is expected on entering 
his name in the book to give a donation towards the funds 
of the establishment. Attendant's fee 5 Sgr. 

St. Cecilia (PI. 31), erected about 1200, is contiguous 
to the hospital aud serves as its chapel. The crypt, which 
contains remnants of Roman masonry, deserves inspection. 

St. Peter's Church (PI. 47), adjacent to the latter, was 
built in 1524, and contains an altar-piece (the crucifixion of 
Peter) by Rubens, brought back in 1814 from Paris, whither 
it had been taken by the French. It is concealed by another 
picture of little value which the sexton removes for the 
somewhat exorbitant fee of 15 Sgr. A copy of the picture 
hangs over the N. side-entrance. The inspection of the old 
carved altar with paintings ascribed to Lucas of Leyden costs 
5 Sgr. more. 

The S. entrance of St. Peter's is in the Sternengasse where 
(No. 10) Rubens was born (1577) (comp. p. 41). In the same 
house Marie de Medicis, widow of Henry IV. of France, died 
in exile (1642). 

*St. Maria im Capitol (PI. 40), so-called from its occu- 
pying the site of the Roman Capitol , is said to have been 
founded at the close of the 7th cent, by Plectrudis, consort 
of Pepin of Heristal and mother of Charles Martel. The 
present edifice was commenced in the 11th cent. The S. 
(Hardenrath's) chapel contains frescoes by Israel of Mekenem, 
the finest of which represents a group of choristers. The N. 
chapel (baptistery) contains an altar-piece of 1521, ascribed 
to Albeit Diirer, representing the dying Mary, surrounded by 
the Apostles. The old stained-glass windows and the rich 
sculpturing under the organ (executed in 1523) deserve men- 
tion. On the door of the N. entrance are carved wooden 
reliefs of the 11th cent., and on the external wall of the 
choir a stone effigy of Plectrudis (probably the lid of a sar- 
cophagus). Adjacent to it is a, small pointed archway, adorned 
with stone carving, lately restored, which forms the entrance 
gateway from the Konigsstrasse. 



Giirzenieh. COLOGNE. 10. Route. 35 

Farther to the E., in the same line of streets, ! is situated 
the Templars' Lodge {Tempelhaus, PI. 51) in the Rheingasse, 
No. 8. It dates from the 12th or 13th cent., and is frequently 
alluded to in the annals of the city as a corporation or guild- 
hall. It is now used as an Exchange, and contains collections 
of the Chamber of Commerce, Navigation Society, &c. The 
walls of the three apartments on the ground-floor are covered 
with paintings in the taste of the middle ages, emblematical 
of priesthood, knighthood, and citizenship, the three elements 
of the state in those times. 

The Giirzenieh (PI. 15) (named after the citizen by whom 
it was founded) erected in 1441 — 74, improved and enlarged 
in 1856, is the most considerable of the non- ecclesiastical 
edifices of Cologne. The new painted statues above the E. 
gateway represent Agrippa and Marsilius , respectively the 
founder and defender of the town during the Roman period. 
The large * Hall on the first floor was employed in the middle 
ages on festive occasions, and served as a banquet-room 
when the emperors visited the city. In 1857 it was en- 
tirely remodelled, and contains stained-glass windows re- 
presenting the arms of the once allied towns of Cologne, 
Jiilich, Cleve, Berg, and Mark, St. Peter as patron saint, 
two imperial eagles, the arms of the city, those of the 22 
different corporations &c. The two large , richly carved 
chimney-pieces, with allusions to the former history of Co- 
logne, are worth inspection. 

The *Rathhaus or Town-hall (PI. 26), facing the Stadt- 
hausplatz to the W. and the old market to the E., was founded 
in the 13th cent., and attained its present form in 1549. The 
* Portal, added in 1571, is in the new Romanesque style. It 
rests upon 16 marble pillars with open arches, and bears 
six long Latin inscriptions recording the gratitude of the 
citizens to Julius Caesar, Augustus, Agrippa, Constantine, Jus- 
tinian , and the German Emperor Maximilian. The Reliefs 
contain an allusion to an ancient tradition. 

The Archbishop Engelbert (p. 27) sought the life of the Burgomaster 
(iryn. He invited his intended victim to a banquet and caused him to be 
conducted to a room where a hungry lion had been placed to devour the 
obnoxious citizen. The latter, however, contrived to thrust his 1. arm down 
the animal's throat, while he stabbed it with the r. hand. 

The Chapel of the Rathhaus which formerly contained 
the Dombild (p. 31), was, before the banishment of the Jews, 
(1349), a synagogue. The Gothic tower of the Rathhaus at 
present contains the H a lira/' Library and Archives, open daily 
from 10 to 12. 

*Gross-St. Martin (PI. 38), near the Rhine, consecrated 
in 1172, is a bold and elegant Romanesque fabric. The 

3* 



3t> Route 10. COLOGNE. Museum. 

massive tower, one pinnacle of which is yet incomplete, rests 
upon four arches, nearly 100 ft. in height and 40 ft. in width, 
the only counterpoise of which consists of the handsome 
half-rotundas. The lower part of the church was erected 
more than a century later and exhibits the transition to the 
pointed style. The antique font, decorated with lions' heads 
and foliage, a present from Pope Leo III., is a rare specimen 
of the stone carving of the 8th cent. On the upper side- 
altars are placed 6 new stone statues by Hoffmann of Rome, 
to the 1. St. Martin, St. Eliphius, and St. Brigitta, to the r. 
the Virgin with angels. The N. aisle contains a fine Descent 
from the Cross, by dn Bois, and Christ before Annas, by 
Honthorst. The pulpit rests on a recumbent dragon. 

The Minoritenkirche (PL 45) is of the 13th cent., and 
is said to have been built in their leisure hours by the same 
workmen who were engaged in the construction of the cathe- 
dral. It contains the tombstone of the celebrated theological 
disputant Duns Scotus (d. 1309), the inscription on which 
records : Scotia me genuit, Anglia me suseepit, Gallia me docuit, 
Colonic/, me tenet. The beautiful cloisters on the N. side are 
in the late Gothic style. The church is now undergoing a 
thorough repair, the expenses of which were borne by Herr 
Richartz (d. 1861), a wealthy and public -spirited citizen of 
Cologne. At his expense likewise (30,000/.) the new 

* Museum (Wallraf- Richartz) (PI. 22) has been constructed. 
The statues at the principal portal (N. side) as well as those 
on the E. side, represent characters of distinction in the 
annals of the city. The building contains the late Professor 
Wallraf's valuable collection of antiquities of Rome and the 
middle ages , and pictures by ancient and modern masters 
(adm. gratis on Sundays , holidays and Wed. afternoons , at, 
other times for a fee of 7 '/ 2 Sgr.) 

Ground -floor. On the right the Jlvmttn Antiijidties , on the left 
ancient weapons and armour. The lower cloister contains several Mosaic 
pavements, the tipper is occupied by a collection of vases, stained-glass etc. 
— In three saloons to the 1. is situated the Permanent Exhibition of the 
Cologne Art-Union. The staircase is adorned with frescoes representing the 
different epochs in the history of art at Cologne. 

The Upper Story contains pictures of the Dutch, Italian and French 
schools , as well as the works of several eminent modern artists. The prin- 
cipal attraction of the gallery, however, consists in the collection of paint- 
ings of the old Cologne school by Meister Wilhelrn and his followers (12—84), 
Meiiter Stephan and his school (85—112), and painters of the Van Eyck 
school (113-372). 

St. Severin (PI. 48) , at the S. extremity of the town, 
was founded at the commencement of the 11th cent., but the 
greater part of the edifice is in the Gothic style and there- 
fore belongs to a later date. The tall pointed spire was 
added about the close of the 15th cent. The "Last Supper" 



St. Pantaleon. COLOGNE. 10. Route. 37 

by de Bruyn, a winged altar-piece to the r., is one of the 
finest works of this master. The sacristy contains a fresco 
by the Master Wilhelm (p. 27), which is unfortunately in a 
bad state of preservation. 

St. Pantaleon (PL 46) is mentioned in ancient documents 
as early as 670. Archbishop Bruno (d. 965), brother of Otto 
the Great, is said to have employed the remnants of the bridge 
of Constantine (p. 26) in building the abbey and enlarging 
the church. To the r. by the High-altar is the tombstone of 
the Empress Theophania (d. 999), consort of Otto II., and to 
the 1. that of Count Hermann von Ziitphen, abbot of the mo- 
nastery, and brother of St. Irmgard, both of them erected in 
the last century. The fine old Gothic sculpturing under the 
organ has been lately restored. The church is one of the 
most ancient buildings of Cologne of the Christian period, 
and is fitted up as a garrison church. 

The new Prot. Trinity Church (PI. 56) in the "basilica" 
style, is situated in the Filzengraben, not far from the har- 
bour, and the Synagogue (PI. 50) in the Moorish style, 
with its handsome cupola, in the Glockengasse. 

One of the most remarkable works of its age is the well- 
preserved Town-wall, with its broad, deep fosses and fine 
gate-towers. Begun at the close of the 12th cent, under 
Archbishop Philipp, and completed in the 15th, it describes 
a semi-circle of 3800 yds., the chord of which is formed by 
the bank of the Rhine. 

The wharves, from the N. extremity of the town to the 
Bayenthurm, exhibit an animated and interesting scene. Near 
the tower is the Sicherheitshafen , or Safety-harbour (where 
vessels take refuge in winter from the dangers of the floating 
ice), with its ship-building establishment, and beyond it an 
extensive cotton-factory. The warehouses of the Freihafen, or 
Free harbour, were erected in 1838 in the same style as the 
Giirzenich. The town may now be entered by the Miihlen- 
gassenthor; following a N. direction the new Domthor is soon 
reached, through which the traveller arrives at the Iron 
Bridge, 1312 ft. in length. Part of it, 24 ft. in breadth, is 
used as a railway- bridge, the remaining part, 27 ft. broad, 
serves for the ordinary traffic. 

The Trankgassen-Thor by the bridge, to the N., leads to 
the extensive Rhine-wharf , following which and passing St. 
Cunibert (p. 32), whence the steamboats to the Zoolog. 
Garden and Mulheim start, the traveller crosses the entrance 
to the old Sicherheitshafen, and reaches the Victoria-Theatre 
(p. 25), and farther down, the Zoological Garden (open 
dailv in summer from 6 a.m., in winter from 8 a.m., till 



38 Route. 10. DEUTZ. 

sunset; admission see p. 25). There is usually a military 
concert here on Wed. afternoons. The grounds are well 
laid out and the collection of animals meritorious. Good 
refreshment-room. — In the immediate vicinity is situated the 
Botanical Garden of the "Flora" company. — Carriages see 
(p. 25). — The steamboats between Cologne and Miilheim 
have a station near these gardens, where a bell is rung to 
apprise visitors of the approach of the boats returning to 
Cologne. 

At the harbour, the glacis of the town-fortifications is 
entered; it is planted with trees and laid out with walks, and 
affords an agreeable promenade round the town. To the 1., 
between Gereon's and the Ehren-Thor, lies the Town-Garden, 
with horticultural school. Parallel with the town, and about 
100 yds. from its walls, is a long series of Forts, connected 
with the fortifications. Beyond the last of these lie the 
grounds of the Cologne machine manufactory, forming a sort 
of suburb. 

The extensive Cemetery is situated on tha road to Aix- 
la-Chapelle, but contains no monuments worthy of note. 

On the r. bank of the Rhine, opposite to Cologne, lies 
Deutz (Hotels see p. 25), the tete-de-pont of Cologne, the 
Castrum Divitensium of the Romans, founded probably in the 
1st century, and afterwards strengthened by Constautine. It 
was undoubtedly a Roman fortress, and existed up to 1114, 
was repeatedly restored and again destroyed in later ages, but 
never attained any importance as a town, as a settlement here 
would have been inconsistent with the privileges of the town 
of Cologne. Subsequently to 1816 Deutz was fortified in 
connection with Cologne by the Prussians. The buildings of 
the former Benedictine abbey now serve as an extensive ar- 
tillery workshop. The Cologne and Minden Railway Station 
(p. 25) is situated near the new Cavalry Barracks. 

One of the finest existing edifices in the Gothic style, similar in plan 
and style to the Cathedral, is the church of the Cistercian abbey of * Alten- 
berg, founded in 1255 and consecrated in 1379. This magniticent fabric, 
situated in the Dhunthal, 12 M. N. B. from Deutz, was most judiciously 
restored by the late king of Prussia, by whose ancestors, the Counts Adolf 
and Eberhard vom Berge, the abbey was founded in 1133. Several members 
of the same family are here interred. A single traveller may avail himself 
of the Lennep diligence from Cologne early in the morning as far as Strasser- 
hof , through which it again passes on its way back to Cologne at 8 p.m. 
Altenberg is about 1% M. distant; good halting-place at Schmitz's inn, in 
JCngelratli , near Strasserhof. Those who are unwilling to devote an entire 
day to this excursion, may take the steamboat or railway to Miilheim, 
and walk thence by Odenthal to Altenberg (9 M.); in the evening back 
by the diligence from Strasserhof. It is less expensive for a party of 
3 — 4 persons to take a carriage from Deutz to Altenberg in 2 hrs., fare 
about 4 Tlilr. 



39 
11. From Cologne to Crefeld and Cleve. 

Cnmp. Map R. 4. 
By Railway to Crefeld in 1'4 hr. ; fares: 1 Thlr. 13 Sgr., 1 Thlr. 
wr 21 Sgr.; to Cleve in |3'/ 4 hr. ; fares: 3 Thlr. 5, 2 Thlr. 10 or 1 Thlr. 
17'/, Sgr. tteturu tickets for day of issue and following day only. Train* 
start from the Central station (p. 2a). 

The district traversed by this line is flat, but possesses 
.some places to which an historical interest attaches. 

Worringen, the Buruncum of the Romans, was in June, 
1288, the scene of a battle fought by the troops of Cologne 
and Brabant and the Duke of Berg against the Archbishop 
of Cologne and the Duke of Guelders, by which the Duchy 
of Limburg became annexed to that of Brabant. Horrent is 
the station for Dormagen, the Durnomagus of the Romans, 
and station of the 22nd Legion (Transrhenana). M. Delhoven 
lias a fine collection of Roman antiquities. 

Neuss (Drei Koniye; * Rheinischer Hof), at the sanit' 
time a station on the Aix-la-Chapelle and Diisseldorf line 
(p. 11), is one of the oldest towns in Germany, founded by 
the Ubii in 35 B. C, and often mentioned as a Roman fortress 
by Tacitus, under the Name of Novesium, the station of the 
6th and 16th Legions. In 1474 Neuss was in vain besieged 
by Charles the Bold of Burgundy during 48 weeks, and in 
1 586 was conquered and treated witli great severity by 
Alexander Farnese. It once lay on the Rhine, which is now 
iy 2 M. distant. The handsome * Quirinuskirche, founded in 
1209, belongs to the transition period from the Romanesque 
to the Gothic. St. Quirinus, to whom the church is dedicated, 
is believed to have been a Roman soldier who perished in 
the persecution of the Christians. The grammar-school con- 
tains a considerable collection of Roman antiquities. 

Tbe train then proceeds by stat. Osterath to Crefeld 
(p. 11). The next stat. Kempen, an ancient town with a well- 
preserved church in the Romanesque style, is believed to have 
been the birthplace of Thomas a Kempis (d. at Zwolle, 1471). 
The fertile district now begins to assume the Dutch character. 
Geldern, the next station of importance, formerly the capital 
of the Duchy of Guelders, has belonged to the Prussian 
dominions since 1713. The train here crosses the Niers, and 
passes the stations of Kevelaer (much frequented by pilgrims), 
Weeze and Goch (a place of some importance in the middle ages). 
The sand-hills which form the culminating point between the. 
Rhine and the Meuse are now approached and gradually as- 
cended, and to the 1. the town of Cleve shortly comes in sight. 

Cleve (* Maiwald, on the S. side, * Robbers, to the W. of 
the town; * Hotel Laferriere, contiguous to the palace, moderate; 



40 Bmttt 12. CLEVE. 

KaiserUcher Hof), once the capital of the Duchy of the same 
name, is a clean town, delightfully situated on the brow of a 
wooded eminence, 4'/ 2 M. to the W. of Emmerich. The 
Stiftskirche, erected in 1345, contains several monuments of the 
Counts and Dukes of Cleve (the finest is that of Adolf VI., 
d. 1394), and one of Margaretha von Berg (d. 1425). 

On an eminence in the centre of the town rises the 
Palace of the former dukes, with the lofty * Schwanenthurm 
erected by Adolf I. in 1439, on the site of an ancient tower, 
believed to have been built by Caesar. The Schwanenthurm, 
as well as the Clever-Berg, 3 / 4 M. distant, commands the most 
charming prospect on the Lower Rhine. To the S. extends 
a range of hills on which lies the Prinzenhof, property of the 
Princess of Waldeck and Pyrmont, once the seat of Prince 
Moritz of Nassau, the governor of the Duchy appointed by the 
Elector of Brandenburg. To the N. lies the series of hills, 
known by the name of the Thiergarten , laid out with park- 
like grounds, which adjoin the road to Nymegen. Diligence 
from Cleve to Nymegen in 2% hrs. Railway in construction. 

From Cleve to Hanten on the Rhine (see p. 17). 



12. From Cologne to Frankfurt by Giessen. 

By Railway to Giessen in !> l / t hrs.; fares: 4 Thlr. 12'/,, 2 Thlr. 2M/i, 
or 2 Thlr. 6% Sgr. From f-Jiessen to Frankfurt by express in 1 hr. 33min„ 
by ordinary trains in 1%— 2% hrs.; fares: 1 Thlr. 23, 1 Thlr. 6, or 22 S^r, 

The train starts from Deutz and traverses a fiat country 
at some distance from the Rhine. The first station of any 
importance is Siegburg (* Stern), which communicates with 
Bonn by diligence several times a day (9 Sgr.; omnibus 4 Sgr.). 
The buildings of what was formerly a Benedictine Abbey on 
the hill are now employed as n Lunatic Asylum. 

After crossing the Sieg, a view of the Seven Mts. to the 
r. is obtained, and the station Hennef is reached. The castle 
of Allner, situated on the skirts of the wood to the 1., stands 
at the entrance to the narrower part of the valley of the Sieg, 
which the line now ascends. Farther on, the convent of 
Bndingen is seen to the ]., surrounded by vineyards, and on 
the opposite side the village and ruined castle of Blankenberg. 
Beyond stat. Eitorf the convent of Merten is seen on an emi- 
nence to the r., and here the wooded hills which enclose the 
valley increase in height. Schladern, with the ruined castle 
of Winded, is one of the finest points on the line. Beyond 
the station of Wisnen, on the 1. bank of the Sieg, stands the 
handsome castle of Schonsteirt, property of the Prince of Hatz- 
feld-Wildenburg. 



BETZDORF. 12. Route. 41 

At Betzdorf the line leaves the .valley of the Sieg and 
enters that of the Heller. 

The first portion of the line to Siegen -was opened in Jan. 1861; stations: 
Kirchen, Niederschelden, then 

Siegen (*Goldener Lowe; near the stat. a restaurant, lieer) (7100 inhab.), 
an ancient town with two castles of the Princes of Nassau -Siegen , -who 
became extinct in 1743. The lower castle contains a monument to the cele- 
brated Prince Maurice of Orange (d. 1625). Siegen, as has lately been dis- 
covered, was the birthplace of Rubens. The town is the central point of 
the iron-traffic of this district. 

The Railway from Siegen to Hagen (Huhr-Siry line) (in 3 1 /., hrs. ; 
fares: 2 Thlr. 25, 2 Thlr. 4, 1 Tulr. 13 Sgr.) continues to follow the course 
of the Sieg from Betzdprf, and beyond Creuztlial enters the valley of the 
JIundem, from which it emerges at Altenhundem, and proceeds in the 
valley of the Lenrie to Altena (Queimann). The old castle in the vicinity of 
the last-named place was the family residence of the Counts von der Mark, 
and commands a fine view. At Hayen (Deutsches Haus ; Hotel Liinen- 
schloss) is the junction of this line with the railway to Elberfeld and 
Diisseldorf; near it is situated the ancient and interesting ruin of Hoheu- 
S.jbunj (p. 22). 

Beyond Burbach the Giessen line enters the Duchy of 
Nassau and ascends the valley of the Dill to Wetzlar, where 
ir unites with the Lahn Railway. 

Wetzlar (* Herzogliches Haus), formerly a free imperial 
town, is picturesquely situated on the Lahn, and commanded 
by the ruined castle of * Kalsmunt, which together with the 
* Metzeburg are the finest points in the environs. The most 
ancient (N. W.) part of the * Cathedral, the so-called Heiden- 
thurm, was erected in the 11th cent.; the remainder dates 
from the 14th — 16th. Here Goethe resided for some months 
in 1372, and Wetzlar and its environs were the scene of the 
events which suggested his "Sorrows of Werther". 

The line continues to ascend the valley of the Lahn, and 
after crossing the frontier of Hessen-Darmstadt near Duten- 
hofen, unites with the Main-Weser line at Giessen. 

The valleys of the Sieg, ' Heller, Dill and Lahn have for centuries 
been uoted for their richness in iron; in some places lead, copper and silver 
mines are also worked. 

Those interested in agriculture should here observe the manner iu which 
the hills are frequently cultivated. The underwood is cleared every 16—20 
years, and the soil employed as arable laud during a period of 3 years. 

Before Giessen is reached the ruins of Gleiberg and Fetz- 
berg are seen on the 1. 

Giessen (Einho-rn; Rappe; Prinz Carl; good beer and line 
view at the Felsenkeller) , situated on the Lahn, is principally 
of modern origin, and the seat of a university, founded in 
1607 (400 students). 

About 3 M. to the 1. of stat. Butzbach rise the considerable 
ruins of the castle of Munzenberg , destroyed in the thirty 
years' war. The higher (145 ft.) of its two towers commands 
an extensive view. 



42 Route 13. NAUHEIM. 

Nauheim (* Hotel de f Europe, R. and B. 1 fl. 18 kr. ; Cur- 
haus; Hotel Henkel , Hotel de Paris), a watering-place with 
a saline spring, situated on the N. E. slopes of the Taunus 
Mts., is a handsome looking place when viewed from the 
station, especially when the warm fountain plays, the milky 
and foaming mineral water of which rises to the height of 
56 ft. The "green table", lately introduced, forms one of the 
principal attractions of the place, which is visited by about 

0000 patients annually The Johannisberg, a wooded eminence, 

1 M. from the Cursaal, surmounted by the tower of an ancient 
monastery, commands an extensive prospect. 

Friedberg (Hotel Trapp; Simon), once a free Imperial town, 
is surrounded by walls of considerable extent, and possesses 
two handsome Gothic churches. On the N. side stands a 
tine, well-preserved watch-tower, near which is situated the 
beautiful Palace garden. 

As the train approaches Frankfurt, the Taunus Mts. are 
seen on the r. Bonames is the station for the baths of Hamburg. 

Frankfurt, see R. 39. 

13. The Rhine from Cologne to Bonn. 

Cornp. Map B. 4. 

By Railway, express in 40 min., ordinary in 1 hr.; fares: 20, 15 and 
10 Sgr. — By steamboat in 2% hrs. (down in l l / 4 hr.), fares: 8 or 5 Sgr. 
Conveyances see p. 25.. 

N. 13. In the following routes (13 — 24) r. and I. are used to indicate the 
position of towns, villages etc. with regard to the steamboat -passenger as- 
cending the river. 

As the majestic city of Cologne, with its cathedral, nu- 
merous towers and lofty railway-bridge gradually disappears, 
the castle of Bensberg comes iu sight, situated on an 
eminence 9 M. to the 1. It was erected by the Count Palatine 
John William, and is now employed as a Prussian military 
school. At the foot of the hill on which the castle stands, 
is a monument erected by the present emperor of Austria in 
1854, to the memory of about 2000 Austrian soldiers who 
fell at the battle of Jemappes in 1794. About 3 / 4 M. to the 
E. rises the Erdeuburg , an eminence surmounted by the 
remnants of an old wall, believed to be of ancient Germanic 
origin. A few miles farther on is (1.) Mondorf , at the old 
influx of the Sieg. Opp. to the island of Graupenwerth, at 
the mouth of the Sieg, lies the village of Grau Rheindorf. 

On the hillside, about 9 M. from the confluence of the 
Sieg and Rhine, are seen the buildings of the ancient Bene- 
dictine Abbey of Siegburg, now employed as a lunatic-asylum. 
Siegburg is a stat. on the Cologne and Giessen railway: 
diligence several times a day from Bonn in 1 % hr. (9 Sgr.). 



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BONN. li. Route. 43 

To the 1. the church of Schwarz-Rheindorf is seen 
peeping from among the trees; it is a curious structure, con- 
sisting of two churches, one above the other, consecrated in 
1511 by Archbishop Arnold of Wied. It shows no trace of 
the pointed-arch style, and possesses a particular value in the 
history of architecture. The arcade which almost entirely 
surrounds the church, with its numerous pillars whose bases 
and capitals exhibit the most various styles of decoration, is 
well worth the inspection of architects and lovers of art. 
The lower church contains interesting frescoes of the 12th 
cent. To the r. the Jesuitenhof, then the Wichelshof. As the 
steamboat approaches Bonn, the charms of the Rhineland 
gradually begin to present themselves to the view. 



14. Bonn. 

Hotels. *Star, in the market-place, well conducted, excellent table 
d'hote. *Koyal Hotel, R. 20, L. 6, A 6 Sgr.; Bellevue, outside of the 
Coblenz gate, with gardens on the bank of the Rhine, K. 16—20. L. 5, B. S, 
A, 6 Sgr. ; * Hotel Kley, at the Coblenz gate, with garden extending to 
the river, R. 15. L. 4, B. 8, D. 15 Sgr.; it is at the same time a good 
restaurant and boarding house, pension l 1 /, Thlr. per diem and upwards. — 
* Rheineck, opp. the steamboat pier, R. 12, B. 7. D. 15, A. 5 S*gr. Rhei - 
nischer Hof, Sehwan, good second-class house. Hut el Garni : Chateau 
du Rhin. 

Restaurants. Clouth, iu tiie Sandkaul; *Ne tteko veu, in the Neu- 
gasse, Bavarian beer. *Voss and *Perrin. both iu the Wenzelgasse. 

t Cafe's. Schweizer Caffehaus next to the Jesuits' church; Lau- 
binger, confectioner in the market-place, opp. to the Star Hotel. 

Newspapers and restaurant iu the Lese- und Erholunga - Geseltuchaft , 
opp. to the University; the Academic Reading-room contains upwards of 
200 newspapers and periodicals; visitors must be introduced by a member. 

Bath. Warm and Shower baths at Rass's, 8 Sgr. Cold river- baths iu 
the Rhine, 3 .Sgr. On the r. bank, S wirn mi ug - ba ths 5 Sgr.; after 5 p. m. 
boats cross every half-hour at the upper end of the town. 

Carriages. For a drive in the town, 1— 2 pers. 5, each additional person 
2'/. Sgr., box 1 Sgr.; 7 2 hr. 7'/,— 10 Sgr. 

Railway station near the Poppelsdorf avenue (p. 47). 

Telegraph Office Furstenstrasse 38. 

English Church Service performed by a resident chaplain in the Uni- 
versity church. 

Visitors whose time is limited should inspect the exterior of the Minister 
church (p. 46), the monument of Beethoven (p. 46), the Collection of Rhenish 
and Westphatian antiquities (p. 46); the frescoes in the Aula (p. 45), the 
Scientific Museum in the palace at Poppelsdorf (p. 46), the view from the 
Kreuzberg (p. V7), and the "alte Zoll" (p. 46). 

The lofty tower of the Miinster church, the handsome new 
residences on the Rhine above the town, the long extended 
buildings of the University, peeping from among the trees, and 
the grounds of the "alte Zoll" give a cheerful and pleasing 
aspect to the town, when viewed from the steamboat. 

Bonn (Bonna, or the Gastra Bonnensia) frequently mentioned 
by Tacitus (Hist. IV, 20, 25, 62, 70, 77. V. 22), was one of 



44 Route 14. BONN. History. 

the first Roman fortresses on the Rhine, probably founded by 
Drusus, and the head-quarters of the 1st, 5th, 15th, 21st, and 
and 22nd Legions, and of the Austrian cohort. It was ce- 
lebrated for its Temple of Mars and the Ara Ubiorum, which 
is believed by some to have stood here {Tacit. Ann. I, 39, 57.). 
One of the two bridges, which Floras says that Drusus con- 
structed across the Rhine, was at Bonn, the other at Mayence. 
The former stood at the end of the Steinweg or Roman 
Street at the Wichelshof, on the N. side of the town, as was 
proved by excavations made in 1818. In the year 70 A.D. 
Olaudius Civilis, the leader of the Batavi, who had taken up 
arms against the Romans, forced his way as far as Bonn, 
and gained a victory, Bonnense prvelittm , as Tacitus records 
(Hist. IV, 20.). 

Under Constantine the Great, whose mother Helena is 
said to have founded the Minister, Bonn seems to have been 
a flourishing place. About the middle of the 4th cent, it was 
destroyed by the Alemanni. The Emperor Julian shortly after- 
wards caused the walls to be rebuilt, but the town did not 
regain its former importance till 1268, when the Archbishop 
Engelberg of Falkenburg transferred his residence and the 
seat of his temporal government thither. An ancient tomb- 
stone, as well as the oldest seal belonging to the town, bears 
the name of Verona, which was the appellation given to that 
part of the town occupied by the citizens, whilst the name of 
Bonnu was applied to the military portion. In later ages the 
name of Verona does not again occur. The German kings, 
Frederick of Austria (1314), and Charles IV. (1346) were 
crowned in the Miinster at Bonn. 

The Protestant tendencies of the Archbishops of Cologne, 
Hermann of Wied and Gebhard of Waldburg in the 16th cent., 
principally manifested by the latter in his marriage with the 
nun Agnes of Mansfeld, for which sacrilegious act he was 
declared apostate and banished from his Electorate, brought 
the town of Bonn into great trouble; for Gebhard, being -as 
much soldier as priest, collected an army and made war 
against the prelate who had been elected in his stead; but 
he was compelled to retire to the castle of Godesberg , a 
stronghold belonging to the father of Agnes, which was 
besieged and blown up, thus terminating his turbulent career. 
In the war of liberation of the Netherlands, in the 30 years' 
war, and especially in the Spanish war of succession, Bonn 
suffered repeatedly from sieges. The Electors of the house 
of Bavaria were always at this period in alliance with France 
against the house of Austria. The siege of 1689 was conducted 
by the Elector Frederick III. of Brandenburg (King Fred, i.) 



University. BONN. H. Route. 45 

at the head of the Imperial and allied troops. Amongst other 
celebrated generals, Alexander of Parma, Montecuculi, Marl- 
borough, Opdam , and Coehorn took part about the same 
time in the operations against the town, the fortifications of 
which were finally dismantled in 1717, in accordance with the 
peace of Baden. 

Under the magnificent sway of the Electors of the 18tli 
century Bonn rose to great opulence, and one of them, Max 
Frederick of Konigseck, founded an Academy in 1777, which 
three years later was raised to a University by his successor. 
It only subsisted however till 1794, when the town fell into 
the hands of the French. 

During the French dominion Bonn suffered much, and its 
population decreased from 9500 to 7500; the number of 
inhab. is now 19,425 (3000 Prot., 500 Jews, 800 Students, 
900 Soldiers). The present University was founded by the 
king of Prussia in 1818. Whole streets of handsome houses 
have since then sprung up, especially on the S. side of the 
town; the more ancient portion consists of a few narrow 
streets on the N. side which, however, present no objects 
of interest. 

The lectures, with the exception of those on natural science 
and agriculture, are delivered in the Schloss (PI. 27), which 
the Elector Clemens August erected in 1730 as a residence. 
The buildings were much injured by the French, but have 
been completely restored by the Prussian government. They 
occupy considerably more than half of the S. side of the 
town (1400 ft. in length), and present a very imposing ap- 
pearance. They are terminated on the E. side by the Coblenz 
gate. Besides the lecture-rooms they contain a well-arranged 
library of 200,000 vols., adorned with a large collection of 
busts, among which are those of Niebuhr, Schlegel, Welcker, 
and Arndt; a valuable Numismatic collection (4000 Greek and 
Roman coins); the Museum of Antiquities (see p. 46); the 
Physical cabinet; an admirable Clinical institution, and the 
Aula or Hall, containing frescoes emblematical of the four 
faculties, theology, jurisprudence, medicine, and philosophy, 
painted by Cornelius and his pupils, Hermann, Forster, and 
Gotzenberger in 1824-35. Admission to the Aula on application 
to the door-keeper, who lives to the 1. under the university- 
halls (fee 5 Sgr.). The academical Museum of Art, containing 
many valuable casts, statues, &c, has lately been transferred 
to the academical riding-school. The library and museum of 
art are always accessible (attendant's fee 10 Sgr. for 1 pers., 
20 Sgr. for a party). What was formerly the courtchapel of 
the Electoral palace is now converted into a Protestant place 



46 Route 14. BONN. Museum. 

of worship. Divine service, according to the rites of the Church 
of England, is performed on Sundays by a resident chaplain. 
The Museum of Antiquities (Museum vaterlandischer 
Alterthumer) is an extensive and valuable collection of monu- 
ments and other objects belonging to the Roman period, found 
in the Rhenish province and Westphalia, and greatly enriched 
by the excavations at the Wichelshof already mentioned 
(p. 44). One of the most interesting objects is a Roman 
altar, dedicated to Victory, 6 ft. in height, and hewn out 
of shell -limestone. It bears the inscription "Dew victoria* 
sacrum", and is decorated with high-reliefs; it is believed by 
many to be identical with the Ara Ubiorum , mentioned by 
Tacitus. The numerous inscriptions on the various mo- 
numents in the collection embrace almost the entire field of 
Roman mythology, and some of them contain allusions to the 
Gallic and even to the ancient German religious rites. Of 
tombstone -inscriptions one of great historical importance is 
that of Marcus Caelius, in which the battle of the Teutoburg 
Wood (bellum Varianum) is mentioned; a Greek gravestone, 
found at Bonn , is also very remarkable. The entrance hall 
contains a number of ancient and other capitals. 

The grounds at the E. side of the Coblenz gate, termin- 
ating in an old bastion, known by the name of the *Alte 
Zoll, deserve a visit for the sake of the fine prospect they 
afford of the Rhine, Seven Mountains, &c. 

The finest of the churches is the *Munster (PI. 1), built 
in the transition style. It was formerly an archdeanery of 
St. Cassius and St. Florentius, and, like many of the Rhenish 
churches, traces its foundation back to the time of Constantine 
the Great, having been, as we are told by an ancient tra- 
dition, founded by St. Helena, the pious mother of the em- 
peror. The choir, with its towers, and the crypt, which a 
glass door separates from the choir, as well as the cloisters 
with their tastefully decorated pillars, date from the year 
1157, and the remainder of the edifice from 1270. The in- 
terior only contains two Basreliefs worth inspection, the Nati- 
vity and Baptism of Christ on the altars to the r. Not far 
from the chief portal is the Sarcophagus of the archbishop 
Engelbert von Falkenburg (d. 1275). The ancient chapter- 
house adjoining the church is now converted into a residence 
for the clergyman. 

The other churches offer few attractions to detain the tra- 
veller. The Minoritenkirche contains an altar-piece by Spiel- 
berg, representing the baptism of the Franconian king Clovis 
by St. Remigius, and possesses a fine organ. 

The bronze * Statue of Beethoven (PI. 19), in the Mini- 



rojjpehdorf. BONN. 14. Route. 47 

sterplatz, was executed by Hahnel, an artist of Dresden. The 
house where the celebrated composer was born is in the 
Bonngasse. 

The fountain-pillar in the market-place was erected in 
1777 by the townspeople in honour of the Elector Max Fre- 
derick, to whom the town was indebted for its university, 
and for many acts of kindness and generosity. 

A gate on the IS. E. side of the Miinsterplatz leads into 
the Hqfgarten and the Poppelsdorfer Allee, the principal 
promenade of the town, which consists of a quadruple tow 
of beautiful horse- chesnuts, 3 / 4 M. in length. To the r. of 
the avenue is the Railway Station, and beyond it to the 1. 
the handsome new Observatory with its tower and six 
smaller turrets. 

At the extremity of the avenue is situated the Poppels- 
dorfer Schloss, formerly a country residence of the Electors, 
presented to the university by Fred. William III. It contains 
the Natural history collection, consisting of upwards of 150,000 
specimens, among which the minerals and fossils are parti- 
cularly worthy of inspection, as they serve to illustrate the 
geology of the Rhine and the volcanic formation of the Seven 
Mountains (R. 16) and Eifel (R. 33). The valuable Zoological 
cabinet, in the rotunda, is also well arranged. The "-Grotten- 
saal", or Grotto-hall , fitted up in the time of the Electors, 
contains numerous models in explanation of mining operations, 
of the Rhine, the Seven Mountains, &c, which may be 
purchased. The custodian's lodge is on the 1. hand side of 
the entrance (fee 7% Sgr., for a party 15 — 20 Sgr.). The 
Botanical Garden at the Schloss (open to the public on 
Tuesdays and Fridays, at other times fee as above) is of 
considerable extent and well-kept; the large hot-houses de- 
serve inspection. Opposite to it are the buildings of the 
Agricultural Academy, with lecture-rooms, collections, and the 
residence of the director. 

Above the village of Poppelsdorf, 3 / 4 M. from the Schloss, 
rises the *Kreuzberg (400 ft.), surmounted by a white church 
which forms a conspicuous object in the landscape. It be- 
longed to a monastery erected here by the Elector Ferdinand 
of Bavaria (d. 1650), which no longer exists, and contains 
the so-called Holy Steps, of Italian marble (in the chapel behind 
the altar) constructed by the Elector Clemens August (d. 1761). 
These steps, 28 in number, must only be ascended on the 
knees, and are a duplicate of the sancta scala at the Lateran 
at Rome, superstitiously believed to be the identical steps of 
the hall of the Pra?toriuro at Jerusalem ascended by the 
Saviour when he appeared before Pilate. A vault under the 



48 Route 15. KONIGSWINTER. 

church presents a very ghastly spectacle. Here are preserved 
the bodies of 25 monks, robed in the cassocks in which 
they lived. They were the Servite monks belonging to the 
monastery, whose corpses the peculiar dryness of the soil has 
preserved from decay. The tower commands a beautiful and 
extensive view. 

On returning from the Kreuzberg the road to the 1., about 
half-way along the Poppelsdorf avenue, leads to the * Ceme- 
tery, situated near the Sternenthor. (If the principal E. gate 
be closed, the visitor may gain admittance by a small gate 
to the r.) 

Tombstones. By the wall on the r. Monument to Niebu/ir (d. 1831), 
erected by the late king Fred. William IV. to his "teacher and friend". 
Farther along the same walk, on the r., the monuments of Ernst con Schiller, 
the son, and of Charlotte von Lengefeld, the widow of the poet. The 
"Chapel in the middle of the cemetery is a beautiful little structure in the 
late Romanesque style, built about the year 1200, and transferred in 1847 
from Ramersdorf (s. below) to its present site. 



15. The Rhine from Bonn to Remagen. 

By railway in 40 min. — By steamboat in 1% hr. (down in 1 hr.) ; 
piers at Bonn, Konigswinter and Rolandseck : small-boat stations at Ober- 
cassel, Plittersdorf (Godesberg) and Unkel. The steamboat is, on account 
of the beauty of the scenery, far preferable to the railway. 

Shortly after the steamboat has quitted Bonn, the beauty 
of the scenery rapidly increases, and the imposing group of 
the Seven Mountains is approached. 1. Ramersdorf, with woods 
in the background, was formerly a lodge of the knights of 
the Teutonic order. The original building having been burned 
down with the exception of the chapel, the latter, which was 
unsuitable for the new structure, was taken down and sub- 
sequently re-erected in the cemetery at Bonn. 

1. Obercassel (*Zur Wol/sbtirg). On the Rabenlei in the 
vicinity, a basalt quarry yields an excellent paving stone, the 
so-called table-basalt. 

r. Plittersdorf, stat. for Godesberg, situated 1 M. to the S.W. 

1. Niederdollendorf, on the bank of the river; Ober- 
dollendorf, % M. inland, at the entrance of the valley of 
Heisterbach (p. 201). 

To the r. rises the handsome castle of Godesberg, situated 
on an eminence, iy a M. from the Rhine. 

r. B/iingsdorf; the country residence with the tower 
belongs to M. Camphausen, Prussian minister in 1848. 

1. Konigswinter (146 ft.) (* European Hotel; * Berlin Hotel; 
opp. to the pier, of the first cl., Cologne prices; * Hotel Rieffel, 
unpretending, near the N. end of the principal street, R. and 
B. 16, D. 12Sgr.; * Dusseldor/er Ho/, Pension, 1% Thlr. per 



DRACHENFELS. 15. Route. 49 

diem, at *R. Schmite's, opp. to the floating baths ; or at Bonn's 
opp. the post-office, similar charges) , is a small modern town, 
clean and well-to-do, inhabited principally by stone-cutters, and 
a favourite resort of the inhabitants of Bonn and Cologne. 
The railway stat. Mehlem (p. 51) is on the opposite bank, about 
Y 2 M. from the river. Excursions among the Seven Mountains 
see R. 16. Omnibus to Honnef 5 Sgr. 

Porterage. Travelling-bag from the steamboat into the town 2%, to 
Honnef (p. 56) 5 Sgr., trunk into the town 2'/ 2 , to Honnef 6 Sgr. Guide 
to the Drachenfels to carry small packages 7%, to Heisterbach or Petersberg 8, 
to the Oelberg, Lowenburg or other hills 12%; for half a day 10, for a whole 
day 20 Sgr. The guides *are forbidden by the police to demand fees or re- 
freshment-money in addition to the above charges. 

Donkeys. (Stand on the road to the Drachenfels, '/, M. to the E. of the 
steamboat pier). Drachenfels or Wolkenburg 10, Drachenfels and Wolken- 
burg 15, Heisterbach 15, Petersberg 15, Lowenburg 20, Oelberg 20, Oelberg 
and Heisterbach 25 Sgr., for a whole day 1 Thlr. 5 Sgr. If the traveller 
remain 1 — 2 hrs. at any of the above places, 5 Sgr. must be paid in addition 
to the above charges for the ride back, for every additional hour 2 l / 2 Sgr. 
If the donkey be brought to the door of the traveller's hotel, 2% Sgr. extra 
is charged. The guides and donkey-boys are strictly prohibited from de- 
manding any additional fee. 

1. The castle of Drachenfels (dragon's rock), situated 
855 ft. above the level of the Rhine , was newly erected by 
Arnold, Archbishop of Cologne at the commencement of the 
12th cent., and was held as a fief from him by the counts 
of the castle. Henry, Count of Drachenfels (d. 1348), made 
an agreement with the chapter of the cathedral of Cologne to 
supply them with the stone of which the cathedral is constructed; 
the quarry still bears the name of Dombruch, or Cathedral 
quarry. The wine yielded by the vineyards on its slopes is 
known by the appellation of Drachenblut, or Dragon's blood. 
In the 30 Years' war the half-ruined castle was occupied by 
the Swedes, but was taken from them by the Duke Ferdinand 
of Bavaria, Elector of Cologne, who completed its destruction 
to avoid the necessity of placing a garrison in it. 

The cavern among the vineyards, which is visible from 
the Rhine about half-way up the hill on the side facing the 
river, is said once to have housed the dragon, slain by Sieg- 
fried, the hero from the Low Countries, who, having bathed 
himself in its blood, became invulnerable. 

The ascent of the Drachenfels is best accomplished from 
Konigswinter, and occupies about 50 min. The road (guide 
quite unnecessary) leads between the two hotels straight to 
the foot of the hill (7 min.) , where, at the donkey-station, 
it turns off at a right angle, and is, at the commence- 
ment, somewhat steep. About half-way up a booth is reached, 
where minerals found in the vicinity may be purchased. 
A little farther on, the path divides. They both lead to the 
top; that to the r. round the rock with view of the Rhine, 
Baedeker's Rhine. 4 



50 Koute 15. DRACHENFELS. From Bonn 

the old path to the 1. through wood. The *inn at the 
summit has sleeping accommodation for about 20 persons at 
20 Sgr. each; B. 7 >/ 2 Sgr. ; board and lodging at iy 2 Thlr. 
per diem. 

The obelisk near the top was erected in 1857 to replace 
an old monument to Prussian soldiers who fell during the 
passage of the Rhine in 1814, and records the gratitude of 
the nation for the 42 years of peace which has since then 
been vouchsafed to them. 

The summit commands one of the noblest prospects on 
the Rhine: to the E. are seen several of the seven peaks, to 
the S.E. the basaltic heights at the back of Honnef, among 
others the Minderberg (p. 63) and the Hemmerich (p. 53), 
which gradually slope to the plain of the Rhine. Immediately 
beneath, on the r. bank, lie the villages of Rhondorf, Honnef, 
Rheinbreitbach, Unkel, and Erpel; on the 1. bank Remagen 
and the Gothic church on the Apollinarisberg , and in the 
background the heights of the Eifel with the ruins of Olbriick 
and Tomberg; in the vicinity are Oberwinter, the islands of 
Grafenwerth and Nonnenwerth, the arched ruin of Rolandseck, 
and near it the farmhouse of Roderberg. Farther to the r. the 
Kreuzberg, Bonn, and even Cologne are visible. 

"The castled crag of Drachenfels 
Frowns o'er the wide and winding Rhine, 
Whose breast of waters broadly swells 
Between the banks which bear the vine; 
And hills all rich with blossom'd trees, 
And fields which promise corn and wine, 
And scatter'd cities crowning these, 
Whose far white walls along them shiue, 
Have strew' d a scene which I should see 
With double joy wert thou, with me. 

"And peasant girls with deep blue eyes, 
And hands which offer early flowers, 
Walk smiling o'er this paradise ; 
Above, the frequent feudal towers 
Through green leaves lift their walls of gray, 
And many a rock which steeply lowers, 
And noble arch in proud decay, 
Look o'er this vale of vintage bowers; 
But one thing want these banks of Khine — 
Thy gentle hand to clasp in mine! 

"The river nobly foams and flows, 
The charm of this enchanted ground, 
And all its thousand turns disclose 
Some fresher beauty varying round : 
The haughtiest breast its wish might bound, 
Through life to dwell delighted here; 
Nor could ou earth a spot be found 
To nature and to me so dear, 
Could thy dear eyes in following mine 
Still sweeten more these banks of Rhine!" 

Byron. 



to Remagen. ROLA^DSECK. 15. Route. 51 

r. Mehlem (Stein; Krone; Goldents Sckiff, on the Rhine 
with garden, pension 1 Thlr.) was the birthplace of the 
celebrated artist of the Cologne school, John of Mehlem. 
Railway stat. and flying bridge to Konigswinter (see p. 48). 

r. Rolandseck (steamboat and railway stat. * Hotel Ro- 
landseck; * Roland's Hotel, also a hydropathic establishment; 
* Hotel Bil/au, near the steamboat pier; * Railway-station re- 
staurant, charges all according to a fixed tariff; magnificent 
view from the terrace. On the hill rises the solitary arch of 
the ruin of Rolandseek, % M. from the station; the path ascends 
by the Hotel Roland (donkey 10 Sgr.). The *view from this 
basaltic rock, 340 ft. above the Rhine, is less extensive than 
that from the Drachenfels , but is still more picturesque, 
as the Drachenfels itself, the Wolkenburg, and other wooded 
heights of the Seven Mountains form the foreground of the land- 
scape. In the distance, to the S., the castle of Olbriick is 
visible. 

The castle is believed to have been built by the knight Roland, peer of 
France and paladin of Charlemagne, who fell in the battle of Ronceval. He 
is called by Eginhard (the secretary of Charlemagne) the guardian of the 
north coast, and his dominions are described as having extended to that part 
of the Rhine where the mountains begin. The castle is mentioned in a do- 
cument of 1040 — 1045 as Rulcheseck. In the time of the Archbishop Frederick 
it was already a ruin, but was partly restored by him in 1120 to defend his 
dominions against Henry IV. The fortress stood till the close of the 15th 
cent., when, in the contests between the deposed Archbishop Ruprecht of 
the Palatinate assisted by Charles the Bold of Burgundy, and the Emperor 
Frederick III., it fell entirely to decay. A beautiful legend is connected with 
th castle and convent, which probably suggested Schiller's "Hitter Toggen- 
bury". It may be thus briefly na'rrated: 

The brave knight Roland , whilst scouring the Rhine in search of ad- 
venture, found himself the guest of Count Heribert, the lord of the Seven 
Mountains, at his castle of Drachenburg. According to the custom of the 
times, the daughter of the host, the peerless Hildegunde, welcomed him with 
the offering of bread, wine and fish. Her beauty rivetted the gaze of the 
ardent young knight, and Hildegunde and Roland were shorly affianced 
lovers; but, as the course of true love never did run smooth, an interruption 
soon came to their happiness. Roland was summoned by Charlemagne to 
the crusade. Time sped on, and anxiously did Hildegunde await the return 
of her betrothed; but instead of his arrival sad rumours came. The brave 
Roland was said to have fallen by the hands of the Infidels, and the world 
no longer possessing any charm for the inconsolable Hildegunde, she took 
refuge in the "Kloster" in the adjacent island of Nonnenwerth. The rumours, 
however, of the death of her betrothed were unfounded. Though desperately 
wounded, he recovered and hastened to the halls of Drachenburg to claim his 
bride, but instead of being welcomed back by that fondly remembered smile, 
he found that his love was for ever lost to him. In despair he built the 
castle, of which one crumbling arch alone remains, and there in solitude he 
lived, catching an occasional glimpse of a fair form passing to and fro to 
her devotions in the little chapel of the Kloster. At length he missed her, 
and soon the tolling of the bell and a mournful procession conveyed to him 
the heart-rending intelligence that his beloved Hildegunde was now indeed 
removed from him for ever. From that moment Roland never spoke again; 
for a short time he dragged on his wretched existence, but his heart was 
broken, and one morning his sole attendant found him rigid and lifeless, his 
glassy eye still turned towards the convent-chapel. 

4* 



52 Route 15. OBERWINTER. 

The new tower, 1 / 2 M. to the W. of the ruin, affords a 
more extended prospect, comprising Godesberg, the lower hills 
of the Seven Mts., and the plain between Bonn and Cologne, 
which are not -visible from Rolandseck. The key of the tower 
may be procured from the proprietor, Herr vom Rath, who 
lives opposite to Roland's Hotel. About ] / 2 M. from the tower 
is situated the Roderberg , a crater, % M. in diameter and 
GO it. in depth. On the rounded margin of this crater the 
pumice-stone is everywhere visible; the bottom is now con- 
verted into arable land, belonging to the farm-house of Bruch- 
hof, which lies in the middle. _ The building on the island 
of Nonnenwerth, or Rolandswerth , was once a nunnery, the 
date of whose foundation reaches back to the ages of tra- 
dition. It is first mentioned in a document of the 12th cent. 
The old building was burned down in 1673, since which date 
the present was erected. In 1802 the nunnery was suppressed 
by Napoleon, and would have suffered the fate of the other 
religious establishments which fell into his hands but for the 
interposition of Josephine, who procured permission for the 
nuns to retain possession of their loved island, though no 
addition to the sisterhood was allowed. The building has since 
gone through many vicissitudes and passed into various hands ; 
it is now an educational estab,, conducted by Franciscan nuns. 

On the wide plain to the 1. lie the villages of Rhondorf, 
Honnef, Rheinbreitbach, and Scheuern. 

r. Oberwinter (Fassbender) once belonged to the Duchy 
of Julich. The retrospective view from this point is one of 
the finest on the Rhine. Rolandseck and the Drachenfels with 
its ruined castle, the rugged cliffs of the Wolkenburg and 
the entire range (upwards of 30) of the peaks of the Seven 
Mountains , at the r. extremity of which is the flattened 
summit of the Lowenburg surmounted by a ruin (the isolated 
sharp peak still farther to the r. is the Hemmerich), form a 
mountain chain of incomparable beauty, whilst the lovely is- 
land of Nonnenwerth and the grand river itself constitute the 
foreground of the picture. 

In 1846 a considerable landslip took place on the bank 
opp. to Unkel. One half of a hill (the Birgeler Kopf) moved 
down towards the Rhine; the barren, rugged walls of the 
other portion show distinctly where the slip took place, and 
the otherwise regular strata of basalt have been dislodged 
from their original position. 

1. Unkel (Clasen; steamboat stat.), a handsome village, 
between which and Remagen the Rhine describes a wide curve; 
both banks are studded with handsome country residences. 
Below the Apollinarisberg to the r. a railway is seen emerging 




■sural ■ 



SEVEN MOUNTAINS. 16. Route. 53 

from the hills, which conveys the basalt from the quarries to 
the river. 

r. Remagen and the Apollinarisberg see R. 18. 

16. The Seven Mountains (Siebengebirge). 

One day suffices to visit the most remarkable and beautiful points in 
this district, unless the tourist travel for geological purposes. Konigswinter 
is assumed as the starting point; to Heisterbach 3 M., to the Great Oelberg 
3 3 /„ M., to the Drachenfels (p. 49) 3 3 / 4 M., thence to Konigswinter l'/ 2 M., 
altogether 12 M. Charges for guides and donkeys see p. 49. Guide" not 
absolutely necessary if the map and the following directions be consulted. 

The district of the Seven Mountains extends E. from the 
Rhine little more than 3 M., and is from N. to S. about 9 M. 
in length, Konigswinter being the central point of the W. side. 
It consists of a group of peaks , cones and long extended 
ridges of rounded forms, and is covered partly with high- 
wood, partly with luxuriant herbage. They are all the result 
of volcanic agency and have been upheaved through the 
grauwacke rocks. 

"Is consequence of a powerful but local force in the interior of our 
planet, elastic gases either force up dome-shaped and unopened masses of 
trachyte mixed with felspar and dolerite (Puy de Dome, Seven Mountains) 
through the earth's crust, or the raised strata are so broken through and 
inclined outwards that on the opp. inner sides a steep wall of rocks is formed." 

Humboldt. 

The Seven Mountains consist partly of trachyte (Drachen- 
fels 1001 ft., Wolkenburg 1009 ft., Lohrberg 1355 ft.), partly of 
basalt, a more recent formation than trachyte {Oelberg 1429 ft., 
Loivenbury, consists of dolerite, 1413 ft.; Nonnenstromberg, a 
ridge 300 yds. in length, 1036 ft.; Petersberg 1027 ft.). These 
seven peaks, from which the mountains derive their name, are 
.seen simultaneously only in the neighbourhood of Cologne; as 
Bonn is approached the Lowenburg is hidden by the Nonnen- 
stromberg. Besides these seven summits there are also many 
others, such as the sugar-loaf shaped Hemmerich (1114 ft.), 
consisting of trachyte, which overtops the lower mountains of 
the S. side, the Rosenau (999 ft.) and the Stenzelberg (886 ft.), 
which adjoins the Nonnenstromberg on the N. The surface 
of the Rhine at Konigswinter is 146 ft. above the level of the 
sea, so that the different heights of the mountain tops above 
the Rhine may easily be calculated. The view from the 
Drachenfels is the most picturesque, that from the Oel- 
berg the most extensive (comprising even the Taunus). 
For the geologist a tour through this district presents many 
objects of interest (see above), for the botanist fewer. The 
former should not omit to provide himself with the admirable 
geological map of this district by H. r. Dechen (proportion 
1 : 25,000). 



54 Route 16. PETERSBERG. The Seven 

A much frequented path leads from Kdnigswinter half-way 
up the Petersberg (1027 ft.) (the chapel on the summit com- 
mands a fine view; near it a * restaurant), then round the 
W. and N. slopes of the hill, chiefly through wood, to 
* Heisterbach , once a Cistercian Abbey, beautifully situated 
in a mountain ravine. The gate through which the visitor 
enters the avenue of fruit-trees still bears the arms of the 
abbey, a Heister (young oak) and a, Bach (brook); at the side 
stand St. Benedictine and St. Bernhard (comp. R. 34) as 
guardians. Of the Romanesque church only the external part 
of the high-choir, with its slender and elegant basaltic pillars, 
is still extant, forming a singularly picturesque ruin. The 
Abbey was originally a magnificent building, erected in 
1202 — 1233, but was sold and almost entirely pulled down 
about 60 years ago. The blocks of trachyte of which it 
consisted were employed in the construction of the locks on 
the North Canal (R. 54). Some of the finest old German pictures 
in the Pinakothek of Munich were formerly brought from the 
church of Heisterbach. Refreshments may be procured at the 
farm-buildings. The whole of the abbey-lands are the property 
of the Count zur Lippe whose family burial-ground is at the 
loot of the hill. 

The path to the Gre.it Oelberg turns to the r. by the E. 
■wall of the Abbey, 3 / 4 M. farther to the r. again, and after 
l'/ 2 M. more the Stenzelberg (886 ft.) is reached, where the 
most extensive quarries of trachyte in the Seven Mts. are 
worked. The stone is columnar and almost always arranged 
in perpendicular masses, but is far inferior in elegance and 
regularity to the basaltic columns (p. 63). 

The path to the 1., which leaves the road a little farther 
on, must now be taken; it soon emerges from the wood, and 
crosses the fields to a red house, the school of Heisterbacherrott. 
The broad road to the r. must now be taken and the wood 
is soon re-entered; 3 M. from Heisterbach the foot of the hill 
is reached, at the point where our path joins the Konigswinter 
road (see p. 55). Here the turning to the 1. must be taken, 
and a steep winding path will bring the pedestrian to the top 
in about 20 min. The * Great Oelberg (1429 ft.) is a basaltic 
mountain through which the trachyte has been upheaved. The 
prospect from the summit is the most extensive on the lower 
Rhine, and the foreground is at the same time highly picturesque, 
differing in many respects from the view from the Drachen- 
i'els. The entire wooded tract of the Seven Mountains lies 
like a raised map before the eye of the spectator, the Rhine 
is seen glittering between the valleys which intersect its banks, 
and its course may be traced as far as Cologne; in the 



Mountains. LOWENBURG. 16. Route. 55 

distance to the S. the Taunus , and to .the N.E. the heights 
in the neighbourhood of Diisseldorf bound the prospect. 

From the Oelberg to Ktinigswi nter 3 3 / 4 M. The above-mentioned 
road, which the road from Heisterbach joins at the foot of the hill, leads in 
a W. direction straight to Konigswinter. About half-way, two broad tracks 
diverge to the 1., leading to the quarries of the Ofenkaulen-Berg. which yield 
the so-called oven-stone, a trachyte conglomerate. 

After descending from the summit of the Oelberg, the road 
continues in a S. direction to St. Margarethenkreuz (St. Margaret's 
cross) (Y 3 M.), a hamlet which derives its name from a cross 
decorated with a relief of St. Margaret with a crucifix and 
the enchained dragoir. 

From the Oelberg to the Drachenfels. About 100 yds. to the S. 
of the Cross of St. Margaret a path through the wood diverges from the road 
to the r. and leads in a W. direction along the K. brow of the mountain-chain 
to the Drachenfels, about 3 M. distant. The path, which finally passes the 
quarries of the Wolkenburg and turns to the 1. on the S. side of that hill, 
cannot be missed. 

Following the road from St. Margaret's Cross in a S. 
direction, the village of Lahr is reached ('/ 2 M.), at the first 
houses of which the path to the r. must be ascended, then 
the first path to the 1. between two houses, then for '/, M. 
along the heights. The path now descends to the r. into a 
narrow pass between the Lohrberg (1355 ft.) on the r., and 
the Scheerkopfchen (1215 it.), the largest mass of trachyte in 
the Seven Mts., to the 1.; % M. farther is the Lowenburger 
Ho/, where refreshments may be procured, situated 100 yds. 
from the Rhondorf road, and 300 yds. from the summit of 
the *L6wenburg» (1413 ft.), a ruin on a wooded peak con- 
sisting of dolerite, a volcanic product which must have been 
ejected in a liquid state, and now lies above the trachyte and 
grauwacke. The castle, the extensive ruins of which are 
visible from the Rhine, was once the scene of the conferences 
which Hermann, Elector of Cologne and Count of Wied, held 
with the reformers Melancthon and Bucer, before he became 
a convert to Protestantism. Here, too, in the troublous times 
of 1583, the Elector Gebhard, Truchsess of Waldburg, resided 
with his consort, the beautiful Countess Agnes von Mansfeld, 
whom he had abducted from the convent of Gerresheim. The 
summit commands a fine view. 

The way from the Lowenburger Hof to Rhondorf (3 M.) 
cannot be missed. It descends gradually through a narrow, 
and sometimes swampy mountain dale, and is shaded by groves 
of oaks and beeches. The heights which bound the path on 
the N. are the Geisberg, Schallerberg, Bolverhahn, and finally 
the Wolkenburg and Drachenfels, all of which are composed 
of trachyte. The ancient fortress which once stood on the 
Wolkenburg has long since given place to the quarries on the 
N. side. Rhondorf (Beut) is 1 M. distant from Konigswinter, 



56 Route 17. RHEINBREITBACH. 

and the same distance from Honnef (see below). On the side 
wall of the small church of Rhondorf is a well preserved 
tombstone of the last knight of Drachenfels, with coat of arms, 
and the date 1530, brought from the old Abbey of Heisterbach. 

In the rich and fruitful plain, 1 y 2 M. broad and 3 M. long, 
which lies between the Seven Mts. and the Rhine, are situated 
the flourishing villages of Rkeinbreitbach, Honnef, and Rhondorf '. 
The mildness of the climate and the beauty of the country 
attract numerous visitors to this district in summer, especially 
to Honnef, which is gradually becoming the Interlaken of 
the Rhine. Besides a number of country residences which have 
here sprung up of late, there are several boarding houses: 
* Dr. de Berghes at Honnef, pension 1% — iy 3 Thlr. : Hotel 
Klein (D. exc. W. 15 Sgr.), Zum Siebengebirge, both good and 
moderate inns ; Clouth, at Rhembreitbach (pension 1 Thlr. 
and upwards). 

Excursions from Rkeinbreitbach: to the Breitbacher Krea:, near 
the village, commanding a pleasing view: to the *Haanenburg 
(2y 4 M.), property of a merchant of Cologne, by a broad path 
through the vineyards, fine view from the top of the tower, 
and beautiful walk back, round the building and over the Heide- 
kamrn; to the "Giants' Graves" (Hiinengraber), 1 y 2 M. from 
Honnef. Near the Haanenburg are the copper mines of Marlen- 
herg, and 1 '/ 2 M. farther N. the copper and lead mines of the 
Virneberg, once worked by the Romans. From the Yirneberg 
a path through a fir-wood leads to Farinasruhe and thence to 
the Menzenberg (1 1 / 2 M.). 

Excursions from Honnef. One of the most delightful is a 
walk of 2 hrs., by the farmhouse of ZicMenburg, to Menzenberg, 
the slopes of which yield the best red wine of the district, 
past the Hager Hof, a large farmhouse, by the foothpath to 
Rheinbreitbach and back to Honnef by the road. A shorter 
walk (iy,M.) may be taken to Menzenberg, passing the vine- 
yards of the so-called Hager Koppelchen (fine view). The 
churchyard of Honnef also commands a pleasing prospect. — 
The Lowenbtirg (p. 55) is best ascended from Honnef (3 ! / 2 M.), 
as the path to it offers a succession of beautiful views. Way 
back from the Lowenburg by Rhondorf (3V 4 M.) to Honnef 
(1 M.) see p. 55. 

17. The Valley of the Ahr. 

Cornp. Map R. IS. 

Distances. From Kemagen to Ahrweiler 9 M. (Bodendnrf 3, lleppingen 3, 
Ahrweiler 3); from Ahrweiler to Altenahr 7% M. Diligence several times 
n day in l'/ohr. Carriage from Remagen to AJtenahr and back, fori — 4 per.«., 
1-horse 3'/ ,~2-horse 4'/ 3 Thlr.. inc. tolls and driver's fee (comp. p. <;l;. 



LANDSKRON. 17. Route, 57 

A footpath (4% M.). leading from Remagen.to Heppingen, effects a 
saving of V/ 2 M. At the Apollinarisberg the turning to the 1. must be taken, 
leading through some quarries, and about 500 paces will bring the pedestrian 
to the road. After l / 2 M. the turning to the r. must be taken, and the path 
soon enters a copse, on emerging from which the Kuhlerhof (l'/ s M.) lies 
to the 1. By proceeding in a straight direction, two new houses (1 M.) are 
reached, where a road to the 1. leads to the Landskron (l'/ 2 M.) and the 
straight road to Heppingen (l'/o M.). 

The full-flavoured dark red wines produced by the vineyards of the 
valley of the Ahr, in good seasons upwards of 600,000 gallons (the most 
celebrated are those of Walporzheim, Ahrweiler, and Bodendorf), are "well- 
known under the name of Ahrbleichert. 

Millions of "Rumpc/ien" (cyprinus phoxinus), small fish 1—2 in. in length, 
are annually caught in the> Ahr, boiled in saltwater, and packed in willow- 
bark for exportation. They are served -with vinegar and oil, and are esteemed 
a jireat delicacy. 

The Ahr rises at Blankenheim in the EifeJ, traverses a 
winding and generally narrow valley, 54 M. in length, and 
falls into the Rhine below Sinzig. Near the wooden bridge 
over the Ahr near Sinzig, the road which leads to the Ahr- 
thal diverges from the main road to Coblenz and traverses an 
open country, the hills which enclose the valley being as yet 
low and far apart, passing the villages of Bodendorf, Lohrs- 
rforf, Heppingen, Wadenheim, Hemmessem, and Ahrweiler. As 
yet there is no trace of the wildness which characterizes the 
upper part of the valley; the land is on the contrary fertile 
and well-cultivated: the slopes exposed to the S. are covered 
with vineyards, and the heights on the opposite bank with 
wood. 

The Landskron (856 ft.) is a basaltic peak which attains 
a greater height than the other hills which bound the lower 
part of the valley. The castle of Landskron, on the summit, 
is said to have been founded in 1205 by Philipp the Hohen- 
staufe, when on his way to be crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle, 
that he might from this point carry on his hostilities against 
the Archbishopric of Cologne, which supported the claims 
ui the Emperor Otto IV. The castle, in the 14th and loth 
centuries the property of a race of knights of the same name, 
and in 1667 destroyed by the French. The richly endowed 
chapel on the S.W. side of the summit has been spared; a 
basaltic grotto serves as sacristy. Near it is a quantity of 
massive basalt, curiously deposited above columnar basalt. The 
view from the Landskron comprises the Ahrthal from Ahrweiler 
to the Rhine, the higher peaks of the Seven Mountains, to the 
S. part of the Eifel with the castle of Olbriick, and to theW. 
the ruin of Tomberg near Meckenheim. Seen from the \V. side, 
from the road below, the hill with the white chapel and ruin 
on the top is a very picturesque object in the landscape. 

At the foot of the Landskron, on the S. side, lies the village 
of Heppingen (3 M.), with two pleasant mineral springs. 



58 Route 17. AHR WEIL KR. The Valley 

Near Wadenheim, iy 2 M. farther, a new spring, the 
Apollinarisbrunnen, was enclosed in 1853. On the opposite (r.) 
bank of the Ahr are the Baths of Neuenahr, opened in 
1858, and rapidly rising into importance. The supply of water 
96 — 11-1° Fahr.) is abundant, and strongly resembles in its 
component parts the springs of Ems, of which Neuenahr is 
probably destined some day to be a formidable rival. This 
water is especially efficacious in pulmonary complaints, gout, 
and scrofula. The bathing establishment, with which a pension 
is combined, is replete with every comfort and convenience, 
and the beauty and repose of the situation offer great attraction 
to the traveller in search of retirement, as well as to the 
valetudinarian. On a lofty peak (1008 ft.), at the foot of which 
the village of Beul and Bad Neuenahr lie, rises the Castle of 
Neuenahr, destroyed as early as 1371, and once the seat of 
a younger branch of the Counts von der Are, who became 
extinct in the 16th cent. Ahrweiler is 2 J / 4 M. distant from 
Neuenahr or Wadenheim. The small church of Heimersheim, 
2 '/ 4 M. to the E. of Neuenahr, is, like that of Sinzig, built in 
the late Romanesque style, and contains some old stained glass. 

Ahrweiler (* Krone; *Stern; Bavarian beer at the restaurant 
of J. Kreutzberg), a cheerful little town surrounded by old 
walls. The Gothic church was founded in 1275 (the summit 
of the tower and roof repaired subsequent to 1689), and the 
town probably enclosed by walls about the same date. In 
the feud between the chapter of the cathedral of Cologne and 
the deposed Archbishop Ruprecht of the Palatinate the town 
successfully stood a siege in 1473, and in a later feud between 
the same chapter and the deposed Archbishop Gebhard, Ahr- 
weiler sided with the former. In 1646 and 1689 it suffered 
greatly from the devastations of the French, and on the latter 
occasion was, with the exception of 10 houses, entirely burned 
to the ground. A line view may he obtained from the 
Calvarienberg, an eminence y 2 M. to the S., surmounted by 
an extensive building, formerly a Franciscan monastery, now 
an Ursuline nunnery, and much frequented as an educational 
establishment. 

Near the entrance to the narrower part of the valley lies the 
village of Walporzheim (St.Petrm) (% M.), where the best Ahr- 
wine is produced. The vineyards are kept with the utmost care. 

A rocky ravine is now entered, penetrating the jagged and 
cleft slate mountains; on the 1. rushes the Ahr, and on the 
r. rises almost perpendicularly a black wall of slate-rock, from 
which a single ridge called "die bunteKuh" projects. To the r. of 
the road are the ruins of the old nunnery of Marienthal (iy 4 M.), 
abandoned at the commencement of the French Revolution. 



of the Ah: LOCHMUHLE. 17. Route. 59 

About 3 /j M. farther, before entering this village of Dern.au, 
a footpath, far preferable to the dusty road, leads through 
the valley, which here widens a little, along the bank of the 
Ahr, passing an old stone bridge, which however must not 
be crossed, to the village of Rech (1 '/ 2 M.). Here the valley 
again contracts. The river Ahr winds through a wild and 
rocky district, the road following its course, rounding the 
precipitous Saffenburg, and leading to Mayschoss (1 V, M.) and 
the Lochmiihle (% M.), where travellers may find tolerable 
accommodation for the night. (S., It. and B. 22 Sgr.) 

The pedestrian may, if he please, choose a different way 
from Rech to the Lochmuhle. Close to the bridge (on the r. 
bank), a path ascends to the r. through the vineyards (closed 
from the end of August till the middle of October) to the 
ridge of the hill, the summit of which is occupied by the 
fragments of the Saffenburg' (794 ft.). It is related of the 
"brave" French commander of the castle, when it was besieged 
in 1703 during the Spanish war of succession, that, when 
summoned to surrender the place, he replied that lie was not 
at all disinclined to do so, but begged that, to save his honour, 
three cannon-shots should first be discharged against the castle. 
His wish was complied with, and he was then enabled "honour- 
ably" to ^evacuate the castle, which was blown up in the 
following year. On the W- side of the Saffenburg the path 
descends rapidly and joins the road at the bridge of Mayschoss, 
close to the Lochmiihle (Inn, see above). [From the bridge at 
Rech over the Saffenburg to the Lochmuhle is a walk of about 
35 min.; by the road by Mayschoss a few min. more.] 

Near the Lochmuhle is a cutting in the rock, the walls of 
grauwacke being 40 ft. in height, beyond which the hamlets 
of Lack and Reimerzhofen are reached, and a little farther on, 
the road passes through a tunnel, 92 yds. in length, on emerging 
from which the clean little village of Altenahr (JJaspari; 
Winchler) comes in sight. 

It is, however, far preferable to leave the road at Reimerz- 
hofen, 1 M. from the Lochmuhle, and follow the footpath which 
ascends through the vineyards (closed during the vintage-season), 
leading to the Cross (15 min.) which is visible from the road. 
It stands on a rocky ridge, 350 ft. above the stream , and 
commands the finest *view in the whole valley, surpassing 
that from the castle of Altenahr, as the latter itself forms 
the foreground of the wild and rocky landscape. The path 
descends on the other side of the hill to Altenahr (8 min. walk), 
passing a decayed gate-way which forms the entrance to the 
Castle of Altenahr. The latter is perched like an eagle's nest 
on the summit of a grand and rugged wall of rock, 34S ft. 



GO Route 17. ADENAU. 

above the village, and was once the seat of the powerful 
Counts of the Are and Hostaden or Hochsteden. Conrad, 
Archbishop of Cologne, the last of the elder branch of the 
family, laid the foundation-stone of the cathedral of Cologne 
in 1248. The castle fell into the hands of the French in 1690, 
was occupied by a Bavarian garrison in the Spanish war of 
succession, and finally, in consequence of the peace of Utrecht 
(1714) was blown up, like the castles of Saffenburg and the 
Landskron, to prevent its becoming a harbour for robbers. 
Admission 3 Sgr., or for a single visitor 5 Sgr.; the custodian 
is generally at the ruin, but it is safer to inquire for him in 
the village. 

One of the finest points of view is the *Horn, above 
Altenahr; to Altenburg 15 min., thence to the pavilion with 
guide an ascent of 45 min. 

The short distance between the "bunte Kith" and Altenahr 
is undoubtedly by far the most beautiful part of the valley, 
which, however, offers many fine points of view above Altenahr 
(diligence from Altenahr to Adenau daily in 2 hrs.). One of 
the best views is obtained from the bridge over the Ahr; 
farther on, to the 1., are the rugged rocks of the "Teu/els- 
kanzel'' (Devil's Pulpit) and then the grand mass of rocks known 
by the name of the Old Castle. The bright-looking castle, 
picturesquely situated on a rugged peak near Kreuzberg is 
a private residence. At Dumpelfeld, 6 M. from Altenahr, 
the road leaves the Ahr, and leads in a straight direction to 
Adenau (*Halber Alond), the principal village of the district, 
in the vicinity of which are the two highest points of the 
Eifel, the basaltic peaks of Nurburg (2118 ft.), 4% M. to the 
S., surmounted by a ruined castle with a lofty tower, and 
the *Hohe Acht (2340 ft.), 6 M. to the E., the latter of 
which commands an extensive and magnificent view over the 
whole of the Eifel as far as the mountains of the Rhine, 
and even the cathedral of Cologne. Near the top there is 
a small hut for protection against the weather. The guide from 
Adenau, provided with a telescope, 10 Sgr. The traveller 
may, if he please, drive nearly to the summit of the Hohe 
Acht (in iy 2 hr., charge 2 '/ 2 Thlr.). From the Hohe Acht 
N.E. to Kaltenbom 3 M., to Leimbach 3 M., to Kempenich 
(Comanns) 3 3 / 4 M. From here the castle of Olbriick is 3'y 4 M. 
distant (to the N.E.), the Laacher See (R. 19) 10% M., but 
the road is uninteresting. Carriage from Adenau over the 
Hohe Acht to Laach and Andernach 7 Thlr.; from the Hohe 
Acht to Kempenich 2 hrs., to Laach 2 hrs., thence to An- 
dernach in iy 2 hr., the whole drive occupying 5V 2 hrs. Or 
a carriage may be taken from Adenau over the Hohe Acht 



REMAGEN. 18. Route. 61 

by Virneburg and Mayen (R. 19) to Aadernach in 4'/ 2 hrs., 
fare 6 Thlr. From the Hohe Acht by Virneburg {Midler) to 
Mayen is a walk of about 15 M. 

On the Ahr itself, 'which the road leaves at Dumpelfeld 
(see p. 60), there are two other fine points, at Schuld, 3 M. 
to the W. of Dumpelfeld, and at Antweiler (Neubusch), near 
which are situated the ruins of the castle of Aremberg, once 
seat of the Dukes of Aremberg. Antweiler lies 6 M. to the 
W. of Adenau. 



18. The Rhine from Remagen to Coblenz. 

Comp. .Map R. 15. 

Distance from Kemageii to Sinzig 3 M., Nieder-Breisig 2'/ 4 M., Brohl 
2 1 /,, M., Andernach 4'/ 2 M., Neuwied 3 M., Coblenz 9 M., total 24 M. — By 
railway, see R. 36, in lhr. ; fares: 30, 22y„ and 15 Sgr. — By steamboat 
(fares: 16 or 10 Sgr.) in 3% hrs. (down in 2 hrs.); piers at Remagen and 
Neuwied; small-boat stations at Linz, Niederbreisig, Brohl, Leutesdorf, Ander- 
nach, Urmitz aud Eugers. The steamboat is far preferable to the railway 
on account of the beauty of the scenery. 

Remagen i* Hotel Furstenberg, R. 15—20, B. 8, D. 20, 
A. 5 Sgr.; * Konig von Preussen; * Hotel Monjaa), steamboat 
and railway stat. — Tariff of charges for carriages fixed bv 
the police (inc. tolls and fees) : to Ahrweiler 1-horse 1 y 3 Thlr., 
2-horse 2 Thlr., the drive back 20 Sgr. or 1 Thlr. ; to Alten- 
ahr 2%— 3 Thlr., drive back 20 Sgr.— 1 % Thlr., if the 
carriage be kept for the whole, day 4 — b 1 /^ Thlr.; Laacher 
See and back (1 day) 3 — 4 2 / 3 Thlr., or by Andernach 4 — 
6 Thlr. These charges are mentioned in such detail as 
Remagen is the best place for head-quarters between Bonn 
and Coblenz for making excursions. 

The small town of Remagen was known to the Romans 
as Rigomagus. A mileston'e bearing the date 162, found in 
1763 when the high road was in course of construction, 
records that the old Roman road which formerly passed here 
was begun under the Emperors M. Aurelius and L. Verus. 
It indicates the distance from Cologne as being 30,000 Passus, 
which is tolerably correct. Several of these stones are ex- 
hibited in the museum at Bonn. 

The choir of the Church was, as an inscription on the 
outer door records, erected in 1246. The interior contains 
several old frescoes. The churchyard-wall, next to the exterior 
of the W- side of the choir, consists of Roman concrete- 
masonry. 

The Portal next to the Rom. Cath. parsonage is worthy 
of inspection. The grotesque sculptures which it bears are 
"very ancient, and are interpreted as signifying that the animals 



G2 Route 18. APOLLINARISBERG. From Remagen 

and persons they represent are excluded from the sacred 
edifice. 

Below Remagen, on an eminence on the road-side rises 
the *Apollinarisberg', a beautiful Gothic church, erected by 
the Count of Furstenberg-Stammheim (d. 1859), under the 
direction of Zwirner, the late eminent architect of the cathedral 
of Cologne. The old building in front of the church was 
formerly a rich deanery of Siegburg, much resorted to by 
pilgrims. The church, which is a perfect gem in its way, is 
open daily from 9y 2 to 12, and 2 to 4 o'clock; on Saturdays 
aud>the eves of festivals from 9 ] / 2 to 12, and from 2 to 4. 
Admission on bundays and holidays 2 ! / 2 Sgr. It is adorned 
with 10 large frescoes in the best style of German art. The 
view, from this point, of the Rhine from Honningen to- 
Konigswinter, and the Seven Mountains in the background is 
one of singular beauty. 

** Frescoes. On the 1. en entering the church, representations from 
the life of the Saviour; on the r. scenes from the life of the "Virgin. In the 
transept to the S., St. Apollinaris consecrated bishop, and miraculous resus- 
citation of a girl ; on the N., destruction of idols, deatli and glorification of 
the saint, and a Crucifixion. In the choir on the r., coronation of the Virgin, 
on the 1. the Resurrection. In the choir-niche the Saviour "with Mary 
and John the Baptist, St. Peter and St. Apollinaris with the four Evangelists. 
— The crypt contains the old sarcophagus of the saint, belonging to the 
14th cent., and surmounted by a modern statue. 

Opposite to Remagen, near JErpel, rises the Erpeler Lei, 
(625 ft.), a basaltic cliff, the quarries of which are the most 
profitable on the Rhine, as the stone is at once transferred 
to the vessels on the river. The columns, however, do not 
present the same elegance as those of the Minderberg and 
Dattenberg quarries (p. 63). Above Erpel lies (1.) Kassbach, 
surmounted by the ivy-clad ruins of Ockenfels, then Linzer- 
hausen. 

(1.) Linz (*Nassauer Hof), an ancient walled town which 
formerly belonged to the Electorate of Cologne The fine 
old church in the round-arch style, dating from the beginning 
of the 13th cent., contains an admirable picture painted in 
1463 , representing the Annunciation and Crucifixion on the 
outer wings, the Annunciation and Coronation of the Virgin 
on the inner, and the Nativity, Adoration, Presentation in the 
Temple &c. , in the centre compartment. The picture has 
recently been cleaned and retouched. The churchyard com- 
mands a fine view to the S. W., in the direction of the 
confluence of the Ahr with the Rhine; the round tower of 
the castle of Olbruck stands out on a mountain peak in the 
distance. The environs of Linz yield a considerable quantity 
of red wine, and during the vintage the little town is the 
central point of the busy scene. 



to Bonn. ARENFELS. IS. Route. 63 

The extensive * Basalt Quarries at Dattenberg^ and on the Minderbery 
near Linz well deserve inspection, especially the latter. The road to the 
Minder berg ascends the valley to the E., leading to the Sternerhiitte, 
copper, vitriol, and zinc works. (Near it is a castle of the Prince of Salm- 
lvyrburg; above it the Renneberg with a tower on the summit). From the 
Sternerhiitte the path ascends to the 1. and the quarry soon comes in view. 
It is a spacious hall of the most beautiful black prismatic basaltic pillars, 
some of them upright, others heaped together in confused masses, varying 
from 3 to 10 inches iu diameter, and sometimes attaining a length of 20 ft. ; 
when struck they produce a clear metallic ring. These masses resemble 
numerous charcoal piles closely crowded together, and foim a huge wall, 
suggesting by its beauty the celebrated Fingal's Cave in the island of Staffa. 
The *vie\v from this height (132S ft.) is considered by many to equal that 
from the Oelberg (p. 54). B The pedestrian is recommended to return by the 
Kasbachthal; guide unnecessary; should he be in doubt, he may ask the 
way at the large farm-house on the hill. The whole circuit may be made 
from Linz in about 3 hrs. 

The columns in the quarry of Dattenberg (1% M. from Linz) are as 
high as those in the quarry of Minderberg, but much thicker and more 
massive. A tine view is obtained from the foot of the ruined castle in the 
grounds of Herr von Mengershausen. of the windings of the Ahr , with the 
basaltic peak of the Landskron (p. 57) iu the background. 

The stone yielded by these quarries is admirably adapted for pavements, 
and the foundations of buildings, but, as it attracts moisture, is unsuitable 
for the upper parts. It is exported in large quantities to Holland, where it 
is employed iu the construction of dykes. 

To the E. of Linz rises the Hummelsberg (1345 ft.), on the 
summit of which stands a cross, erected by the burghers of 
Linz in commemoration of the battle of Leipzig. Another 
cross on the Kaisersberg, nearer the Rhine, was erected in 
1840 to commemorate the battle of Belle -Aliance. On both 
of these hills are also productive basalt quarries. 

From the village of (r.) Krippe on the Rhine a path leads 
past the manor of Godenhaus to the Mineral Spring of Sinzig, 
which contains carbonate of soda and is free from iron. The 
path joins the high road on the 1. bank of the Ahr, not far 
from the bridge below Sinzig. 

Between Remagen and Kiedei -Breisig the Rhine makes a 
long circuit, which both the railway and the road cut off. 
The beautiful church of (r.) Sinzig (on the railway, 1% M. 
from the river) is visible from tbe steamboat. 

The village of (1.) Dattenberg, peeping out of a ravine, is 
opposite to the confluence of the Ahr (R. 17) and the Rhine. 
On the same bank Leubsdorf, with an ancient royal abode, 
a small building with four towers, and near it Ariendorf. 

On an eminence to the 1. rises the castle of Arenfels, 
with gilded pinnacles and weathercocks, erected by Henry of 
Isenburg, and named by him after his consort the Countess 
of Are. It is now the property of Count Westerholt, by 
whom it has been restored. A tall round stone tower of 
peculiar construction surmounts the castle. The grounds 
which extend along the brow of the hill command a series 
of fine views. 



04 Route 18. RHEINECK. From Remagen 

1. Honningen (*Kraus) and Rheinbrohl (Krone), with 
a handsome Gothic * Church , built of grauwacke, are two 
villages of some importance, situated in a fertile plain, beyond 
which the mountains to the 1. rise more abruptly from 
the river. 

r. Nieder - Breisig (steamboat aud railway stat.), near 
the S. extremity of which part of an ancient Templars' lodge 
is still to be seen. About l 3 / 4 M. above the village a path 
ascends the wooded hill surmounted by the castle of 

r. * Rheineck. The road winds up the N. and W. sides 
of the hill, at the foot of which, far below, lies the hamlet 
Thai Rheineck. The square tower, 65 ft. in height, on the 
S. side is the sole remnant of the old castle, which was dis- 
mantled by the French in 1689, destroyed by the troops of 
the Electorate of Cologne in 1692 , and finally burned to the 
ground in 1785. The new castle, built in the round -arched 
style, belongs to Herr von Bethmann-Hollweg, and was erected 
in 1832 by the eminent architect Lassaulx. The interior is 
tastefully and comfortably fitted up, and contains several modern 
pictures and frescoes of merit. Permission to inspect it is 
seldom refused (1 pers. 5 — 7% Sgr. ; a party 20 Sgr. — 1 Thlr.). 
The *viev\* from the garden, which is always open to the 
public, comprises the whole course of the Rhine from far 
above Andernach to the Apollinarisberg, with the peaks of the 
Seven Mountains rising in the background, and is scarcely 
surpassed by the prospect from the Draehenfels. 

Rheineck has been since the most ancient times a boundary 
between several different races. In the time of Caesar the 
Eburones inhabited the district below, aud the Treviri that 
above this point; opposite to the former lay the dominions 
of the Sygambri, and to the latter those of the Ubii; higher 
up were the Usipetes and Tenchteri. At the present day 
Brohl forms a strongly defined line between the upper and 
lower Rhenish dialects , and here too the picturesque head- 
dress of the country girls is first observed. 

To the r. the Brohlbuch falls into the Rhine at the village 
of Brohl (Nonn) (steamboat and railway stat.), which extends 
along the hill -side and up the valley, adjoining the hamlet 
of Nippes. Here is the depot for the tuffstone found in 
the valley. 

1. Nieder-Hammerstein , the vineyards of which yield a 
good wine, then Ober-Hammerstein (Burg Hammer stein), near 
which a large rocky peak (grauwacke) rises abruptly from the 
river, surmounted by the ruined castle of Hammerstein. Here 
the Emperor Henry IV. resided for some time when per- 
secuted by his son" Henry V., and here he kept the imperial 



to Coblenz. ANDERNACH. IS. Route. 65 

insignia till their removal by his usurping successor. During 
the 30 Years' war the castle was in turn occupied by the 
Swedes, the Spaniards, the troops of Cologne, and those of 
Lothringia, and was finally destroyed in 1660 at the instance 
of the archbishopric of Cologne, being deemed too powerful 
a neighbour to be tolerated. 

On the heights, about 4'/ 2 M. to the E. of the Rhine, the course of the 
well-known Roman intrench raent, which was constructed as a protection 
against the attacks of the Germanic tribes, is distinctly visible, and may be 
traced from Monrepos as far as the Seven Mountains. The table-land above 
Hammerstein in the immediate vicinity of the intrenchinent still bears the 
name Mars/eld (field of Mars), where Roman coins and other relics are fre- 
quently found. 

Above (r.) Fornich rises the Fornicher or Weghubler Kopf, 
recognizable from a great distance by tbe solitary group of 
trees rising from the bushes on the summit. It is the nearest 
volcanic peak to the Rhine, and the lava stream, divided 
into huge pillars close to the road, is visible from the 
steamboat. 

(r.) Namedy, a small village at some distance from the 
river, possesses a small but elegant Gothic church of the 
15th cent., divided into two parts by a row of slender pillars; 
near it is the castle of the ancient knights of Namedy. On 
the 1. extends the considerable village of Leutesdorf (Eiseti), 
surrounded by productive vineyards planted among the rocks. 
As Andernach is approached the mountains which confine 
the river commence to recede. 

The ancient and picturesque town of (r.) Andernach 
(* Hackenbruch; steamboat and railway stat.), with its old 
bastions, Roman gate and high watch-tower, was known 
to the Romans by the name of Antonacum, (Statio ante Naeum, 
station before the Nette). It was an ancient frontier fortress, 
and the head-quarters of the' prcefectus militum Arinsensium, of 
the Legio XXI. rapax, and the Legio XXII. primigenia, of 
the Cohors Ticinensis and the Cohors Asturiensis. It was con- 
quered by the Allemanni in 335, but retaken by the Emperor 
Julian in 359. In the middle ages it was an Imperial town, 
and was taken by the Electorate of Cologne in 1496; in 1698 
it was burned down by the French. 

They also destroyed the Schloss, erected in 1109 by Fre- 
derick I., Archbishop of Cologne, and defended against them 
by the troops of the Elector of Brandenburg; the extensive 
ruins rise from the deep fosse near the Coblenzer Thor. On 
the pointed and vaulted Stadtthor (town-gate) the traces of 
violent attempts to destroy it are still visible. 

The Pfarrkirehe, with its four towers and richly decorated 
portals, is a fine specimen of the late Romanesque style 
Baedeker's Rhine. 5 



66 Route IS. NEUWIED. From Remagen 

(1206); the choir was erected in 1120. On the vaulting of 
the nave are seen the Imperial arms, with those of the town 
and of Hermann IV., Archbishop of Cologne (d. 1508). The 
choir was re-decorated in 1856. The carved wooden pulpit 
was brought in 1807 from the Abbey of Laach (p. 72). 

The tall round Watch-tower on the Rhine, with its octa- 
gonal summit, was erected in 1414 — 68. The wide breach 
on the W. side was made by the French cannonade in 1668. 

The volcanic products of the neighbourhood of Andernach, millstones of 
lava (p. 70), tuffstone, trass, &c, form an important branch of commerce, 
and are exported to all parts of the world. The lava quarries are at Nie- 
dcrmendig , near the Laacher See p. 72), 7'/, M. to the W. of Andernach, 
and are best reached from here, returning to the Rhine by the valley of 
Brohl (p. 70). 

Above the small village of (1.) Fahr are the ruins of the 
Teufelskaus (devil's house) or castle of Friederichstein, begun 
in the 17th cent., but never completed. It received the above 
appellation from the serfs who were employed in its con- 
struction, on account of the arduousness of the tasks imposed 
on them. Farther up, on a fertile eminence surrounded by 
fruit-trees, stands the Romanesque Feldkirche. At the small 
fishing village of Irlich, a short railway connects the river 
with the extensive Rasselstein foundry, the first puddling-work 
erected in Germany (in 1824). Between Irlich and Neuwied 
the fViedbach falls into the Rhine. 

The steamboat now touches at the cheerful and industrial 
little town of Neuwied (* Anker, Wilder Mann, both on the 
Rhine; Br'ddergemeinde. Steamboat pier on the 1., railway 
stat. to the r. on the opposite bank, % M. from the river). 
At the lower extremity of the town are situated the handsome 
palace and park of the Prince of Wied. The town was 
founded in 1653 by Count Frederick of Wied, on the site of 
the village of Langendorf, which had been destroyed in the 
30 Years' war. Under his protection the town, which is 
divided into squares by streets 40 ft. in breadth , rapidly 
increased in importance. Its population is now 7000, con- 
sisting of Protestants, Rom. Catholics (2000), Moravian Brothers, 
Anabaptists, Quakers, aud Jews, who all live together in great 
harmony. Starch, chicory, and tin-wares are the principal 
products of the place. 

The Pheasantry, an isolated building in the park, contains 
a collection of * Objects of natural history, brought by Prince 
Maximilian from Brazil in 1817, and from N. America in 
1836. Admission at any hour may be obtained by applying 
to the porter at the entrance gate of the palace (fee 10 Sgr., 
for a party 20 Sgr.). A small collection of Roman antiquities 
in a room adjoining the road is only interesting from the 



to Cobten:. NEUWIED. 18. Route. 67 

fact that they were all found in the vicinity of Neuwied. 
The coins in the collection are of various dates down to 260, 
when the camp which stood here was probably destroyed by 
the Franks. The excavations made in 1819 and 1857 at the 
village of Niederbiber have been since filled up, and the 
traces of the Roman camp have disappeared under the 
plough. 

The community of Moravian Brothers, also called Herrenhuter from 
the village of Herrenhut in Saxony, where they had established themselves 
after their expulsion from Moravia during the 30 years' "war, occupies a 
separate part of the town. Their establishments are well worthy of inspection, 
and afford an insight into *the habits of this remarkable sect. As is well 
known, they were originally the followers of John Huss, and as is usual in 
all cases of religious persecution they increased enormously in numbers after 
the death of their leader. They now form what may be called a religious 
republic, having their own laws both for public and private life, which are 
administered by their elders, or religious chiefs. In their manners and 
habits they are grave and austere, which has gained for them the appellation 
of the Quakers of Germany. The unmarried brothers live in a separate 
building and carry on different trades, the profits of which are devoted to 
the community. Of these manufactures the best known are the faience stoves, 
and deer-skin gloves. Visitors are readily admitted, but are first conducted 
to the magazine, where they are expected to make some purchase. The 
establishment for the sisters is conducted in a similar way; they are easily 
recognized by their peculiar white head-dresses, fastened with ribbons of 
various colours, according to the situation iu life of the wearers — girls dark 
red, young unmarried women pink, married women blue, and widows white. 
At stated seasons "love-feasts" are celebrated in the church, accompanied by 
singing, prayers, and a sermon, during which tea is partaken of. The 
educational portion of the establishment is justly celebrated, and is frequented 
by pupils from all parts of Germany, as well as from England. There are 
many other schools at Neuwied which also enjoy a high reputation. 

(The country-seat of Monrepos (1008 ft.) 6 M. from Neu- 
wied, the white walls of which stand out in striking contrast 
to the wooded slopes on which it stands, forms a conspicuous 
point in the background of the landscape.) 

Opposite to the park the (r.) Nette falls into the Rhine. 
The mountain with the two peaks which rises to the W. is 
the Plaidter Hummerich (909 ft.). On the road and railway 
is (r.) the Netterhof, important on account of its numerous 
corn, oil, bone, and other mills. 

r. Weissenthurm ; at one end of the village rises a tall 
square watch-tower, erected by Kuno von Falkeustein in 1370, 
being the extreme point of the dominions of the Electors 
of Treves, which here adjoined the territory of the Arch- 
bishops of Cologne. 

On an eminence above the village stands a small obelisk to the memory 
of the French General Hoclte, who here crossed the Rhine iu 1797 with the 
army, and shortly afterwards died suddenly at Wetzlar at the age of 30. 

The inscription records that it was erected by the army of the Sambre 
and Meuse to its general, but it was really erected by his widow (d. 1859), 
and has been repaired by the Prussian government. 

(r.) Der gute Mann, formerly a hermitage, with a new 
chapel, near which are some lime-kiirs and a manufactory 



G8 Route IS. ENGERS. 

for the preparation of the Engers stone (see below); then 
Urmitz and Kaltenengers 

Near (1.) Engers (*R6merbriicke; steamboat stat.) may be 
seen some fragments of old wall (concrete- masonry, in which 
coins of Constantine have been found) , perhaps remnants of 
the counterpoise of a Roman bridge or of a tetede-pont. At 
this spot there is reason to believe that Caesar's second pas- 
sage of the Rhine took place. 

Engers, formerly called Kunustein-Ent/ers, was in ancient 
times the capital of the Engersgau. The Archbishop Kuno 
von Falkenstein erected (in 1386) a fortified castle here 
with a round tower (the ivy - clad trunk of the latter 
rises below the palace), which was intended to protect the 
navigators of the Rhine from the rapacious Counts of the 
Westerwald. On its site stands the present chateau (lately 
converted into a Prussian military school), erected by the 
Elector Johann Philipp von Walderdorf in 1758. 

Near (1.) Mtihlhofen , where the Saynbach falls into the 
Rhine, rise the smelting furnaces of the Foundry of Sayn, 
and farther from the river the Concordia Foundry. 

On the hill-side, about I 1 /, M. inland, the ruins of the Castle of Sayn, 
destroyed by the French in the 30 Years' wax', are visible from the steamboat. 
Below it is situated Schloss Sayn, a modern residence of the Prince of 
Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg, open in absence of the family on Thursdays 
till 5'/ a p.m. (Admission-card 2% Sgr. ; proceeds devoted to charitable pur- 
poses). The chateau is magnificently fitted up, and contains a small but 
select * collection of modern pictures. The hill on which the extensive ruins 
of the old castle are situated has been laid out as a park. The summit 
commands a beautiful prospect, similar to that from the Friederichsberg (see 
below). 

Near the chateau are the extensive royal iron -works of Sayn (* Burg 
Sayn), the buildings of which consist almost entirely of cast-iron and glass. 

Above the valley rises the Friederichsberg, laid out as a park by the 
government of Nassau, and much resorted to in summer. The views obtained 
from the heights of the rich and orchard-like plain of the Rhine, and the 
narrow ravines of the romantic valley of Sayn are extremely beautiful and 
well repay the ascent. Farther up the valley (3% M.) are situated the ruins 
of the castle of Iaenburg , the ancient family seat of a still flourishing race. 

On the S. W. wooded slopes of the circle of hills which encloses the 
beautiful Engersgau, rises the church-spire of Heimbach, near which are the 
ruins of the ancient abbey of Romraersdorf , with fine cloisters and chapter- 
house, erected about 1200. Some of the pillars are of verde antico. 

Between Sayn and Engers a peculiar kind of pumice-stone conglomerate 
i8 dug up in the open fields. It is cut into squares and dried, and is much 
valued as a building material for inner walls, on account of its durability and 
lightness. The bed is in some places 20 ft. in depth. Geological research 
has suggested the idea that, before the Rhine broke through the chain of 
mountains near Andernach, the basin of Neuwied was a deep lake. The 
pumice-stone ejected from the volcanoes of the 1. bank of the Rhine (p. 70) 
was probably washed down by the rain into the lake, where, in combination 
with a clayey binding material, it formed the deposits which now yield the 
above-mentioned stone. 

1. Bendorf (Rheinischer Hof; Beringer), surrounded with 
fruit-trees, and possessing a curious old Romanesque church; 



NIEDERWERTH. Id. Route. 69 

farther up (r.) the villages of St. Sebastian and Kessel- 
heim, opp. to the island of Niederwertk. Partly concealed 
by the island lies (1.) the busy little town of Vallendar, with 
a handsome new church, built by Lassaulx. 

In the valley behind Vallendar are the remains of the nunnery of 
Schonstatt with its well preserved Gothic towers, abandoned in 1567, after- 
wards destroyed by the Swedes, and now converted into a cloth factory. 
From this point the road to the 1. leads through a beautiful wooded valley 
to the wealthy Nassovian village of Hohr {Miillenbach) , with its extensive 
potteries. 

On the long island of (r.) Niederwerth stands the di- 
lapidated-looking village of the same name, with a convent- 
church built in 1500, containing a carved altar-piece and frag- 
ments of good stained glass. Edward III. of England once 
resided here for a short time in 1337, and had several inter- 
views with the Emperor Louis and other princes. 

1. Mallendar, a great portion of which formerly belonged 
to the knights of the Teutonic Order; on an eminence above 
the village stands the Haus Besselich, once the property of 
the Knights Templar, and afterwards an Augustine nunnery 
till 1804, when it was secularized and passed into private 
hands. The garden commands a fine view. On the hillside, 
higher up the river, is seen the village of Urbar, surrounded 
by fruit-trees. 

r. Wallersheim , and above it Neuendorf, chiefly in- 
habited by raft-men. The smaller rafts generally lie here for 
some time and receive considerable additions until they reach 
the dimensions of 850—900 ft. in length and 180—250 ft. in 
breadth ; they are furnished with a number of wooden hnts 
on the middle for the accommodation of the crew, which 
frequently numbers 150 — 160 men. It is said that a raft 
proprietor must have a capital of at least 45,000/. , one third 
of which consists of wood iii the forest, one third timber on 
the water, and one third is requisite for the expenses of 
transport from the Upper Rhine to Dordrecht in Holland. 

The steamboat now passes the influx of the Moselle, 
commanding a view of the lofty arches of the bridge, glides 
beneath the rocks and bastions of Ehrenbreitstein, and finally 
stops at Coblenz (R. 20). 

19. Brohlthal, Laaeher See, Lava quarries 
of Niedermending. 

(Comp. Map R. 15.) 

Distances. From Brohl (p. 64) to Tonnisstein 4'/ 2 M. , to Wassenach 
2'/ 4 M„ to the Abbey of Laach 3 M., to JJiedermendig 3 M., to Mayen 3 M. 
Diligence twice a day between Mayen and Coblenz in 3 lirs., to the Neuwied 



70 Route 19. BROHLTHAL. 

station in 2% hr.^. The Laacher See may be most conveniently visited by 
carriage from Andernach; a two- horse carriage from Andernach to Nieder- 
mending, Laach (where dine), Tounisstein, Brohl, and back to Andernach, 
costs 3 Thlr., the drive occupying about 5 l / 2 hrs. 

The *Brohlthal has been for more than half a century 
the object of the unwearied investigations of many celebrated 
geologists. It is a beautiful winding valley enclosed by 
high, wooded mountains, traversed by a rapid brook, and 
studded with numerous mills and other houses, but the 
principal object of interest is the extensive bed of Tuffstone, 
15 — 20 ft. in thickness, of which the whole of the bottom 
of the valley consists. It is a soft whitish -grey or pale 
yellow stone with sponge -like pores and much veined with 
pumice stone, very similar to the Italian puzzolana earth, 
and is believed to be the product of volcanic mud-streams. 
It is sometimes found covered with softer, sandy substances, 
such as loose pumice stone and volcanic ash, and sometimes 
on the surface of the earth , where it has been exposed by 
the action of the weather. The tuffstone was in very early 
times used as a building material, and almost all the churches 
from this part of the Rhine down to Holland were constructed 
of it, the cornicings and carved work being hewn out of the 
trachyte of the Drachenfels (which however is more easily 
weathered than the tuffstone). In more modern times it has 
never been employed for building purposes, except in the 
case of the church of Apollinarisberg (p. 62). The tuffstone, 
however derives its principal value in commerce from the 
"trass", or cement made from it. When pounded down and 
mixed with lime it possesses the invaluable property of har- 
dening under water, and is exported in large quantities to 
Holland, where it is used in the construction of the dykes. 
(Geologists should consult the admirable Geognostio-orographio 
maps of the neighbourhood of the Laacher See, by Oeynhauseii, 
pub. at Berlin, 1847.) 

The numerous mineral springs in the vicinity of the 
Laacher See, and especially in the Brohlthal, may serve as 
a proof that the volcanic agency has not yet altogether 
ceased. They are formed by the carbonic acid gas which 
rises from the fissures of the slate rocks and impregnates 
the springs to such an extent, that they form probably about 
one half of the water which the Brohlbach conveys to the 
Rhine. 

The period when the beds of tuffstone were formed cannot 
possibly be determined, as even the pumice-stone, the most 
recent volcanic production, which frequently covers the for- 
mer, belongs to an epoch far more remote than any recorded 



BROHLTHAL. 19. Bonte. 71 

in human history. The fact that the Romans, the earliest 
annalists of this part of the world, buried their dead in those 
same pumice-stone beds (at Andernach for example), serves 
to prove their antiquity. It is, however, a remarkable fact 
that the remains of plants contained by the tuffstone belong 
to species which still exist. 

The tuffstone quarries are seen on both sides of the valley, 
and are partly open, partly subterranean, forming extensive 
galleries, supported by natural pillars left for the purpose. 
Here and there, where these galleries have fallen in, the 
pillars which have been left standing, are covered with the 
most luxuriant vegetation, favoured by the decomposition of 
the stone, and enhance the beauty and variety of the valley. 
A good high-road leads through the valley from Brohl to 
Ober-Zissen (p. 74), and a tolerable carriage -road from 
Tonnisstein (see below), to the Abbey of Laach and Nieder- 
mendig. 

At the entrance of the Brohl valley, on the K. side, the 
traveller passes a paper-mill, surrounded with gardens and 
grounds. About 1 '/ 2 M. farther, the small castle of Schwep- 
penburg, probably erected in the 16th cent., rises from an 
eminence in the middle of the valley. The garden contains 
a Roman altar found here. About % M. farther up the 
valley, which here diverges to the S. is the Heitbrunnen , a 
mineral spring with a saltish but refreshing taste, similar to 
that of the Kreuzbrunnen of Marienbad. 

One mile from Schweppenburg, the road to the 1. leads 
through a side- valley to the Laacher See, while that which 
continues in the valley in a straight direction leads to Olbriiek. 
On the former road, soon after the Brohlthal is left, the 
traveller reaches the Tonnissteiner Brunnen, the water 
of which is strongly impregnated with carbonic acid gas, 
and, when mixed with wine and sugar, forms an agreeable 
and refreshing beverage. The marble basin was constructed 
in 1700 by Joseph Clemens, Elector of Cologne, and the 
grounds were laid out by his successor Clemens August. 

Seven minutes' walk from Tonnisstein the road (to regain 
which the pedestrian must retrace his steps from the springs 
and recross the bridge) passes the ruins of the (1.) Carmelite 
monastery of Antoniusstein (hence the corruption "Tonnis- 
stein"), leads through the village of Wassenach. {Laacher 
Hof), and descends through the wood towards the Laacher 
See. On the r. rises the wooded Veitskopf (1228 ft.) a vol- 
canic peak with a double crater opening on the W. side, and 
a broad and rapidly descending stream of lava. The view 



72 Route 19. LAACH. 

from this point of the lake surrounded by wooded hills is 
very striking. 

On the S. W. bank rises the Benedictine Abbey of *Laach, 
founded by the Count Palatine Henry II. in 1093, and se- 
cularized in 1802, once one of the wealthiest and most cele- 
brated in Germany. In 1863 it became the property of 
the Jesuits, who have converted it into an educational 
establishment. The church, completed in 1156 (no longer 
used for divine service), with its dome, five towers, and crypt, 
in the Romanesque style, and richly decorated, is an object 
of almost equal interest to architects and the unprofessional 
traveller. The beautiful cloisters, restored in 1859, belong to 
the close of the 12th cent., and the curious monument of 
the founder, the foremost pillars of which are monoliths of 
calc sinter, to the end of the 13th. The church is the pro- 
perty of, and is kept in repair by Government. What was 
formerly a large summer-house in the orchard is now con- 
verted into an inn of small pretensions. Excellent pike fishing 
may be enjoyed on the lake, and a traditional fish of 40 lbs. 
is made an additional incentive to the angler. As the fishing 
is farmed, whatever fish is captured must be purchased if 
carried away. Boats with the services of fishermen acquainted 
with the lake may be procured at the inn, which also affords 
tolerable refreshment and accomodation. 

The *Liaacher See (846 ft.) is nearly round, averaging 
1% M. in diameter, and is about 6 M. in circumference. It 
is the largest of the crater- tarns (R. 33) of the Eifel and was 
probably one of the more recent results of the volcanic agency 
in this district. It is not itself a crater, but is believed to 
have been formed by a series of volcanic eruptions which took 
place in the vicinity, especially by the upheaving of the Veits- 
kopf (p. 71). There are several craters in the hills which 
surround the lake, the principal of which is the Krufter Ofen 
(1443 ft.), 1 M. distant, the barren, brownish-red slag walls 
of which sink towards the lake. 

The road leads along the W. side of the lake, but the E. 
side is by far the more interesting for the geologist. At the 
N. E. corner, 3 / 4 M. from the Wassenach road, on the 1. side 
of the footpath, and near a barren spot to the r. of the 
meadow, is a "mnfette" (comp. R. 33) in a bed of clay, about 
20 ft. above the level of the water, where dead mice, birds, 
squirrels, &c. are constantly found, having been suffocated 
by the carbonic acid gas which continually issues in greater 
or less volumes from the hole, affording another proof that 
the volcanic agency is not yet completely extinct (comp. p. 53). 
The lower strata of the air in this cavity are overpowering 



MAYEN. 19. Route. 73 

even to human beings , of which the traveller may satisfy 
himself by bending down his head. 

After an inundation in the 12th cent, which threatened 
the destruction of the Abbey lands, the Benedictines caused 
a shaft to be sunk on the S. side of the lake, by which the 
water is conveyed under ground to the Nette. A similar 
shaft constructed in 1845 has lowered the level of the lake 
by about 23 ft. 

The extensive basalt-lava * Quarries of Niedermendig 
(Miiller) are situated about 3 M. to the S. of the Laacher See. 
The subterranean galleries, which extend over an area of 3 M. 
in length and 1 % M. in breadth, reach as far as the Krufter 
Ofen (p. 72), but the lava-stream which was probably ejected 
by the Forstberg (1842 ft.) is the largest at Niedermendig, where 
it is intersected by numerous and spacious halls, supported 
by huge pillars. These pits, which were probably worked 
by the Romans , are almost all connected with each other, 
and communicate with the surface of the earth by means of 
wide, walled shafts for ventilation and the transport of the 
stone. A guide (10 Sgr.) precedes the visitor with a torch ; 
the inspection occupies about an hour. The temperature in 
these mines is so low that even in the height of summer 
huge icicles are suspended from the roof, and masses 
of ice are seen in all directions. The lava is not only 
used for millstones, but on account of its extreme hardness 
and durability forms an excellent material for paving and 
building purposes. The deserted galleries are used as beer- 
cellars, and to them the beer of Mendig is indebted for 
its celebrity. 

At Mayen (* Miller; Post), the district town (diligence 
twice a day to Coblenz in 3 hrs., to the Neuwied station in 
2 3 / 4 hrs.), there are also lava - quarries , which, however, are 
more open and of a less depth than those above described. 
The lava-bed in which they are worked is the outlet of the 
sunken volcano of Ettringer-Beller-Kopf (1287 ft.), 1 % M. 
N. from Mayen. The E. side of the crater commands a fine 
view of the fruitful plain which lies between Mayen and 
Andernach, and of the valley of the Rhine. The rugged walls 
of the S. extremity of the lava-field are to be seen at the 
Reifer Mi'ihle in the valley of the Nette, about 1 ] / 2 M. below 
Mayen, and in the vicinity of the slate quarry of Radscheck. 

From Laach to Mayen another road leads by Bell, the same distance 
(6 M.) as by Niedermendig, passing the remarkable brickstone (similar to 
tuffstone) quarries of Bell. Beyond them rises the *Forstberg (1842 ft.), the 
crater of which opens towards the N. W. The llochstein , a mass of rock 
on the W. side, commands a fine view of the Laacher See, the Eifel, and the 
Rhine as far as the Seven Mountains. Below the llochstein is an old artificial 



74 Route 19. BURGBROHL. 

grotto, the origin of which is unknown. From the Forstberg the road leads 
by Kttringen and the above mentioned Ettringer-Beller-Kopf to Mayen. 

From the Laaciier See to the Rhine (or from Niedermendig) are 
three different ways: 1st, the old road to Andernach (9 M.), which offers 
little variety, passing the villages of Nickenich and Eich a little to the r. ; 
2nd, the high-road to Andernach (10'/, M.) by Kruft (in the valley are seen 
the ruins of Korretsburg) , Plaidt, and Miesenheim , where the Andernach 
road diverges from that to Neuwied: the latter leads in a N. F. direction, 
passing the Netterhammer and joining the Coblenz road at the Netterhaus 
near the Neuwied station; 3d, to Coblenz, which by the direct road 
(by Ochtendung, Bassenheim and Ritbenach) is 1") M. distant. About 1% M. 
from Niedermendig it passes the Church of St. Genovefa, where according to 
the old tradition the saint was discovered in the wilderness by her husband 
Siegfried, Count Palatine of Hohensimmern. The church contains monuments 
of both. Near the brook which crosses the road not far from the church, 
numerous mineral springs bubble up on the road-side (p. 71). 



Instead of diverging to the 1. to Tonnisstein (p. 71), the 
traveller may keep the road in the Brohl valley, which will 
bring him to Burgbrohl (* Solent in) (1 M.) , a picturesquely 
situated village with an old castle, once the seat of a family 
of the same name. The huge masses of calcareous tuff of 
which the rocks here consist, have been gradually deposited 
by the mineral springs, like the thermal tuff of Carlsbad. 
The road next passes through Nieder - Zissen (* Burchartz) 
(3 M.), Ober-Zissen (1% M.) and Hain (Rademacher) (1 M.); 
1 M. further the castle of Olbriick (1456 ft.) is reached. 
The latter is one of the highest points in this district, and 
commands an extensive view of the volcanic peaks of the 
Eifel, the hilly country in the direction of the Rhine, and the 
Seven Mountains. The only part of the castle which is stilt 
in good preservation is the lofty square tower, a conspicuous 
object in the landscape when viewed from the Seven Moun- 
tains and the plain of the Rhine. The peak on which it 
stands consists of clink-stone or phonolite, also a volcanic 
product. From the Perler Kopf (1800 ft.), 3 M. to the W. of 
Olbriick, the prospect is still more extensive. [From Olbriick 
S. W. to Kempenich (p. 60) 3 3 / 4 M., thence to the Hochacht 
(p. 60) 10 '/ 2 M.J. 

The traveller who wishes to return to the Rhine by a dif- 
ferent route is recommended to take the path at Nieder-Zissen 
(see above) which ascends to the N., traversing a low wood 
(the Scheiderwahl) , passing the volcanic peak (2 : / 4 M.) of 
Hercheiiberg (997 ft.), the summit and E. slopes of which 
consist of tuffstone, the W. side of slag, and the S. of cleft 
pillar-like lava; 1 y 4 M. farther Ober - Lutzingen , 1 '/ 4 M. 
Nieder-Lutzingen (* Paulsen), then turning to the 1. by the 
ohapel, over the ridge of the mountain, and finally through 
wood bearing to the r., the castle of Rheineck (p. 64)'(2 M.) 
is reached, the entire distance from Nieder-Zissen being 6% M. 



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COBLENZ. 20. Route. 75 

This path passes at Nieder-Zissen by the foot of the Bau- 
senberg (1056 ft.), which rises to the N. of the village, 450 ft. 
above it. Its summit is one of the finest and most distinctly 
defined craters in the vicinity of the Laacher See, its inner 
wall, 79 ft. in height, opening to the N. W. The lava stream 
may be traced 3 M. in a N. E. direction, down to the valley 
of the Pfingstbach at Gonnersdorf, where it terminates in huge 
columnar masses of rock. 

SO. Coblenz. 

Hotels. On the Rhine: *Giant (PI. a) and "Bellevue (PI. It) (R. 15— 
20 Sgr., L. 5. B. 10, D. 24, A. 6 Sgr.). — * Anker (PI. c) (R. and B. 22 Sgr. ; 
"Hotel de Prusse (PI. d.) (R. and B. 19 Sgr.). — In the town: "Hotel 
de Treves (PI. e) in the Clemensplatz, quiet (R. 15, B. 8, D. 20, A. 5 Sgr.). 
— "Hotel de Liege (PI. f), not far from the station and the Moselle steam- 
boat wharf; Wildes Schwein (PI. g); Traube. — In Ehrenbreitstein ; 
White Horse, with garden commanding a fine view of the Rhine and 
Coblenz. 

Cafes. *Tri nkh alle, on the Rhine-promenade, 3 / 4 M. from the Hol/thor : 
in summer a Cafe on the Rhine-wharf, opp. the steamboat piers; both of 
these command fine views. Hubaleck, opp. the post-office. Beer in all. 

Newspapers in the Casino; strangers introduced by a member. 

Porterage from the steamboat to one of the hotels on the Rhine: 2 Sgr. 
for every box, 1 Sgr. for smaller packages ; into the town 3 or 2, to Ehren- 
breitstein 4 or 2'/o Sgr. 

military Music on Sundays at 11'/,, and Wednesdays at 12 o'clock, in 
the Clemensplatz. 

Baths in the Rhine, attached to the bridge of boats; in the Moselle on 
the 1. bank (ferry 1 Sgr.). Swimming-baths in the Rhine, a little below 
the bridge; charge for a single bath (excl. of towel etc.) 5 Sgr. 

Railway Station on the W. side of the town, within the ramparts. 

Telegraph-office in the Schloss Rondel, No. 11. 

Carriages. One-horse: for a drive 1— 2 pers. 5, 3 pers. 7, 4 pers. 8 Sgr. : 
for an hour 15, foi each following hour 7 1 /^ Sgr.; to Laubbach (p. 90) 
10, there and back, with one hour's stay, 15 Sgr.; to Capellen (Stolzenfels) 
17'/,,, there and back, with one hour's stay, 27'/, Sgr. ; for half a day 1 Thlr. 
7", , or including the Konigsstuhl 1 Thlr. 27"'/, Sgr. To the Karthause 
(p."79) as far as the Schone Aussicht and back, with one hour's stay. 1 Thlr. 
To the top of Ehrenbreitstein and back, with 2 hours' stay, 1 Thlr. 7 y, Sgr.; 
to Arenberg (Calvarienberg worth a visit, view magnificent) and back, with 
2 hours' stay, 1 Thlr. 5 Sgr.; to Niederlahnstein 22'/ 2 , there and back, with 
one hours' stay, 27'/, Sgr., for half a day l'/ 2 Thlr.; to Ems (R. 22) 2 Thlr. 
5 Sgr., there and back, with stay of '/, day, 2 Thlr. 20 Sgr.; for the whole 
day 3 Thlr. 10 Sgr.; to Sayn (p. 68) and back, with two hours' stay, 1 Thlr. 
22'/, Sgr. — Two-horse carriages cost one half more. Bridge toll (4 1 /, — 6 Sgr.) 
may be saved by taking a carriage in Ehrenbreitstein for excursions on the 
r. bank of the river. Stands on the Riine near the "Giant", near the Maimer 
Thor and in Ehrenbreitstein near the bridge. N.B. Carriages from the hotels, 
and those not furnished with a number have no fixed charges. 

English Church Service performed by a resident chaplain every Sunday 
in the English Chapel in the Palace. 

Moselle-steamboats comp. R. 32. The following two-days' excursion in- 
cludes the most beautiful points on the Moselle. By steamboat to Alf, by car- 
riage to Bertrich l 2 /, Thlr., or to the Falkenlei, near the village of Kenfuss, 
about 2'/„ Thlr., visiting, on the way back to Bertrich, the Cheese -grotto, 
waterfall," Bertrich itself and environs, and returning the same evening 
to Alf. On the following morning by steamboat back to Coblenz, arriving 
in the afternoon. 



76 Route 20. COBLENZ. 

Travellers whose time is limited are recommended to walk down the 
Rhine from the steamboat wharf to the Moselle, then to the 1. along the bank 
of the latter and through the gate, inspect the Castorbrunnen and Castor- 
kirche (p. 77), the Moselle bridge (p. 78), the S. gates of the town (p. 79), 
the view from the Karthause (p. 79), and on the way back the Cemetery, 
all of which may be accomplished in 4 hrs. *Ehrenbreitstein , see p. 80, 
♦Stolzenfels K. 24. 

Coblenz, at the confluence of the Moselle and the Rhine, 
is the capital of the Rhenish Province and the seat of the 
highest civil and military authorities. Population, including 
a garrison of about 5000 men, 27,767 (3752 Prot., 415 Jews); 
pop. of Ehrenbreitstein 4287. 

No town on the Rhine can vie with Coblenz in the beauty 
of its situation, and many circumstances contribute to its im- 
portance. It stands at the confluence of perhaps the two 
most lovely streams in the world; equidistant from the im- 
portant towns of Cologne and Mayence, it forms a half-way 
resting place to travellers from both, and it is necessarily the 
depot at which the commerce of the Moselle, the Rhine, and 
the Lahn is concentrated; when to these advantages is added 
its great importance in a military point of view, that it is a 
favourite residence of the amiable sovereign who has endeared 
herself to her Coblenz subjects by a thousand acts of gene- 
rosity, that it is the resort of crowds of the pleasure-seeking 
of our own and other countries, it may be readily understood 
that Coblenz stands unrivalled amongst the cities of this 
beautiful and highly-favoured province. 

The side of the town which faces the Rhine consists of a 
row of handsome buildings, commencing with the palace, 
government buildings, and other houses mostly of modern 
construction, and terminating with the venerable and imposing 
Church of St. Castor and the sadly unpicturesque building 
which formerly belonged to the Teutonic order. The side 
next to the Moselle, extending as far as the railway bridge, 
has a much poorer aspect, but is far from devoid of interest. 

Coblenz was the Conflaentes of the Romans, and belonged 
to a series of fortresses erected by Drusus on the 1. bank of 
the Rhine in the year B.C. 9, as a protection against the in- 
cursions of the neighbouring Germanic tribes. It is also men- 
tioned by Ammiantts Marcellinus (d. 390) as being the only 
Roman fortress on this part of the Rhine in his time. At 
the junction of the two rivers several coins of Roman emperors 
were discovered in 1844, when the new wharves were in 
course of construction. 

Till the establishment of the Rhenish Towns' Confederation, 
Coblenz was a place of little importance. In the 30 Years' 
war it was in turn besieged and garrisoned by the Swedes, 



Church of St. Castor. COBLENZ. 20. Route 77 

the French, and the Imperial troops, in 1688, although 
the greater part of the town was destroyed by the French 
cannonade, it successfully resisted the attacks of Marshal 
Boufflers. On the completion of the palace in 1786 it be- 
came the residence of the Elector of Treves, but a few years 
later (Oct. 23rd, 1794) it was taken by the French, who exacted 
a contribution of 4 million francs and made it the capital of 
the Department of the Rhine and Moselle. On the 1st of 
January, 1814, the French were compelled by the allies to 
evacuate the town, and, in the following year it became sub- 
ject to the crown of Prussia. 

The * Church of St. 'Castor (PI. 2), close to the junction 
of the two rivers, was founded by Louis the Pious in 836; 
the present structure dates from 1208, and is said to present 
the earliest example of what is called the "Lombard style" 
in the Rhenish Provinces. The sharp-arched vaulting belongs 
to the year 1498. The N. choir contains a remarkably fine 
monument of the Archbishop Kuno von Falkenstein (d. 1388, 
see p. 68); it is a Gothic sarcophagus- niche with a fresco 
(adoration of the Saviour, on the r. St. John and St. Castor, 
and on the 1. the archbishop kneeling, Mary and Peter) as- 
cribed to the then celebrated master Wilhelm of Cologne. 
The two fine frescoes in the choir were painted by Sette- 
gast in 1849 and 1852. The Monument of St. Riza, who 
according to an ancient tradition was a daughter of Louis 
the Pious , is a modern work. The new Portal was erected 
in 1862. 

Opposite to the entrance of the church stands the Castor- 
brunnen (PI. 4), erected by the last French prefect in com- 
memoration of the French campaign against Russia, with the 
inscription : "An 1812. Memorable par la campagne contre les 
Russes. Sous le prefecturat de Jules Doazan." The Russian 
general St. Priest, who entered the town on the 1st of Ja- 
nuary, 1814, with exquisite irony caused the words: " Vu et 
approuve par nous Commandant Russe de la ville de Coblence, 
le 1. jan. 1814," to be added. 

Adjacent to the Castorplatz is the residence of the com- 
mander-in-chief of the Rhenish province, a large and strag- 
gling pile with no claim to architectural beauty, but posses- 
sing some interest from the associations with which it is 
connected. It was formerly the seat of the Counts of Leyen, 
and in 1791 afforded an asylum to the Counts of Provence 
and Artois. In 1800 it became the seat of the French prefect, 
and in 1804 (17th — 20th Sept.) was visited by Napoleon and 
his consort. 

A few steps northward bring the visitor to the Mosel- 



78 Route 20. COBLENZ. Palace. 

strasse, by following which, passing the crane and under the 
bridge, he will reach the Wolfsthor. On entering the town, 
by this gate, and passing the Mettemicher Bqf, birthplace of 
Prince Metternich, on the r., he reaches the * Moselle-bridge 
with its 14 arches, erected by the Elector Balduin in 1344 
(the tower was added in 1832), and commanding a fine view 
of Ehrenbreitstein. Across it are conveyed the conduit-pipes 
which supply the town with water from the heights of Metter- 
nich, a village 2 M. distant. Above the bridge is the new 
railway-bridge , and 3 M. beyond it the blue roofs of Riibe- 
nach with its tall spire are seen glittering in the distance. 

On re-entering the town, the ancient Arehiepiscopal Palace 
(Burg, PI. 11) stands on the 1. It was erected in 1276; the 
handsome staircase of the tower belongs to the more recent 
additions. It is now converted into a manufactory of japanned 
tin-wares. 

With the exception of St. Castor's, the churches offer few 
objects of interest. The Liebfrauenkircbe, or Church of 
Our Lady, was founded in the 13th cent., but not completed 
till the 15th. The Gothic choir, with its lofty pointed win- 
dows, was added in 1405, the upper parts of the towers were 
renewed after the siege of 1688. — The Carmelitenkirche, 
erected in 1673, has recently been fitted up as a garrison- 
church. The (Prot.) Florinskirche was built at the commen- 
cement of the 12th cent., the choir added subsequently to 1356. 
Near the latter is the Kaufhaus, or Merchants' Hall, erected 
in 1480 as a Town-hall, and used as such till 1805. 

The Schloss, or palace, in the "Neustadt", is a building 
of considerable extent, but no architectural pretensions. It 
was erected by Clemens Wenceslaus, the last Elector of Treves 
(d. 1812; in 1778—86, and occupied by him till 1794. Soon 
after his departure the French successively converted it into 
a hospital and a barrack. In 1845 it was restored by the 
Prussian government, and since 1850 has been a frequent 
residence of the Prince and Princess (now King and Queen) 
of Prussia. A suite of apartments in the building is assigned 
to the use of the President of the Rhenish Province, and the 
N. wing contains the military protest, church and the English 
chapel. The latter was liberally placed at the disposition of 
the English residents by the Princess (now Queen) of Prussia, 
who not unfrequently attends the service. 

In the middle of the Cleinensplatz (military music see p. 75), 
adjoining the Esplanade with its numerous trees, rises a foun- 
tain-obelisk, erected by Clemens Wenceslaus in 1791, and de- 
dicated "cicinis suis". Opposite to it, and adjoining the Hotel 
de Treves, is the Theatre (PI. 20). 



Promenade. COBLENZ. 20. Route. 79 

The handsome S. gates, the Mainzerthor and the Lohr- 
thor, belong to the fortifications of the town, and serve as 
barracks for the artillery and pioneers. A glance at the ram- 
parts from the drawbridges in front of the gates will convey 
an idea of the fortifications of the town, which are, however, 
of far less importance than the strongly fortified outworks of 
Ehrenbreitstein, the Karthause, and the Petersberg. The new 
* Promenade, which the traveller will reach in 5 niin. from 
the Mainzer Thor by traversing the glacis to the 1., extends 
for upwards of 2 M. along the bank of the river, and well 
deserves a visit on account of the beautiful view it affords. 
The new and handsome iron * Railway Bridge is seen to 
the L, as the glacis is quitted. 

The fortifications on the Karthause , on the r. bank of the 
Moselle, consist of Fort Alexander on the summit, and lower 
down jFort Constantine, the latter occupying the site of an 
ancient Carthusian monastery. The road which ascends the 
hill between rows of trees and leads to the Hunnsriicken was, 
before the construction of the road along the bank of the 
Rhine, the high-road to Bingen and Mayence. The view about 
half-way up is singularly beautiful; in the foreground is the 
rich plain of the Rhine and the island of Oberwerth, and the 
background consists of a semicircle of picturesquely shaped 
hills with the castles of Stolzenfels and Lahneck. 

On the side of the Karthause facing the Moselle, about 
150 paces S. from the military rifle-practice ground, is a spot 
railed in and furnished with seats ("*rfse schone Aussicht") 
which affords a strikingly beautiful glimpse of the peaceful 
and lovely valley of the Moselle. If the road along the brow of 
the hill be now followed in the direction of the fortifications, 
the traveller will reach a broad road planted with poplars, 
which continuing nearly on the same level, leads round the 
fortifications of Fort Alexander, affording a succession of fine 
views, and joining the main road near Fort Constantine. 

The *Kuhkopf (1159 ft.), the wooded summit to the S. 
of the Karthause, is about 1 y 2 M. distant from the exercising- 
ground, and commands a splendid and peculiar prospect, es- 
pecially from the Luisen-Linde (a large lime- tree named after 
the Princess Louisa of Prussia, now Grand-duchess of Baden), 
from which three navigable rivers, the Rhine, the Moselle, and 
the Lahn, are visible at the same time. About l / 2 M. beyond the 
point where the path from the Kiihkopf joins the road, another 
road (for pedestrians only) descends to Stolzenfels (p. 90). 

At the foot of the fortifications of Fort Alexander, on the 
N. side, is situated the * Cemetery, with its numerous monu- 



80 Route 20. COBLENZ. 

ments and weeping willows, where, among other illustrious 
dead, lie the remains of the poet Max von Schenkendorf (d. 1817). 
Beyond the bridge over the Moselle rises the slight emi- 
nence of Petersberg , crowned by the fortifications of Fort 
Franz, which commands the town, the roads to Treves 
and Cologne, and the entire intervening plain. Two smaller 
outworks, to the r. and 1. of the principal fort, and connected 
with it by subterranean passages, and a third in the plain 
near Neuendorf, complete this portion of the fortifications and 
form an extensive camp capable of affording shelter to 100,000 
men. The full complement of the garrison in time of war is 
fixed at 15,000, but owing to the admirable arrangements of 
the works 5000 men (Alexander and Constantine 2000, B^ranz 
500, Town 800, Ehrenbreitstein 1200 and Asterstein 500) 
would be sufficient to defend the town against an enemy of 
far superior force. 

Within the walls of Fort Franz, to the 1. on entering, a 
plain marble slab, enclosed by four corner-stones, indicates the 
grave of the French General Hocke (p. 67), whose remains 
were brought from Wetzlar to Coblenz and here interred, and 
near it his companion in arms Marceau (" soldat a 16 am, 
yeneral a 22 ans"), who fell at Altenkirchen in 1706. The 
monument of the latter as well as his remains were, on the 
construction of the fortification in 1819, removed to their 
present position at the foot of the hill, on the 1. hand side 
of the Cologne road, about 3 / 4 M. from the Moselle bridge. 
Byron's well-known lines: 

••By Coblenz, on a gentle rise of ground, 
There is a small and simple pyramid, 
Crowning the summit of the verdant mound; 
Beneath its base are hero's ashes hid 
Our enemy, — but let not that forbid 
Honour to Marceau!" (fee- 
refer to the monument in its original position. 

The fertile plain which extends between Coblenz and Andernach is cele- 
brated in history as the scene of Cresar's first passage of the Rhine (near 
Engers), B. C. 55, the contests between Charles the Bald and Louis the German 
in 871, the devastation of this district by the Normans in S82, the sieges of 
the 30 Years' war in 1631 — 1636, the murderous and destructive campaign of 
Louis XIV., the Spanish war of succession, and the French' revolutionary 
war of 1794 — 17117. — About 1 M. to the N. W. of Marceau's monument is 
situated Schonbornslust, once a villa of the Elector of Treves, and the resi- 
dence of the Bourbon princes and other illustrious fugitives during the first 
French revolution. 

21. Ehrenbreitstein. 

Cards of admission (2'/ 2 Sgr.) must be procured at the office of the com- 
mandant (PI. 33), the first door to the r. after crossing the bridge over the 
dock. Visitors are received at the top and conducted over the fortress by 



EHRENBREITSTEIN. 21. Route. 81 

a soldier. Two hours suffice for the walk from Cdbleuz to the summit and 
back. The view from the Pfaffendorfer Hoke (p. Si) is similar to that from 
Ehrenbreitstein ; no permission necessary. 

Opposite to the influx of the Moselle rises the majestic 
fortress of * Ehrenbreitstein, justly termed the Gibraltar of 
the Rhine, situated on a precipitous and rugged rock, 377 ft. 
above the Rhine and 566 ft. above the level of the sea. The 
castle which formerly occupied the site of the present fortifica- 
tion is said to have been presented by the Franconian king 
Dagobert to the Archbishops of Treves, and it is known that 
the latter were confirmed in their possession by the Emperor 
Henry II. in 1018. It was subsequently greatly enlarged and 
strengthened at various periods, and became a fortress of 
great importance. It has only twice succumbed to an enemy, 
once having been taken by stratagem , and once reduced by 
famine. On the first of these occasions it fell into the hands 
of the French in 1631, under whose protection the Elector 
Christoph von Sotern had placed himself. The Elector having 
found a pretext for drawing off the greater part of the gar- 
rison, the French crossed the Rhine at Bingen, marched across 
the hills from Lofch to Montabaur, and entered the fortress 
in the rear. Five years later it again came into the possession 
of the Imperial general Johann von Werth. 

During the French revolutionary war, Ehrenbreitstein was 
besieged four different times, in 1795, 1796, 1797, and 1798, 
and was finally surrendered, Jan. 27th, 1799, by the brave 
Colonel Faber, after all the provisions had been consumed. 
Immediately after its occupation by the French, they added 
several new intrenchments on the N. side, but in consequence 
of the peace of Luneville they blew up the entire works and 
evacuated it in 1801. At the second peace of Paris, 15 million 
francs were paid according to treaty by the French to the 
Prussian government for the restoration of the fortifications, 
which were recommenced in 1816 under the direction of 
General Aster, and completed 10 years later, at a total ex- 
pense of not less than 8 million dollars (1,200,000?.). The new 
fortress extends over a part of the narrow table-land to the N. 
of the rock, and justly excites the admiration of connoisseurs 
from all parts of Europe. 

A bridge of boats, 470 yds. in length, connects Coblenz 
with the small town of Ehrenbreitstein. On the pillars of the 
gateway are indicated the heights attained by the Rhine during 
recent inundations; the highest was that of 1845. 

The way to the fortress leads through the town. On en- 
tering the gate beyond the drawbridge the visitor passes a 
handsome building on the r., erected in 1747 by the Electors 

BAEDEKE."'" Bl>i "° g 



£2 Route 2-J. OBERLAHN STEIN. 

of Treves as a residence for the governors of the place. It 
now serves as a provision magazine. A little beyond it the 
road ascends to the r. into the fortress, passing the old 
Pagenhaus (or institution for pages) of the Electors of Treves, 
and the Helfenstein , or lower part of the fortification. The 
steep flight of steps on the side facing the Rhine is now no 
longer used. 

On three sides Ehrenbreitstein is , according to military 
criticism, inaccessible, and the N. side, where alone it could 
be attacked, is defended by a double line of bastions, which 
would have to be taken successively before an enemy could 
enter in that direction. The view from the top is one of the 
finest on the whole Rhine. It comprises the rich and fruit- 
ful plain of the Rhine from Stolzenfels to Andernach, and 
the numerous volcanic peaks of the Maifeld and Eifel (R. 33). 
Immediately below are the Rhine, the Moselle, and the trian- 
gular town of Coblenz. 

The Asterstein on the Pfaffendurfer Hiihe, to the S. of 
Ehrenbreitstein, is connected with the latter, and forms a part 
of the fortifications of the r. bank of the Rhine. The tower 
on the W. slope was erected in honour of -the Grand-duchess 
of Baden, daughter of the present king of Prussia. 

Coblenz and Ehrenbreitstein were visited by Goethe in 
the summer of 1774, and he resided for some time in the 
last house in Ehrenbreitstein on the 1. before entering the 
fortress, at that time the residence of the Chancellor de la 
Roche. The poet gives a pleasing description of his visit in 
the 3rd part of his "Fiction and Truth." 

22. From Coblenz to Wetzlar. 

Ems and the Valley of the Lahn. 

Comp. map. R. 24. 

By railway direct, since tiie completion of the new railway bridge at 
Coblenz, to Ems in '/,, to Wetzlar in 2 3 / 4 — 3 hrs. Carriage-road and 1'outpatb 
to Ems see p. S3 ; carriages p. 75. 

On quitting the Coblenz station the train leaves the Left- 
Rhenish line, and passing the Lohr and the Mainzer Thor 
(p. 79) approaches the Rhine. From the railway -bridge a 
pleasing glimpse is obtained of the town, the palace, and the 
fortress of Ehrenbreitstein. Passing the villages of P/affe/i- 
dorf, Hurchheim and Niederlaknstein, and crossing the Laka 
opposite to the beautifully situated castle of Stolzenfels, the 
train stops at Oberlahnstein (p. 91; *Railway refreshment- 
room; to Riidesheim and Wiesbaden see R. 23), where carriages 
must frequently be changed. 



EMS. 22. Route. 83 

The train now slowly skirts the 'base of the wooded 
eminence on which the castle of Lahneck (p. 92) stands, and 
remains on the 1. bank of the Lahn till Nassau is reached. 

Besides the railway, a good road leads from Ehrenbreitstein to Ems by 
Niederlahnstein, thence ascending the picturesque valley of the Lahn on the 
r. bank of the river, passing several iron-foundries and the village of Fach- 
bach, a distance of 12 M. (by carriage in 2 hrs.) The footpath from Ehren- 
breitstein over the hills (Arzheim 1 M. , signpost 3 M. farther, Fuchbach 
l','i M., thence to Ems l'/ 2 M., total distance 7 M.) may be found without 
a guide. 

Hotels in Ems. Englischer Hof, at the W. end; Russischer 
Hof, in the centre of The town. Four Seasons, and Europaischer 
Hof, near the Cursaal. Darmstadter Hof, near the old Curhaus. Gut- 
tenberger Hof, on the 1. bank of the Lahn, good table d'hote; Hotel 
de France, both near the station. Besides these hotels there are a great 
number of lodging-houses: Panorama, Pariser Hof, Prince of Wales, 
Stadt London, etc. on the 1. bank of the river. 

Carriages. To Arnstein and back 6 fl.; Bitxubach 5 h\, back by Lahn- 
stein 7 fl. ; Cobleriz 5 fl., and back 7 fl. ; to Ehrenbreitstein 4'/ 2 fl., and back 
6 fl.; Nassau and back 3'/s fl., for the whole day 5'/ 2 ; Lahnstein 3'/ 3 fl. 
and back 5 fl., for the whole day 6 fl. These charges include tolls and) 
driver's fee. 

Donkeys. To Ehrenbreitstein 1",, fl.; Braubach 1% fl. (to Marksburg 
18 kr. more); Nassau l'/ 3 (to the castle 18 kr. more); Arnstein 1 fl. 48 kr. ; 
Fuchbach and Nievern 40 kr. ; Mooshitte 30 kr., to the highest point 40 kr., 
same and back by Dausenau 111. These charges all include the return-ride; 
the donkey-boys expect a fee of a few kreuzers. Two -donkey carriages at 
somewhat more than double the above charges. 

Telegraph Office during the season in the Fiirstenhof. 

English Church Service during the season in the English Chapel on the 
1. bank of the Lahn. 

"Evas was known to the Romans, as is proved by the 
vases, coins, &c, found at various times in the vicinity, and 
is mentioned in a document of 1354 as a warm bath under 
the inspection of the governments of Hessen-Darmstadt and 
Oranien-Nassau, to the latter of which it has exclusively 
belonged since 1803. It is. a curious fact, showing to what 
an extent Germany was formerly cut up into small principali- 
ties, that from the bridge over the Lahn, which commands 
but a limited view, the dominions of 8 different independent 
princes could be seen. 

The village (3000 inhab., '/ 3 Rom. Cath.) has within 
the last few years completely altered its aspect. For many 
years it was limited to a row of lodging-houses on the r. 
bank of the river, but by degrees a new Ems has sprung 
up on the 1. bank, consisting of a group of handsome and 
commodious residences, which are in some respects far pre- 
ferable to those on the r. bank , being less exposed to the 
sun, and, what is of no little moment to the invalid, more 
retired, and farther removed from the bustle of the promenade 
and Curhaus (rail. stat. also on the 1. bank). Among the 
plantations at the back of the (}.) English Church, higher up 

6* 



84 Route 22. EMS. From Coblenz 

the hill, is seen the Schweizer Hans (Swiss House), a cafe 
commanding a pleasing view. On the wooded summit of the 
Mahlberg-Kopf stands a tower, much resorted to for the sake 
of the view (comprising Stolzenfels), and reached by pleasant, 
shady walks. Way back by the Lindenbach (*Inn), past some 
silver works, re-entering the valley of the Lahn about I 1 /, M. 
below Ems. 

The principal buildings are the Bath -establishment with 
the four towers, the old Curhaus, connected by an elegant 
open hall, used as a bazaar, with the Cursaal, where the 
usual seductions of an elegant ball-room, supper and reading- 
rooms, with apartments devoted to gambling are offered to 
the unwary traveller. The new Bath-house on the 1. bank is 
a large square building with two court-yards and gardens in 
the middle, and two mineral springs, the water of which is 
pumped up by steam. The baths in this establishment are 
better and more comfortably fitted up than those of the old 
Curhaus, the latter being only separated by partitions which 
do not reach to the ceiling. It also contains a new "in- 
haling-apparatus." A covered iron bridge connects this bath- 
house with the walks on the r. bank of the Lahn. 

The most celebrated springs are the Kesselbrunnen (117° 
Fahr.), the Krahnchen (79 — 85°), and the Furstenbrunnen 
(93 — 95°), all enclosed in the hall belonging to the old Cur- 
haus. The principal ingredients of the waters are bi-carbonate 
of soda and chloride of sodium, and they are most efficacious 
in pulmonary and female complaints. About 150,000 bottles 
are exported every year. The annual number of guests who 
visit Ems is about 5000 (in 1823 only 1200), most of them 
belonging to the higher classes. The height of the season is 
from the middle of July to the end of August. In the 
evening between 6 and 8 o'clock the grounds of the Curhaus 
are thronged by a fashionable crowd, which assembles at the 
same hours in the morning, to drink the waters. 

On the E. side of Ems the * Baderlei, a rugged group of 
slate rooks, rises precipitously from the street. Half-way up 
are the Hanselmann's caves, not unlike small casemates and 
embrasures, sinking deep into the grauwackian strata (origin 
unknown). The Mooshutte at the top commands a fine view. 
(Way up by the old Curhaus.) The Winterberg commands a 
line view ; a Roman watch-tower and the remnants of an in- 
trenchment were discovered on the summit in 1859. 

The railway to Limburg keeps the 1. bank of the Lahn 
till within a short distance of Nassau (11 min. from Ems). 
Shortly after leaving Ems the train passes Dausenau, where 
an old octaaronal tower indicates the ancient fortification of 



to Wetzlar. NASSAU. 22. Route. 85 

the valley. Near stat. Nassau the Lahn'is crossed by an iron 
bridge, beyond -which Haupt's Hydropathic establishment is 
seen on the r., and a new hospital on the 1. 

Nassau (Krone) was the birth-place of the celebrated 
Prussian minister Baron von Stein (d. 1831). In 1815 he 
caused a Gothic tower to be added to his residence in com- 
memoration of the war of liberation. Above the entrance 
are the arms of the family and the well-known words of 
Luther: "Eine feste Burg ist unser Gott" (our God is a sure 
stronghold). The library contains portraits of Maximilian I., 
Charles V., Luther, Frederick the Great, Bliicher, &c. In 
the upper rooms are preserved commemorative tablets on which 
the most eventful days of the years 1812 — 1815 (war of 
liberation) are recorded in gilt letters. The tower, which was 
the favorite resort, and is replete with reminiscences of its 
former illustrious owner, may also be visited (fee 18 kr.). 
The property now belongs to Count Kielmannsegge, the son- 
in-law of the minister. 

The remains of the Baron von Stein are interred in the family vault at 
Friicht, a village on the heights between Ems ami Branbach (p. 93). The 
forester has the keys of the vault , which is built in the form of a chapel 
(fee IS kr., for a party 30 kr.— 1 fl.). 

On the opposite bank of the Lahn, which is crossed by a 
handsome Suspension bridge, rises a wooded eminence, sur- 
mounted by the ruins of the Castle of Nassau (fine view from 
the tower), family seat of the House of Nassau, erected about 
1100; below it is the ruined Burg zum Stein. The hill is 
encircled with promenades. A small open pavilion on a pro- 
jecting rock commands a beautiful view. 

The road to Wiesbaden (no diligence) passes at the foot of the 
hill, then enters a beautiful valley, after which it crosses the high land to 
SchwaWac/t (K. 33) and Wiesbaden (It. 37). 

Soon after leaving Nassau the train passes the old castle 
of Langenau, formerly the seat of an Austrian family of that 
name which became extinct in 1603. The watch tower and 
outer walls are well preserved ; within the latter a modern 
dwelling house has been erected. On the opposite bank of 
the Lahn rises the monastery of Arnstein, with its church and 
other buildings, picturesquely situated among trees on a rocky 
eminence. The castle, which was built by the powerful Counts 
of Arnstein about the middle of the 13th cent., was in the 
following century converted by the last of the family into a 
monastery, and secularized in 1803. The still habitable buildings 
were up to 1861 employed as a house of correction for Roman 
Catholic clergymen. Near Obernh.of are old lead and silver 
mines, now worked by an English company. 



86 Route 22. DIETZ. 

The train next passes Kalkofen, the "alte Haus", the 
fragment of an ancient nunnery on the heights of the 1. bank, 
and Laurenburg, a village with a small palace and ruined 
castle, in very early times the residence of the Counts 
of Nassau. 

Before reaching the church , a path to the 1. ascends to the village of 
Scheie! (I 1 /, M.) on the hill, aud, about 8 min. walk farther, again leaves the 
main road and descends to the r. into the valley of the Lahn to Geilnau 
(l 1 /, M.). The Lahn describes a circuit of many miles between Laurenburg 
and Geilnau, which the path just described cuts off. The mineral spring 
(no inn) of Geilnau is situated X'/„ M. above the village, and its waters 
are exported in large quantities, but it is never resorted to by the patients 
in person. The valley between Geilnau and Balduinstein is extremely 
picturesque. 

The train proceeds in the valley of the Lahn and after 
passing through the Cramberg tunnel stops at stat. Balduin- 
stein {Noll), where the grand ruins of the castle of the 
same name are seen rising from a narrow ravine behind the 
village. High up on the r., a little farther off, the castle of 
*Schaumburg overlooks the valley from a wooded basaltic 
peak. It was once the seat of the princes of Anhalt-Schaum- 
burg, the last of whom died in 1812, and now belongs to his 
grandson the Archduke Stepban, who has resided in it since 
1848, and greatly enlarged and improved it. The library 
contains many works of value, and a collection of minerals 
occupies the groundfloor of the new part of the building. 
Live bears, eagles, and deer are also kept. The hot-houses 
contain many rare and beautiful plants. Refreshments (good 
and moderate) to be had at the farm-buildings. The footpath 
from Balduinstein to the castle of Schaumburg is somewhat 
steep, by the carriage-road a gentle ascent of 15 — 20 min. 

Stat. Fachingen {inn) derives importance from the cele- 
brated Brunnen of that name, from which 300,000 bottles of 
mineral water are annually exported. The process of filling 
and corking the bottles is an interesting sight. 

Dietz (* Holldndischer Ho/; Hotel Lorenz), a clean little 
town, picturesquely situated on the Lahn, and surmounted by 
an old castle (of the counts of Dietz), now converted into a 
house of correction. The prisoners are employed in cutting 
and polishing marble (found in the neighbourhood) ornaments 
of various kinds which may be purchased in the magazine. 
Permission to see the process, which is worth inspection, 
must be procured from the director of the establishment. The 
bridge which here crosses the Lahn is an interesting old 
structure; it is supported by pillars erected on two others 
which lie unbroken in the bed of the river like the fallen 
tower of the castle of Heidelberg. 

Beyond Dietz, on the 1. bank of the Lahn, is situated 



LIMBURG. 22. Route. 87". 

Scldoss Oranienstein, erected in 1676, and still the frequent 
residence of the Dulce of Nassau. It was for several years 
occupied by the Prince William V. of Oranien-Nassau, the 
exiled stadtholder of the republic of Holland, and great-grand- 
father of the present king. 

Xiimburg (* Preussischer Hof, near the post-office, R. 36 kr., 
D. 48 kr., B. 18 kr. ; *Nassauer Hof, and Deutsches Haus, near 
the bridge) on the Lahn, which is here crossed by a bridge 
erected in 1315, lies 3 M. to the N.E. of Dietz. High above 
the town rises the *"Dom, or Cathedral, with its 5 towers : 
Basilica St. Georgi erecta 909, as the inscription above the 
portal records. The present structure, however, one of the 
finest churches in the transition style, belongs to the year 1235, 
and is the cathedral of the bishop. The interior contains a 
very ancient font, and in the N. transept a monument to the 
Emperor Conrad I. (d. 918), founder of the original building. 

Beyond Limburg the banks of the Lahn become less abrupt 
for a short distance. To the 1. Dietkirchen, which boasts of 
the oldest church in the Duchy, is situated on a rocky eminence 
rising precipitously from the Lahn. Stat. Eschhofen ; then 

Runkel (Wied'scher Hof), an ancient town situated on both 
banks of the Lahn, with an extensive old castle of the princes 
of Wied, a portion of which is still habitable. Near stat. 
Vilmar are considerable marble quarries; then Aumenau, with 
ironstone mines, and after a rapid succession of tunnels, bridges 
and viaducts, 

Weilburg (*Deutscher Hof; *Traube; Schwan), once the 
residence of the Dukes of Nassau-Weilburg, who became extinct 
in 1816. Their chateau, erected in 1711, is picturesquely 
situated on a rocky eminence rising abruptly from the Lahn. 
To the 1. is seen the mouth- of a tunnel, constructed in 1845 
to facilitate the navigation of the river at this point. 

The following stations are Lbhnberg, Stockhausen, Braunfek. 
The small town of Braunfels, the residence of the Prince of Solms- 
Braunfels, is situated on the height to the S. Stat. Albshausen. 

Wetzlar see p. 41. 

23. From Coblenz to Wiesbaden. 

Railway journey. (Comp. Map R.R. 24, 27 and 45.) 

By the direct railway, crossing the Rhine at Coblenz, in 3 lirs.; 
fares: 2 Thlr. 17, 1 Thlr. 22'/,, 1 Thlr. 6 Sgr. Return-tickets, valid for 
.1 days, must be stamped for the return -journey at the booking office. 
Passengers who break their journey must get their tickets checked on 
leaving the train. Views of the Rhine to the rigid. 

[For the detailed description of the localities mentioned on 
the following pages eomp. R.R. 24, 25 and 34). 



88 Route 23. LORCH. From Coblenz 

From Coblenz to Oberlahnstein see preceding Route. 

Stat. Oberlahnstein {Hotel Weller; Hotel Lahneck), where 
the line to Ems and Wetzlar diverges. As the train proceeds, 
a view of the village of Rhense, and the fertile slopes and 
woods beyond, is obtained. Stat. Braubach, at the foot of 
Marksburg, is opposite to the picturesque village of Brey, 
above which are situated Nieder- and Ober-Spay. Beyond 
stat. Osterspay, above which rises the castle of Liebenec/c, the 
river describes a long curve; on the opposite bank, at a con- 
siderable elevation, stands the Jacobsberger Hof. The train 
next passes through the village of Filsen, opposite to the 
Miihlbad, commands a fine view of Boppard, one of the most 
beautifully situated of the Rhenish towns, and reaches stat. Camp. 
The convent of Bornhofen and the foot of the "Brothers" 
Sterrenberg and Liebenstein are now skirted. Above stat. Kestert, 
on the opposite bank, lies the pleasant village of Hirzenach. 
Beyond stat. Welmich, at the base of the "-Mouse," the im- 
posing ruins of Rheinfels on the 1. bank, rising above the 
town of St. Goar, come in sight. 

Stat. St. Goarshausen at the entrance of the Swiss Valley, 
commanded by the "Gat," is next reached. The train then 
penetrates the rocks of the Lurlei and Rosssteiu by means of 
two tunnels, on emerging from which the handsome town of 
Oberwesel, on the opposite bank, commanded by Schonburg, 
comes into view. Opposite stat. Gaub, at the foot of the 
castle of Gutenfels, is situated the Pfah in the middle of the 
Rhine. Farther up the river, on the 1. bank, lies the ancient 
town of Bacharach, behind which rise the picturesque ruins 
of Stahleck. The next ruin on the opposite bank is that of 
Filrstenberg, beyond which lies the village of Rheindiebach. 
The train now intersects the village of Lorchhausen, skirts the 
base of the ancient castle of Nollingen, at the entrance of the 
Wisperthal, and stops at 

Stat. Lorch. On the opposite bank, above the village 
of yiederheimback, rises the round tower of Heimburg, and 
farther on, the picturesque castle of Sooneck. Again on 
the 1. bank Trechtingshausen, and beyond it the castle of 
Falkenburg, at the entrance of the Morgenbachthal ; then the 
Clemenscapelle and above it the picturesquely situated Rhein- 
stein. The train now halts at stat. Assmann&hausen, the 
usual point whence the Niederwald is visited ; a thermal 
spring (95° Fahr.) discovered here by the Romans, occasionally 
attracts invalids. Skirting the base of Ehrenfels, and pass- 
ing the Binger Loch, the Mouse Tower on an island in the 
Rhine, and Bingen, at the influx of the Nahe, the train next 
stops at 



to Wiesbaden. ELTVILLE. 23. Route. 89 

Stat. Riidesheim. Steam ferry *o Binyerbruvk, fares 
7 kr. or 4 kr. On the opposite bank rises the wooded 
Rochusberg with its chapel. To the ]., on the brow of the 
hill, are situated the village and convent of Eibingen. To 
the 1. of stat. Geisenheim, lies the castle of Johannisberg, with 
the village of the same name, 2 M. distant; the castle is 
easier of access from stat. Winkel, whence it may be reached 
in 20 min. To the 1. the castle of Vollralhs, another wine- 
growing locality of the highest reputation, and to the r. the 
village of Mittelheim., Opposite stat. Oestrich, on the 1. bank 
at some distance from the river, is situated Nieder-Ingelheim. 
To the 1. of the line lies the village of Hullgarten, amidst 
vineyards of high repute; to the r. the chateau of Reicharts- 
haunen; to the 1. the lunatic asylum of Eichbery, the abbey 
of Eberbach, and the celebrated Steinberg vineyard. Beyond 
stat. Hattenheim the train passes the Marcobrunn vineyards, 
opposite to which three picturesque and fertile islands are 
situated in the Rhine. To the 1. of the village of Erbach 
rises the handsome tower of Scharfenstein near Kiedrich, and 
farther on, Buben/iausen, an eminence commanding a noble 
prospect. 

From stat. Eltville {Rheinbahn Hotel, at the stat.), a 
diligence runs twice daily in summer to Schlangenbad and 
Schwalbach. On the brow of the hill to the 1. is seen the 
spire of Rauenthal. The line continues to intersect a series 
of vineyards, and passes several handsome country residences. 
Opposite stat. Niederwalluff, on the 1. bank of the river, is 
situated the chapel of Budeuheim, whence the *Leniaberg (re- 
freshments at the forester's), commanding a fine survey of 
the Rheingau, may be ascended in % hr. The Niirnberger Hof, 
an inn on the heights to the 1., is another favourite point 
of view. Beyond stat. Schierstein, to the r., is the Rhein- 
h'dtte foundry, where the line quits the bank of the Rhine. 
Passengers for Castel and Frankfurt proceed direct from 
stat. Mosbaeh to stat. Curve, without changing carriages. The 
N. entrance of the ducal park of Mosbaeh is in the immediate 
vicinity of the station. To the r. are situated the extensive 
new barracks of Biebrich, beyond which, on the opposite 
bank of the Rhine, rise the spires of Mayence. The line now 
runs parallel with the Taunus railway, and a pleasing view 
is obtained of the town of Wiesbaden, the Platte, the Neroberg 
and the Greek Chapel. To the 1. the buildings of the gas- 
works. The stations of the Nassovian and Taunus lines are 
contiguous. 



90 

24. The Rhine from Coblenz to St. Goar. 

Comp. Map R. 24. 

Distances: from Coblenz to Capellen 3% St., Khcnso 2'/ 4 M., Niederspay 
(opp. to Braubach) l 1 /, M., Boppard 4% St., Salzig 3 M., Jlirzenach 2'/, M., 
•St. Goar 3% St.; total distance 21 M. — By railway on the Ifft bank see 
K. 35, on the right bank by Oberlahnstein to St. Goarshausen in 1 hr. — 
By steamboat in 2'/, hrs. (down in l'/ a lir.). Piers at Oberlahnstein. 
Boppard and St. Goar; small-boat stations" at Capellen, Spay, Camp, and 
Hirzenach. 

After passing through the bridge of boats the steamer 
passes the once electoral, now royal palace on the r., and 
beyond the new railway bridge, the picturesque village of 
Pfaffendorf with its pointed spire to the 1. 

In a valley to the r., partially concealed by the island of 
Oberwerth is situated the pleasant Hydropathic estab. of Laub- 
bach, under the management of Dr. Petri (charges 8'/ 2 — 20 Thlr. 
per week for board, lodging, and med. attendance). The vine- 
yards of (1.) Horchheim (* Holler) produce a good red wine; 
the plain between this village and the mouth of the Lahn is 
rich and fruitful (1.). Niederlahnstein (Douqne) lies on the 
r. bank of the Lahn, which is navigable as far as Weilburg, 
and serves as a highway for the products of Nassau, such as 
iron-ore , mineral water, etc. 

Above the village of (r.) Capellen (* Stolzcnfeh ; *Rellevue) 
rises the royal castle of * * Stolzenf els, the highest point of 
which is 410 ft. above the Rhine. A broad and winding road 
of easy access leads to it, spanned at one point by a hand- 
some viaduct. Two Roman mile-stones are passed on the 
road, and after entering the Klause (now stabling), a draw- 
bridge is crossed and the castle attained. The public are 
readily admitted, and great numbers of visitors avail themselves 
of the privilege (fee 10 Sgr. for 1 pers.; 20 Sgr. — 1 Thlr. for 
a party). As only a certain number are conducted round 
the castle at a time, visitors are not unfrequently kept waiting 
outside, but the time is hardly misspent in the enjoyment of 
the exquisite view obtained from the S.E. corner tower, im- 
mediately contiguous to the entrance. - — Capellen is a Rail- 
way and Steamboat-station ; a steam ferry-boat plies between the 
stations of Capellen and Oberlahnstein. Carriage from Coblenz 
to Capellen see p. 75; boat from Capellen down to Coblenz 
■20 Sgr. Donkeys to be had at the foot of the hill, to the 
castle 8, there "and back 12 Sgr.; to the Kuhkopf 20 Sgr., 
there and back 1 Thlr. Stolzenfels is 3% M. from Coblenz, 
and the Konigsstuhl 1% M. farther. 

The castle of Stolzenfels was greatly strengthened, if not 
entirely built, by Arnold von Isenburg, Archbishop of Treves, 



STOLZENFELS. 24. Route. 91 

in 1250, and was in the middle ages frequently a residence 
of the archbishops. Till 1688 it was garrisoned by the Electors 
of Treves, when it met the usual fate at the hands of the 
French, whose visit to this fair land is recorded, not by the 
monuments they have left, but by the number of monuments 
they have destroyed. In 1802 the ruin was purchased by 
the town of Coblenz, and (1823) presented to the late king 
Fred. William IV., at that time crown-prince. Since then it 
has been completely restored at an expense of upwards of 
53,000/. 

The Chapel, a small but elegant building, is decorated with * frescoes 
on a gold ground by E. Beyer, representing the Creation, Fall, First 
Sacrifices, &c. — On the outer wall, above the garden-hall, is a fresco by 
LctxiMky: the emperor Rupert and his nephew the Count of Hohenzollern 
visiting the Archbishop of Treves at Stolzenfels, Aug. 20th, 1400. — At the 
side of the entrance flight of steps, stands an ancient sculptured chimney- 
piece with reliefs, bearing the arms of the city of Cologne. — The walls of 
the "Rittersaal" are illuminated with six *frescoes, by Professor Stilke 
•of Diisseldorf, representing the principal attributes of chivalry: 1. Faith is 
typified by Godfrey de Bouillon at the Holy Sepulchre after the conquest of 
Jerusalem; 2. Rudolph of Habsburg sitting in judgment on the knightly 
bandits represents Justice; 3. Minstrels accompanying king Philip of 
"Swabia and his consort Irene on a pleasure excursion on the Rhine is sym- 
bolical of Poetry ; 4. Love is pourtrayed by the Emperor Frederick IT. welcoming 
his bride Isabella of England ; 5. Hermann von Siebeneichen, sacrificing his 
life to safe the emperor Fred. Barb&igssa, is the type of Loyalty; and (6) 
the blind king John of Bohemia at the battle of Cressy, of Bravery. — The 
larger "Rittersaal" contains a valuable and extensive collection of goblets, 
armour, and weapons; among the latter the swords of Napoleon, Murat, 
Bliicher, Tilly, Koscziusko, &c. — The upper rooms contain a modern picture 
of Gutenberg, at three different periods of his life, about 50 small pictures 
by old masters, Burer, ffolbe/n, van Dyck, Rembrandt, &c, an ancient By- 
zantine cross, antique furniture, &c. 

View. At Stolzenfels the narrowest and most romantic part of the valley 
of the Rhine, which begins with the castle of Ehrenfels below Bingen, may 
be said to terminate. The view from the castle is scarcely surpassed by any 
on the Rhine, and comprises the Marksburg, Braubach, Rhense, Oberlahnstein, 
and a part of the lovely valley of the Lahn. Opposite to the castle is 
situated the Allerheitigenberg, surmounted by a pilgrims* chapel, a spot of 
much pious resort. At the confluence of the LahnHnd Rhine, at the extremity 
of a fertile plain, stands the Romanesque Church of St. John, and below it 
the village of Niederlahnstein. Farther down the river is the island of 
Oberwerth, on which a convent formerly stood, long since converted into 
a country house. — The magnificent fortress of Ehrenbreitstein, the strongest 
on the Rhine, is one of the most conspicuous objects in the landscape; 
opposite to it is Fort Constantine, and between them lies the town of 
Coblenz; farther distant is visible the small town of Vallendar with its hand- 
some church. 

(1.) Oberlahnstein (Hotel Welter; Hotel Lahneck) , mention- 
ed in an old document as early as 890, is surrounded with 
remnants of ancient walls, towers, and fosses. The Schloss, 
once a residence of the Electors of Mayence, was founded in 
1394; the new part of the building belongs to the last century. 
On the bank of the Rhine is a depot for iron-ore of various 
descriptions. (Railway to Ems see p. 82 ; station at the steam- 
boat pier.) 



92 Route 24. KHENSE. From Coblenz 

Behind Oberlahnstein rises the castle of Lalmeck, beauti- 
fully situated on a rocky eminence above the Lahn. It was 
purchased some years ago by an Irish gentleman, who is 
gradually restoring it with great taste and judgment; when 
completed it will present an almost unique specimen of a 
restored Rhenish castle. The old feudal proprietors would 
hardly recognize their ancient strongholds in the generality 
of the modern, so-called restorations. 

About iy 2 M. above Capellen is the Konigsstuhl (king's 
seat), situated between the high road and the Rhine, but 
partially concealed by trees from the steamboat passenger. 
The original structure was erected in 1376 by order of the 
Emperor Charles IV., but during the French dominion fell so 
completely to decay, that at the beginning of the present 
century almost all traces of it had disappeared. It was of 
an octagonal shape, 24 ft. in diameter and 18 ft. high, and 
rested on 9 pillars, the 9th being in the centre. The top was 
encircled by a stone seat, where the Electors held their meet- 
ings. The present building was constructed in 1843 partly 
out of the old materials. The situation was chosen on account 
of its vicinity to the dominions of the four Rhenish Electors, 
Braubach belonging to the Palatinate, Rhense to Cologne, 
Stolzenfels to Treves, and Lahnstein to Mayence. Here many 
emperors were elected, decrees made, and treaties concluded, 
and here the Emperor Maximilian took the oaths, when on 
his way to his coronation at Aix-la-Chapelle. Near the 
Konigsstuhl is a mineral spring discovered in 1857 in the bed 
of the Rhine. 

On the rich and fruitful bank of the Rhine, opposite to 
the Konigsstuhl, a small white chapel, situated near the 
S. gate of Oberlahnstein, is visible among the trees, where, 
Aug. 20th, 1400, the Rhenish Electors deprived the Bohemian 
king Wenzel of the imperial crown. On the following day they 
crossed the river to the Konigsstuhl, and elected the Count 
Palatine Rupert III. in his stead. 

Above the Konigsstuhl ( 3 / 4 M.) lies the small town of (r.) 
Rhense (Konigsstuhl ; Siebenborri) , once belonging to the 
Electorate of Cologne, and still surrounded by the walls and 
fosses constructed by the Archbishop Frederick III. of Cologne 
in 1370. — Small boat to Coblenz 20—25 Sgr. A footpath 
to Boppard ascends to the r. at the signpost, on leaving the 
town by the S. gate. 

The building about 1 M. above Rhense, on the same bank 
of the river, was erected by a company as silver smelting- 
works, but has never been used; beyond it, surrounded by 
fruit-trees, lies the small village of (r.) Brey. 



to St. Goat: BRAUBACH. 24. Route. 93 

(1.) Braubach (Philippsburg at the Tipper, Arzbacher at the 
lower end of the village; Deutsches Haus, with beer-garden, near 
the station), invested with municipal privileges by the Emperor 
Rudolph in 1276, is commanded by the imposing castle of 
Marksburg, 480 ft. above the Rhine. It was called the Brau- 
bacher Schloss previously to 1437, when Count Philipp of 
Katzenelnbogen founded a chapel in it, which he dedicated to 
St. Mark, after whom the castle has ever since been named. 
From 1651 to 1803 it was the property of Hessen-Darmstadt, 
and subsequently of, Nassau. It now serves as a state-prison, 
and is garrisoned by about 20 men. The summit affords a 
pleasing survey of the grassy dales in the rear and of a limited 
portion of the Rhine. Several Swedish cannons of the 30 Years' 
war, as well as French guns , are exhibited to the visitor. 
(Castellan's fee 12 kr. for 1 pers., 18 — 24 for a party.) 

Two paths ascend to the fortress, one at the back, and 
another (cart-track) at the upper end of the town, passing the 
ancient Chapel of St. Martin, and leading round the E. side of 
the hill. The entrance is on the N. side. The little town 
with its old watch-tower, towngate and church rising from 
among poplars, with the castle in the background, forms a 
charming picture, though somewhat defaced by the railway 
embankments. 

From this point a road leads over the hills to the Baths of Ems, about 
7% M. distant. Refreshments to be had at the Lalmsteiner Forsthaus, not 
far from Friicht, Fine view of Dausenau and the valley of the Lahn in 
descending. 

In the first valley above Braubach is a chalybeate spring called the Dink- 
holder Brunnen; the second is traversed by a path which ascends the hill, 
commanding a fine view, and leads to Welmich (7 l / 2 M.), emerging from 
the wild and rocky ravine at the back of the village near the "Mouse" (p. 96). 

Above Braubach are the (r.) villages of Nieder- and 
Oberspay, connected by an avenue of walnut-trees, beyond 
which the river is ascended in a W. direction. 

On the wooded heights above the village of (1.) Osterspay 
stands the picturesque little castle of Liebeneck. 

From Liebeneck to Camp (p. 95) a path leads across the high table- 
land which commands a most striking view of the Rhine from Salzig to 
below Boppard, and the heights of the Hunnsriicken, of which the Fleckerts- 
hohe (see p. 94) is the most conspicuous. In the opposite direction this path 
is less agreeable, as the ascent is steep and leads through sunny and shadeless 
vineyards. 

At (1.) Filsen the river resumes its S. direction. On an 
eminence to the r. stands the Jacobsberger Hof, 500 ft. above the 
Rhine, formerly a Jesuits' college, now the property of the 
Grammar School of Coblenz; from this point a much-frequented 
mountain-road leads to Rhense, 3 M. distant, cutting off the 
circuit of 6 M. which the river here forms. 

(r.) Boppard (*Post, in the town; * Spiegel, on the Rhine; 
Rheinischer Hof), the Baudobriga of the Romans, was once a 



94 Route 24. MARIENBERG. From Coblenz 

town of the empire, and from 1501 belonged to the Electors 
of Treves. The name seems to indicate a Celtic origin. The 
Xotitia diynitatum utriusque imperii, a statistical review of the 
Roman empire in the 2nd cent., mentions Boppard as the re- 
sidence of the prw/ectus militum ballistariorum, and stones found 
in the neighbourhood indicate its once having been a station 
of the 13th Legion. The wall of defence which encloses the 
interior of the town in a rectangular form, though much dam- 
aged, is evidently of Roman origin and is constructed of the 
concrete building-material so frequently employed in those ages. 
The outer and far more extensive wall belongs to the middle 
ages. Boppard, like St. Goar and Bacharach, once boasted of 
an establishment of the Templar knights, the traces of which 
may be recognized in the fragments of walls with round-arched 
windows, situated at the upper end of the town. Knights 
Templar of Boppard are mentioned among the crusaders at 
the siege of Ptolemai's. 

The Pfarrkirche, erected in the late Romanesque style, about 
1200, is remarkable for its peculiar vaulted roof and the curious 
construction of the supporting arches. The Carmeliterkirche 
contains a good marble relief representing the Trinity, a 
monument of a Countess von Eltz (d. 1500). The old mon- 
astery of St. Martin and the adjacent Franciscan convent have 
been converted by the Prussian Government into a Reformatory 
for juvenile criminals. 

Marienberg - , the large building which rises from the midst 
of an orchard at the back of the town, was formerly a Benedictine 
nunnery, but is now converted into a hydropathic establishment. 
Below Boppard, on the bank of the river, is situated the M'uhl- 
bad, a private water-cure estab., the property of Dr. Heusner, 
the government physician of the district. Average weekly 
charge in both the above, for board, lodging, baths, and 
medical attendance, 12 '/ 2 Thlr. 

Tlie finest excursion from Boppard is to the * Fleokertahohe (1663 ft.), 
about ti M. distant, and l'/ 2 M. to the 1. of tile road leading to the liunns- 
rucken, which must be left at the fir-wood, soon after passing the mile-stone 
marked "0,84". The top is indicated by a stone pillar. The view is very 
extensive, and comprises the Seven Mountains, the Eifel, the Hochwald,. 
Idar and Taunus, and Monrepos (p. 67). A small portion only of the Rhine 
is visible near Ehrenthal (p. %). On the S.W. side, about l /„ M. from the 
top, refreshments may be procured at the Mermicher Huf. The traveller may 
avail himself of the diligence from Boppard to Simmern to reach the above- 
mentioned fir-wood, where his path diverges to the 1. Pedestrians on their 
route southwards may, instead of returning to Boppard, proceed to Welter 
and Hirzenach. 

The road from Boppard to the Moselle (9 M.) leads through 
the village of Buchholz (1229 ft.), to which a guide (10 Sgr.) should be 
taken. About l'/ 2 M. beyond Jfe/sdiwie.ien, a road to the 1. descends to 
the Ehrenbuig (p. 12. r .); thence through the Ehrenburger Thai to Broden- 
Lach. 



to St. Gour. BGRNHOFEN. 24. Route. 95- 

Above Boppard, to the 1., is situated the village of Camp 
(* Anker; Itheinischer Hof), so called from the remains of an 
iiitrenchinent on the hill ascribed to the Romans, but more 
probably dating from the 30 Years' war. (Path over the hills 
to Liebeneck and Braubach see p. 93). A shady road planted 
with walnut-trees leads along the bank of the Rhine from 
Camp to the convent of 

(1.) Rornhofen, with a Gothic church erected in 1435, 
which, even at the present day, is a favourite resort of pilgrims. 
On a rocky eminence above the convent, and surrounded by 
vineyards, stand the twin castles of 

Sterrenberg and Liebenstein, better known as "the 

Brothers," and connected with each other by a sharp chine 

of rocks. Few are unacquainted with the legend of these 

castles, which may thus be briefly told: 

Conrad and Heinrieh, the two sons of the noble knight Bayer von Boppard, 
the owner of Liebenstein, were enamoured of their foster-sister, the beautiful 
Hildegarde. Heinrieh by an exercise of rare generosity tore himself away 
and joined the crusades, leaving his brother Conrad towiu the prize of which 
he too hastily deemed 'him worthy. That his son and the lair bride might 
still be near him, the old knight built the castle of Sterreuberg for their 
reception, but his death occurring before its completion the nuptials were 
deferred lor a year. During this period Conrad's heart grew cold towards 
Hildegarde, and hearing of the valiant deeds of his absent brother against 
the infidels, his soul burned to share his honours, and wearied of anlinactive 
life, he joined the crusades. Hildegarde now passed her days in the lonely 
castle of Liebenstein, brooding over her sad lot, not doubting the affection 
of Conrad, but weeping over the uncertainty of his return. Suddenly Conrad 
returned to Sterreuberg with a lovely Grecian bride, and the outraged Hilde- 
garde, stunned by the blow, shut herself up in the loneliest chamber of her 
dreary abode, and refused to see any one but her attendant. Late one even- 
ing a stranger knight demanded the hospitality of the castle; he proved to- 
be the chivalrous Heinrich, who, hearing of his brother's perfidious conduct, 
resolved to avenge his foster-sister's wrougs. He accordingly challenged 
Conrad to single combat, but before the brothers' swords had crossed, Hilde- 
garde's figure interposed between them and insisted on a reconciliation, to 
which they reluctantly consented/ Hildegarde then retired to the convent 
of Bornhofen, situated at the base of the rock on which the castles stand- 
Conrad's Grecian bride soon proved faithless, and he, overcome with shame 
and remorse, threw himself on his generous brother's breast, exclaiming that 
no consolation was now left him but his friendship. Thus their estrangement 
ended, and the brothers continued to live together in harmony and retire- 
ment at Liebenstein, whilst Sterreuberg was for ever deserted. 

The castle of Sterreuberg was held as early as the 12th cent. 
as a lief of the empire by the knights of Boland, and after- 
wards came into the possession of the Electors of Treves. The 
date and cause of its abandonment are unknown. It lies o li- 
the extreme verge of the rocky height, and is separated from 
Liebenstein by a thick massive wall. The castles deserve 
inspection on account of the grandeur and extent of their ruins 
and the view they command of the rocky ravines in the vicinity. 

(r.) Salzig (so called from the weak saline spring which 
it possesses) is situated in the midst of a vast orchard, whence 



96 Route 24. ST. GOAR. From Coblenz 

whole ship-loads of cherries are annually exported to the 
Lower Rhine, Holland, and even to England. Farther up, on 
a fertile promontory to the 1., lies the village of Nieder- 
Kestert (Stern). 

(r.) Hirzenach. (Comes) ; in the rear of the village are 
slate-quarries; the house on the summit of the hill, above the 
village, is a quarrymen's tavern. The small new Gothic edifice 
at the upper end of the village is a synagogue. The kandsome 
building which was once a deanery, and the church, built 
about 1170, formerly belonged to the Abbey of Siegburg. 
(1.) Ehrenthal, a small village inhabited by the miners who 
work in the lead-mines in the vicinity. 

(1.) Welmich, a picturesquely situated village, with a small 
Gothic church, is commanded by the ruined castle of Thun>- 
berg or Deurenburg in the background. This stronghold, 
commenced by the Archbishop Bcemund of Treves, and com- 
pleted by his successor Kuno von Falkenstein in 1363, was 
derisively called the Maus (mouse) by the Counts of Katzen- 
elnbogen, in contradistinction to their "Cat," but Kuno enjoyed 
such a reputation for courage that he was feared by cats and 
mice alike. Here he died in 1388. The ascent is somewhat 
fatiguing, but the pedestrian is well rewarded bj the line view 
from the summit, especially in the direction of St. Goar. The 
interior of the castle is in a good state of preservation, and 
contains a few points of interest to the architect. 

(r.) St. Goar (Lilie : Krone) owes its name and origin to a 
chapel, founded in the time of Siegbert, king of Austrasia (570), 
by St, Goar, who preached the gospel here, and was after- 
wards revered as a saint and invoked by the boatmen when 
in danger. 

St. Goar was till 1794 the capital of the Hessian "Lower 
Grafschaft" of Katzenelnbogen (comp. p. 97), and has a more 
imposing appearance than any other Rhenish town of the 
same size, for which it is principally indebted to the extensive 
ruins of Rheinfels in the background. The Protestant church, 
built about 1468, contains, among other monuments, that of 
the Landgrave Philipp (d. 1583) and his countess in marble. 
A flaw in the altar is said to have been made by Gustavus 
Adolphus in 1632, who, indignant at the damage done to the 
church by the Spaniards, violently struck the altar with his 
sword. The crypt on the E. side once contained the bones 
of St. Goar. — The Roman Cath. church is adorned with an 
old stone effigy of the saint with an inscription. 

A curious old custom prevailed here till the commencement of the steam- 
boat traffic in 1827. It i3 said to have dated from the time of Charlemagne, 
and was called the "Hdnseln," or Initiation. Every traveller who visited 
the town for the first t ! — - -"■• "■"nrincted to a ring attached to the wall of 



to St. Goar. ST. GOARSHAUSEN. 24. Route. 97 

the Custom-house, to which he was secured. He was then obliged to submit 
to the water or the wine-ordeal. If the former was selected, the luckless 
traveller had to submit to a good ducking; the more agreeable alternative 
consisted iu drinking a goblet of wine to the health of Charlemagne, the 
sovereign of England, the reigning prince, and the members of society who 
enforced obedience to the ancient custom. The traveller was then crowned 
and invested with the rights of a citizen and member of the society. The 
crown and the goblet, together with the book in which the names of the 
travellers were inscribed, are now in the possession of the landlord of 
the "Lilie." 

Rheinfels, the Ehrenbreitstein of the middle ages, rises 
at the back of the .town to the height of 368 ft. above the 
Rhine, and is incomparably the handsomest and most imposing 
ruin on the whole river. It was founded in 1245 by Count 
Dethier III. of Katzenelnbogen, the friend of the Emperor 
Frederick II., and a new Rhine-toll was here established. 
Ten years later a confederation of 26 Rhenish towns, dissatis- 
fied with the newly imposed burden, attacked the castle, but 
after a fruitless siege of 15 months they were compelled to 
withdraw their forces. Under the Hessian Landgrave Philipp 
it was considerably strengthened in 1568, and in 1692 it was 
bravely and successfully defended by the Hessian General von 
Gortz against the French General Count Tallard with an army 
of 21,000 men. In 1758 the garrison was surprised and the 
castle taken by the French, who kept it garrisoned till 1763. 
Thirty years later, notwithstanding the great strength of the 
place, the Hessian commander basely deserted it, and the castle, 
with its valuable stores of ammunition and provisions, fell into 
the hands of the French revolutionary army, Nov. 2nd, 1794. 
Three years later it was blown up and sold for the insigni- 
ficant sum of 60/. The ruin now belongs to the king of 
Prussia. The interior contains little worthy of note; view 
from the summit limited. The custodian lives in St. Goar, 
but is generally at or near the castle (fee 5 Sgr.). 

(1.) St. Goarshausen (Adler, R. 36, B. 20, D. 48, S. 30, 
A. 18 kr., beer, and baths in the Rhine; Rhein. Hof) may- 
be advantageously selected as head-quarters • for excursions 
to the Swiss valley, Lurlei, Reichenberg, Oberwesel, Caub, 
Bacharach, &c, and offers many attractions to the traveller in 
search of repose. The upper part of the town consists of a 
neat row of houses, most of them new, and built close to the 
river, from the inundations of which they are protected by 
a dyke. The ferry to St. Goar is at the upper end of the 
place; charge for 1 pers. 2% Sgr., for several together 
1 Sgr. each. 

(1.) The castle of Neu- Katzenelnbogen, commonly called the 
Katz (cat), which rises behind St. Goarshausen, was erected 
by Count Johann of Katzenelnbogen in 1393, and when the 
Baedeker's Rhine. 7 



98 Route 25. LURLEI. From St. Goar 

family became extinct in 1470, came into the possession of 
the Princes of Hessen, and was occupied by a Hessian garrison 
till 1806, when it fell into the hands of the French, to whom, 
like so many of the Rhenish castles, it is indebted for its 
destruction. (Guide with the keys from St. Goarshausen, 18 kr.) 

On the brink of the ravine at the back of the castle lies (r.) the village 
of Patersberg, l 1 /? M. beyond which, and 3 M. from St. Goarshausen, are 
situated the handsome ruins of the castle of Reichenberg, erected in 1280 by 
Count Wilhelm I. of Katzenelnbogen, and afterwards, during the Hessian 
dominion, the seat of the governor of the district. Since 1818 it has been a 
ruin, but is in a better state of preservation than most of the Rhenish castles. 
The portal with its granite pillars in the castle-yard has a Moorish look, and 
the interior "with its lofty columns and pointed vaulted roof is picturesque 
and striking. The road to Reichenberg leads through the Haselbach Valley 
(Brewery), the mouth of -which is immediately below St. Goarshausen, where 
a carriage may be procnred for the excursion. Pedestrians may make a 
beautiful round by ascending through the "Swiss Valley at the back of the 
town, a rocky and well-wooded ravine, l'/ 2 M. in length, to Patersberg, thence 
to Reichenberg, and back to St. Goarshausen by the road through the Hasel- 
bach valley. Those who wish to ascend the Lurlei, must take the "Pro- 
menadenpfad" lor foot-passengers leading to the top of the hill, the last part 
of the way through wood, a few hundred paces beyond which is a signpost 
indicating the way to the Hiihnerberg, a pavilion commanding a fine view of 
St. Goar and St. Goarshausen. From this point the road to the Lurlei leads 
towards a group of hushes, where it finally diverges to the r. From the 
Lurlei a path leads down to the Rhine. 

25. The Rhine from St. Goar to Bingen. 

Co,,,}). Map R. 24. 

Distances from St. Goar to Oberwesel 4'/ 2 M., Caub 3 II., Bacharach 
1H ll„ Kheindiebach V/„ M.. Lorch (Niederheimbach) 3 / 4 M. , Rheinstein. 
3'/ 4 M.. Bingen 3 M.; total distance from St. Goar to Bingen 18 M. — By 
steamboat (preferable on account of the beauty of the scenery) in 2% hrs. 
(down in l'/ 4 hr.); piers at St. Goar and Bingen, small-boat stations at 
St. Goarshausen, Oberwesel, Caub, Bacharach, Lorch and Niederheimbach. 
By railway on the left bank from St. Goar to Bingen, on the right bank 
from St. Goarshausen to Riidesheim, in 1 hr. 

From Xiederlahnstein to Bingen the r. bank of the river belongs to the 
Duchy of Xassau, the 1. to Prussia. 

Immediately above St. Goar, and nearly in the middle of 
the stream, is situated the "Bank," a sunken ledge of rocks 
running out from the bank to the r., and causing a species 
of whirlpool (Geivirre) which not unfrequently proves destructive 
to the rafts if not skilfully managed. Even those of consi- 
derable size are often partially submerged when passing this 
spot, being drawn down by the undercurrents. 

To the 1. rise the rugged and imposing rocks of the Lurlei, 
420 ft. above the Rhine. On the N. side of the precipice a 
steep path, furnished with benches at intervals, leads to the 
summit. The ascent may be accomplished in about 25 min.; 
view limited. The well-known legend of the siren who had 
her dwelling on the top of the rock, and, like other sirens of 
old, enticed the sailors and fishermen to their destruction in 



to Bingen. OBERWESEL. 25. Route. 99 

the rapids at the foot of the precipice, has been a theme for 
the poet and painter in all ages. The famous echo is not 
audible on the deck of the steamer; the pedestrian alone can 
awaken it successfully. The sharp angle formed by the Lurlei 
is penetrated by a railway tunnel. 

To this rocky basin the salmon-fishery of St. Goar is 
principally confined. The cool, shady depths and sandy bottom 
of the river at this point appear to be peculiarly suited to the 
habits of the fish. It is tantalizing to the angler to know that 
they are only capture^ in nets, thrown from boats of peculiar 
construction, and the epicure may hear with emotion that the 
yield which formerly amounted to 8000 lbs. per annum is now 
diminished by the increase in steamboat traffic to 1000 lbs. 
It is of course in great demand, and frequently realizes a price 
of 3s. per pound. The river is here narrower and deeper 
(72 ft.) than at any other part. 

In the bed of the river opposite to the Rossstein, a rocky 
point to the 1., penetrated by a railway tunnel, a ridge of 
rocks is visible when the water is low, known by the name 
of the "Seven Virgins." As hardly a rock or ruin exists 
without its legend, so it is said that these rugged masses were 
once seven fair maidens, condemned by the river-god for their 
fickleness to this dreadful metamorphosis. 

(r.) Oberwesel (*Goldener Pfropfenzieher, at the lower end 
of the town, R. and B. 16 Sgr. ; the sign-board, now in the 
coffee-room, was painted by the well-known Diisseldorf painter 
Schrodter in commemoration of the frequent visits of Diissel- 
dorf artists to this place; Trierscher Hof; Rheinischer Hof, on 
the river). Oberwesel, the Vosavia of the Romans, was once 
a town of the empire, but was made over by Henry VII. to 
his brother, the Archbishop. Balduin of Treves. To the S. of 
the town rises the conspicuous * Frauenkirche (Church of out 
Lady), a fine specimen of Gothic architecture erected at the 
beginning of the 15th cent. The rood-loft (lectorium) which 
separates the choir from the nave deserves particular inspection. 
The ancient wood-carvings of the high-altar, contemporary 
with the date of the foundation, and two pictures said to have 
been painted in 1504, are also objects of interest. One forms 
an altar-piece in the N. chapel, the lower portion representing 
the landing of the 11,000 virgins (see St. Ursula Church at 
Cologne); the other on the N. wall represents the Last 
Judgment in a series of small pictures. The N. chapel contains 
monuments of several knights and counts of Schonberg. — 
The old gate-way ("Eselsthurm") in the field near the church 
was formerly the town-gate. 

The Chapel on the town wall, on the side next to the 

7* 



100 Route 25. CAUB. From St. Goar 

Rhine, commemorates the alleged murder of the boy Werner 
by the Jews in 1286. According to the legend, his body was 
flung into the river, and miraculously floated up the stream 
to Bacharach where it was canonized (p. 101). 

Oberwesel is one of the most beautiful spots on the Rhine. 
The rocky ravines which intersect the mountains in the vicinity, 
are favourite subjects for the pencil of the artist; they also yield 
excellent wines, the most esteemed of which is produced in the 
Engeholle valley, and is the best in the Prussian dominions. 

Above Oberwesel rise the picturesque ruins of (r.) Schfln- 
burg, the cradle of a once mighty race. It was the birth-place 
(1615) of the Count Frederick Hermann of Scbonberg, better 
known as Marshal Schomberg, who fought under the Prince 
of Orange, and in 1668, when in the French service, compelled 
the Spaniards to acknowledge the House of Braganza. In 1668, 
on the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, he was obliged to 
quit the French service, after which he became minister of 
state under the Elector of Brandenburg, governor of Prussia, 
and finally passed over to England with the Prince of Orange, 
and fell in the memorable battle of the Boyne, in 1690. His 
remains are interred in Westminster Abbey. In the 30 Years' 
war the castle fell into the hands of the Swedes, and in 1689 
was demolished by the French. The family became extinct 
in 1713, and the ruin now belongs to Prince Albrecht of Prussia. 

The small town of (1.) Caub {* Grunewuld ; Nassauer Hof) 
is a place of some importance on account of its productive 
subterranean slate-quarries, which are efficiently worked under 
the inspection of the Government of Nassau. 

The stately castle of Gutenfels, on a height in the back- 
ground was, with the town itself, sold by the knights ofFalken- 
stein to the Palatinate. Here the English Earl of Cornwall, 
who was elected emperor of Germany in 1257, fell in love 
with the beautiful countess Beatrix of Falkenstein, whom he 
afterwards married, on the death of his first wife in 1269. 
In 1504 the castle was fruitlessly besieged during 6 weeks by 
the Landgrave William of Hessen, a fact recorded in rhyme 
on a stone tablet in the wall near the Rhine custom-house. 
In 1804 the castle became the property of Nassau, in 1805 it 
was dismantled by order of Napoleon, and in 1807 was finally 
abandoned to decay. The schoolmaster Miiller at Caub has 
the keys. A still more extensive view than that afforded by 
the castle is obtained from the pavilion on the Adolphshoke, 
15 min. to the S. of Caub. 

Above Caub appears the *Pfalz, or Pfalzgrafenstein, rising 
from the middle of the Rhine, reminding the traveller of the 
castle of Chillon on the lake of Geneva, and likened by some 



to Bingen. BACHARACH. 25. Route. 101 

to a stone ship for ever at anchor on .the Rhine. It is a small 
hexagonal building, standing on a ridge of rock, and was 
erected by the Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian at the commence- 
ment of the 13th cent, as a convenient tollhouse for way- 
laying and exacting tribute from the passing vessels. The 
entrance is on the E. side through a portcullis, several feet 
above the rock; the S. corner bears the Lion of the Palatinate. 
The well in the narrow courtyard, which is surrounded by a 
sort of vaulted cloister, is sunk to a much greater depth than 
the bed of the Rhine: 

In 1194 the Emperor Henry VI. -wished to marry the daughter of the 
Count Palatine Conrad to one of his friends or relations, but the young 
princess had already gained the affections of Henry of Brunswick. The 
father dreading the Emperor's wrath, would not consent to the alliance, but 
caused a tower to be built in the middle of the river below Bacharach, where 
he kept his daughter a close prisoner. Her mother, however, secretly aided 
the Prince of Brunswick in gaining admittance to the tower, where his union 
with the princess was privately solemnized. When the princess was about 
to give birth to a child, her mother disclosed the whole affair to her hushand 
the Count, who, finding his opposition no longer availing, in the exercise of 
his capricious authority, passed a law that all future Countesses Palatine should 
repair to the Castle to await their accouchements. Such is the ancient ami 
improbable tradition connected with the Pfalz, whence it also derives its name. 

Here on New Year's night, 1814, the 1st Prussian army- 
corps under York, and a division of Russian troops under 
Langeron, effected the passage of the Rhine. At the same 
place a body of Prussian troops crossed the river in 1793 on 
their way to France. 

(r.) Bacharach (Post), called Ara Bacchi in the middle 
ages, was celebrated in early times for its wine, and was up 
to the 16th cent, one of the greatest wine marts of the Rhine. 
Pope Pius II., better known as ^Eneas Silvius, caused a cask 
of the wine of Bacharach to be annually brought to Rome, 
and the town of Niirnberg obtained its freedom in return for 
a yearly tribute of 4 tuns to the Emperor Wenzel. To this 
day a vessel laden with the wine of Bacharach is annually 
dispatched to the fair of Frankfurt. 

On a slight eminence (accessible by a path on the S. side of 
the church of St. Peter) stands the ruined Church of St. Werner, 
erected about 1428 in the most beautiful and elaborate Gothic 
style, and in the form of a trefoil; it commemorates the 
canonization of the boy Werner, who, according to a tradition, 
was barbarously murdered by the Jews. Behind it (10 min. 
walk) rises the castle of Stahleck (see p. 102). 

The Church of St. Peter, or so-called Templar's Church, is 
built in the late Romanesque style, and is distinguished by 
the symmetry of its proportions. A tower of the ancient 
House of the Templars is still to be seen in the yard of the 
post-house. 



102 Route 25. FtJRSTENBERG. From St. Goar 

In the adjacent valley of Steeg are situated the ruins of the old castle 
of Stahlberg. The valley in latter times has received the appellation of 
"Bliicherthal," from having been in 1814 the scene of a skirmish between a 
body of French soldiers and the troops of Bliicher. 

From Bacharach by Stromberg to Kreuznach. Pedestrians ascending the 
Rhine who are already acquainted with this part of the river may vary their 
route very agreeably by taking the following walk (7'/ 2 hrs.) over the hills. 
From Bacharach to the Rheinboller Foundry 9 M., to Stromberg 6 M., and 
to Kreuznach 7 1 /, M. The last stage being the least interesting the traveller 
may prefer to take a carriage from Stromberg to Kreuznach (1 Thlr.). The 
route is as follows, guide unnecessary: from Bacharach through the valley of 
Steeg (Bliicherthal, s. above) to Steeg (1 M.). At the tower (ViM.) with the small 
pond the road ascending to the 1. must be taken. On the table-laud (2 1 /, M.) 
the road leads in a straight direction, bearing to the 1.; 3 / 4 M. farther a wood 
is entered, on emerging from which ( 3 / 4 M.) the road descends to the 1. to 
the village of Rheinbijllen (2 M.), with conspicuous church-spire. The road 
next leads through plantations to the Rheinboller Iron-works (*Inn), l'/ 4 M. 
beyond the village. The narrow and wooded ravine of the Giildenbach is now 
traversed, on the r. slope of which is situated the modern castle of Carls- 
burg, and, farther on, the Sahler Foundry . Before entering Stromberg 
{Fuslenburg'), the castle of Goldenfels is seen rising on an eminence to the r. ; 
beyond Stromberg the extensive ruins of Fustenburg. Schweppenhamen 
l'/ 2 M., and Windesheim 1% M., are the two following villages. Where the 
road begins to descend into the valley of the Nahe, l'/jM. from Kreuznach, 
a Hue distant view is obtained. (Diligence from Bacharach to Rheinbollen 
twice daily in 2 hrs., fare 10% Sgr.) 

Above Bacharach rise tlie ruins of the once strongly fortified 
castle of Stahleck, the cradle of the Counts Palatine, and 
till 1823 their principal residence. The French besieged and 
took the castle and town eight times in the years 1620 — 40, 
and finally destroyed the castle in 1689. The extensive ruins 
now belong to the Dowager Queen of Prussia, a descendant 
of the Counts Palatine. View fine but limited. 

On a rocky eminence to the r. rise the handsome ruins of 
Fiirstenberg, made over to the Palatinate in 1213 as a fief 
of the city of Cologne. In 1292, when Adolph of Nassau was 
on his way to his coronation at Aix-laChapelle, so bold were 
the vassals of the robber-knight of the castle, that they demanded 
the usual toll of the emperor, and on its refusal, fired into 
the vessel. It was taken in 1321 by the Emperor Lewis from 
his opponent Frederick, and presented to his consort Margaret 
of Holland. In 1632 it fell into the hands of the Swedes, 
and in 1689 was destroyed by the French. Since 1847 it has 
been the property of the Princess Frederick of the Netherlands, 
sister of the King of Prussia. The brook which falls into 
the Rhine at the foot of the castle was in ancient times the 
boundary between the dominions of the archbishops of Mayence 
and Treves. 

(1.) The village of Lorchhausen. 

Through the Wisperthal to Schlangenbad and Schmalbach, a beautiful 
walk of 21" M.; from Lorch to the Kammerberger Miihle 6 M., the Lauken- 
viuhle 2'/ 4 M., GcnAdstein 2'/ 4 M., Niedergladbach 3 M. , Hausen 3 M., 
Schlangenbad 3 M.; or from Geroldstein by Langensei/en to Schwalbaoh 
10'/ 2 M. 



to Bingen. LORCH. 25. Route. 103 

In the valley of the Sauer, which unites with" the Wisper, 3 / 4 M. above 
I/orch, is situated the Sauerburg, 4'/ 2 M. from Lorch or Caul), one of the 
strongholds of Sickingen, destroyed by the French in 1689. In the neighbouring 
farm-house the last of the Counts of JSickingen, descending in direct line from 
the celebrated Knight of this name, died in 1836 in the most abject poverty. 

(1.) The small town of Lorcb (*Schwan, at the upper end 
■of the place, R. 48 kr., B. 24 kr., D. exc. W. 1 fl., wine and 
■cuisine good, pension 2 '/ 3 fl. per diem ; Rhein. Ho/) , the 
Laureacum (?) of the Romans, mentioned in an old document 
as early as 832, was formerly the residence of a number of 
knights who founded. a peculiar institution for the education 
of their sons, which was known under the name of "Schul- 
junkerschaft," and thither the scions of the Rhenish nobility 
were sent to be trained. The lofty and handsome Church 
belongs to the 12th cent., and possesses the finest bells in 
this district, which formerly was considered to belong to the 
Rheingau. The old carved wooden altar, a fine font of 1464, several 
monuments of knightly families of the Rheingau, especially 
that of Joh. Hilcheu, the companion in arms of Sickingen, are 
worthy of inspection. The inscription on the latter records that 
Hilchen distinguished himself against the Turks, and, as field- 
marshal in 1542 — 44, against the French. His house, decorated 
with carved stone-work in front, erected in 1546, is the most 
conspicuous building in the village. 

Above Lorch rises a rugged cliff called the Kedrich, or 
"Devil's Ladder" which one of the knights of Lorch is said 
to have scaled with the assistance of the mountain sprights, 
and thus to have gained the hand of his lady-love. Opposite 
to it, on the r. bank of the Wisper, which here falls into the 
Rhine, stands the ruined castle of Nollieht or Nollingen, 
rising 565 ft. above the Rhine. 

The long village of (r.) Niederbeimbacb with the ruined 
castle of Hohneek or Heimburg next comes in view. This 
is the best station to disembark at for travellers ascending 
the river and intending to visit Rheinstein (3 M.), Assmanns- 
liausen and the Niederwald (comp. p. 107). Extensive retro- 
spective view as far as Bacharach. 

The valley of the Rhine now becomes somewhat narrower. 
To the r. rises the slender tower of Sooneck, commanding 
the entrance of a mountain ravine. The castle, built by 
Archbishop Willigis of Mayence about the year 1015, was 
dismantled by the Emperor Rudolph as a robbers' stronghold, 
and again restored in the 14th cent. The ruin now belongs 
to the Prussian Royal family, and has been partially restored. 

(r.) Trecbtingsbausen (Stern). On an eminence beyond 
the village rise the ruins of Reichenstein, more commonly called 
Falkenburg, destroyed by the French in 1689. In 1252 this 



104 Route 25. ASSMANNSHAUSEN. 

robbers' castle was dismantled by the Rhenish Confederation, 
but was restored in 1261 by its owner, Philipp von Hohenfels, 
who recommenced his lawless calling of a freebooter. The 
Emperor Rudolph of Habsburg afterwards besieged and dis- 
mantled this stronghold, as well as many others, and relent- 
lessly consigned to the gallows the tribe of robbers of high 
and low degree, whom he found in possession of them. At 
the foot of the hill is the entrance to the *Morgenbachthal, 
which for a short distance (l'/ 2 M.) is one of the most 
romantic side-valleys of the Rhine. 

At (1.) Assmannshausen {Anker; Krone), celebrated for 
its red wine, the river makes a bend. At the mouth of a 
ravine below the village the much esteemed Bodenthaler wine 
is produced. In the vicinity traces of Roman baths have been 
discovered. Path to the Niederwald see p. 107. 

On the bank opposite to Assmannshausen, rise the towers 
and pinnacles of Rheinstein, 250 ft. above the Rhine. Its 
origin is unknown, but it is mentioned as early as 1279, and 
was subsequently to 1348 frequently a residence of the arch- 
bishop Kuno von Falkenstein. After this date we hear 
nothing more of the name. In 1825 — 29 Prince Frederick of 
Prussia caused the castle to be completely rebuilt on a new 
plan; his remains (d. 1863) are interred in the chapel on the 
S. side. The * Collection of old armour, objects of art, and 
stained glass, is open to the public (fee 7Y 2 Sgr. for 1 pers., 
15 — 20 Sgr. for 4 pers.). The view from the castle, as well 
as that from the Swiss hDuse, to which the public are not 
admitted, is limited. 

In the vicinity of the castle stands the Clemenskirche, 
the origin of which is also unknown. It is indebted for its 
complete restoration to the Princess Frederick of Prussia. 

Shortly after leaving Assmannshausen the steamboat reaches 
the Bingerloch, a rapid caused by the narrowness of the 
rocky channel, the widening of which has been the work of 
ages, from the Roman period till the years 1830 — 32, when 
the last blasting operations took place. A monument, erected 
in 1832, on the roadside on the 1. bank, records the fact that 
the passage was made ten times wider than before by the 
Prussian government in the reign of Fred. William III. The 
ascent of the rapid is still attended with considerable difficulty 
in the case of heavily laden vessels, but in the descent the 
only craft liable to danger are the large rafts, the navigation 
of which requires extreme caution. 

Above the rapids rises the tower of (1.) Ehrenfels, erected 
about the year 1210 by Philipp von Bolanden, a governor of 
♦he Rheingau, the frequent residence of the archbishops of 




lith, A-Tist. v JlcL I 



KHEINSTEI^ 



BINGEN. 26. Route. 105 

Mayence in the 15th cent., much damaged by the Swedes in 1635, 
and finally dismantled by the French in 1689. The steep slopes 
of the Rij.desheim.er Berg yield the well-known wine of that 
name, and terrace rises above terrace to secure the soil from 
falling. The entire hill is covered with walls and arches, the 
careful preservation of which may serve to give an idea of 
the value of the vines. According to an old tradition Charle- 
magne is said to have observed from his palace at Ingelheim 
that the snow always melted first on the Rudesheimer Berg, 
and that he therefore- caused vine-plants to be brought from 
Orleans and re-planted here. 

Opposite to the castle, on a quartz-rock in the middle of 
the Rhine, is situated the Mouse-tower, which derives its 
name from the well-known legend of the cruel Archbishop 
Hatto of Mayence; at the expense of the story, however, it 
must be confessed that in all probability the real name was 
Mauth-Thurm, or Tower of Customs, and that it was erected 
in the middle ages by some of the robber-knights of the Rhine. 
The ruins have been recently covered with stucco and converted 
into a watch-tower, whence signals are made to vessels 
descending the river, which are required to slacken their 
speed when vessels are proceeding in the contrary direction 
through the Binger Loch. 

The valley of the Rhine now suddenly expands , and the 
Rheingau, a district which was once in all probability a lake, 
is entered. Immediately below (r.) Bingen the Nahe unites 
with the Rhine. Bridges over the Nahe, and stations of the 
Rhenish and Rhine-Nahe lines, see p. 109. 

26. Bingen. 

Hotels on the Rhine: Victoria Hotel, White horse, charges io 
both: R. 1 fl., L. IS kr., B. 30 kr., D. 1 fl. 12 kr., A. IS kr.; *Bellevue 
more moderate; Englischer Hot and Deutsches Haus on the Rhine. 

Restaurants. Soherr, in the Market-place. Beer at the Ehrenfels 
on the Rhine , adjacent to the Bellevue. 

Railway to Mayence and Cologne see R. 36, to Saarbriicken see R. 28, 
(from Rudesheim) to Wiesbaden or to Oberlahnstein see R. 23. 

Bingen (pop. 5612) was known as early as the Roman 
period. The rebellious Treviri fought here against the legions 
of Cerialis in the reign of Vespasian. Tacitus (Hist. IV, 70) 
relates that Tutor, the chief of the Treviri, retired from Mayence 
to Bingen, where he crossed the Nahe and destroyed the bridge, 
but the cohorts of Sextilius pursuing him and discovering a ford 
over the Nahe, crossed the river, attacked and defeated him. 

Bingen was also a point from which two Roman military 
roads led to Cologne and Treves, and was protected by a fort 
which probably stood on the site now occupied by the castle 



106 Route 26. BINGEN. 

of *Klopp, destroyed by the French in 1689. The entrance 
to the castle, which stands in private grounds, is at the back 
of the White Horse Hotel; the gardens, to which strangers are 
admitted (tee 12 kr.), command a pleasing prospect on all sides. 

The seven-arched Bridge over the Nahe was constructed 
by Arclibisbop Willigis on the foundations of the old Roman 
bridge; it was afterwards partially destroyed, but again restored. 
The Nahe here forms the boundary between the dominions 
of Hessen-Darmstadt and Prussia. 

The Gothic Pfarrkirche, or Parish Church, dates from the 
15th cent., and contains an ancient font erroneously conjectured 
to belong to the Carlovingian period. The Town Hall was 
restored in 1863 in the mediaeval style. 

The * Rondel, about 1% M. on the road from Bingen to 
the Hunnsriicken, which diverges from the Coblenz road soon 
after the bridge is crossed, commands a beautiful prospect in 
three directions, even surpassing that from the Rochusberg, 
as Bingen itself and the castle of Klopp form a beautiful 
foreground to the picture. Instead of crossing the bridge and 
following the road the whole way, the pedestrian may cross the 
Nahe near the church ; after passing a country-house and the 
old custom-house buildings, he will reach the road to the Hunns- 
riicken leading to the Rondel, a spot planted with trees and 
easily recognizable from a considerable distance. Near it is 
the Elisenhohe, another fine point of view, 400 ft. above the 
Rhine. 

The finest points, however, and the most frequented in the 
neighbourhood, are the Rochuscapelle (E.) and the Scharlach- 
kopf (S.E.), each y 2 hr. walk from the town. The carriage 
road to the former, which cannot be missed, leaves the street 
at the back of the Englische Hof , and after 100 yds. ascends 
to the 1., leading past the cemetery. 

The * Rochuscapelle, or Chapel of St. Roch, situated on 
an eminence 360 ft. above the Rhine, founded in 1666 at the 
time of the plague, destroyed in 1795, and restored in 1814, 
commands a noble prospect of the entire Rheingau. The 
interior of the chapel contains a picture representing St. Roch 
leaving his dismantled palace, painted in commemoration of 
the restoration of the sacred edifice, and presented by Goethe 
and others. At the festival of St. Roch (first Sunday after 
Aug. 16th), admirably described by Goethe, thousands of 
persons congregate here, and celebrate certain ecclesiastical 
solemnities, to which the jovial ringing of glasses and open-air 
dances form a somewhat incongruous accompaniment. The 
chapel is generally opened in summer at 7 p.m. Near the E. 
entrance a stone pulpit has been erected for open-air sermons. 



NIEDERWALD. 27. Route. 107 

From the Rochuscapelle a carriage road leads over tlie hill 
on the same level to the * Scharlachkopf, about 1 '/ 2 M. to 
the S.W. The view is very fine, and quite different from that 
afforded by the chapel; it commands the valley of the Nahe 
and the populous Palatinate, dotted with numerous villages, 
and bounded by the Donnersberg. The Rhine is only visible 
from the influx of the Nahe to the Mouse tower. A shady 
road through a fragrant grove leads from here along the 
N.W. side of the hill, and brings the pedestrian in about 
■25 min. to the road to the chapel ; in 10 min. more he will 
reach the town. 



27. The Niederwald. 

Tariffs of Rudesheim and Assmannshausen. Donkey with guide from 
Itiidesheim to the Temple on the Niederwald (or from Assmannshausen to 
the castle) 48 kr. ; to all the points of view, the castle and Assmannshausen 
(or vice ver&a from Assmannshausen to Kiidesheim) 1 fl. 24 kr. Guide alone 
■at half the above charges. Horse with guide 12— 24 kr. more. Two- 
liorse carriage to the Niederwald and castle 3 1 /, fl., including Assroanns- 
liausen, 4'/ 2 fl.; the same excursion, including the Johannisberg, 6'/ 2 fl. — 
Bo-ats from Rudesheim to Rheinstein, waiting 2 hrs. at the castle, and 
returning to Assmannshausen, 1 fl. 54 kr. ; to Assmannshausen alone 1 fl. 6 kr. ; 
the number of persons is not limited, the boatman must take as many as his 
boat will accommodate without additional charge. — Ferry from Rudesheim 
to Bingen for 1 — 3 pers. 12 kr., for each additional pers. 4 kr. more; from 
Assmannshausen to Rheinstein for 1 — 3 pers. 15 kr., for each additional 
pers. 5 kr. more. The wealthier inhabitants of the place, however, generally 
pay the boatmen so that they always receive at least 30 kr. for each passage. 
Steam ferry-boat between the stations of Rudesheim and Bingerbriick; fares 
2 or 1 Sgr. 

Bingen boatmen's tariff. From Bingen to Assmannshausen 1 — 6 pers. 
1 fl. 10 kr., Rheinstein 1 fl. 30 kr., Rheinstein and Assmannshausen 1 11. 48 kr., 
for each additional pers. 6 kr. ; return fare one-half more. The boatmen 
must be provided with numbered badges, and there must always be two in 
each boat; want of respect towards the passengers, or attempts to overcharge 
are severely punished. 

Plan. By water from Rudesheim or Bingen to Rheinstein, where the 
boat must await the traveller's return from the castle; thence to Assmanns- 
hausen, the walk from which over the Niederwald to Rudesheim may easily 
T>e accomplished in 2'/o hrs. Guide perfectly unnecessary. The path 
ascending to the Schloss cannot be missed, the only place where a difflculty 
may arise is between the Schloss and the temple, but one of the boys at the 
former will readily show the path for a few kreuzers. Riders are advised 
to take their doukeys or horses only as far as the Schloss, where they 
should be immediately dismissed, as the descent may be accomplished with 
the greatest ease by the most ordinary walker. [From Bingen to Rheinstein 
-on foot (ferry across the Nahe at the church) is about 3 M.j 

The Niederwald is a wooded height, the S. slopes of 
which are covered with vineyards rising abruptly from the 
Rhine, and is one of the most favorite points of view on the 
Rhine. The ascent is generally made (after Rheinstein has 
been visited) from Assmannshausen, where the road enters 
a valley, on the S. slopes of which the celebrated Assmanns- 
hauser red wine is produced. A gradual ascent of x / 2 hr. will 



108 Route 27. NIEDERWALD. 

bring the pedestrian to Aulhausen (near it the former nunnery 
of Marienhaunen, now employed as farm-buildings). At the 
village church the path leaves the road through the valley T 
and in 20 min. more the Jagdschloss (hunting-castle) is- 
reached, which, with the whole of the Niederwald, belongs to 
the Duke of Nassau (* Restaurant, wines good, also R. 48 kr). — 
A nearer path leads from Assmannshausen, ascending rapidly 
to the r. by the figure of a saint (3 min.), in 35 min. to the 
Jagdschloss. 

From the Jagdschloss the traveller takes a boy (6 — 12 kr.), 
to open the Zauberhohle and Rossel. The "Zauberhbhle" (magic 
cave), '/ 2 M. to the S.W. of the Schloss,. is a short dark 
passage, at the extremity of which is a semi-circular chamber 
with three windows, commanding views, through cuttings in 
the wood, of the Clemenscapelle and Falkenburg, the castle 
of Rheinstein and the Swiss house. Five min. walk farther 
in the same direction is the *Rossel (759 ft. above the river), 
an artificial ruin, built on the- highest point of the Nieder- 
wald, commanding a beautiful and extensive prospect; to the 
W. the valley of the Nahe with the Donnersberg and the 
Soonwald in the background; to the r. the wooded heights 
of the Hunnsriick. Far below the Rhine is seen rushing past 
the ruin of Ehrenfels through the Bingerloch by the Mouse 
Tower. On the opposite bank lies Bingen with the castle of 
Klopp, sheltered by the wooded and vine-clad Rochusberg. 
In the valley of the Nahe are seen numerous villages, and 
Kreuznach in the distance. Below the mouth of the Nahe 
is Rheinstein, with the Swiss house; beneath the latter the 
Clemenskirche surrounded by trees, and beyond it the Falken- 
burg. From the Rossel to Riidesheim is a walk of 1 i / i hr. 

From the Rossel the path leads in a S.E. direction to the 
(2 min.) Adolphshbhe, exactly opposite the influx of the Nahe, 
the Hermitage (10 min.) and a stone seat (5 min.) where the 
path to the r. must be taken, which in 10 min. more leads 
to the * Temple (628 ft. above the Rhine), an open circular 
building, supported by pillars, situated on the brow of the hill, 
and commanding a new and magnificent view, including the 
entire Rheingau, bounded on the S.E. by the Taunus mountains, 
on the S. by the Melibocus, and on the W. by the distant 
Donnersberg. 

From this point the road proceeds to the ]., reaching a 
signpost (5 min.), where the path to the 1. must be taken, 
which will bring the traveller to Riidesheim in '/, hr. The 
track to the r. is a steep and stony path for pedestrians only* 
and descends through the vineyards, but is little shorter than 
the other; during the vintage, commencing about the end of 



BINGERBRUCK. 28. Route. 109 

August, this path is closed. Distance ffom Riidesheim to the 
Temple 45 ruin.; thence to the Jagdschloss 40 min.; down to 
Assmannshausen by Aulhausen 40 min. 



38. From Bingen to Saarbrucken. 

Comp. Map R. 24. 

Distance 94 M. By the Rhine-Nahe line to Neunkirchen (p. 197) in 
3 l / 2 hrs. ; from Neunkirchen (by the Prussian Saarbriicken line) to Saarbrucken 
in '/, hr. ; fares from Bingerbriick to Saarbriicken : 4 Thlr. 4, 2 Thlr. 26, 
1 Thlr. 26 Sgr. — The terminus station is at Bingerbriick on the 1. bank of 
the Nahe, close to the station of the Rhenish railway, about 2 M. from 
Bingen. Tickets may also be procured at the Bingen station. Steam ferry- 
boat between Bingerbriick and Riidesheim. 

The finest points on this route are the tract between Kreusnach and 
Norheim, and the environs of Oberstein. The most remarkable part of the 
line in an engineering point of view is between Fischbach and Birkenfeld, 
where there are 10 tunnels and 20 bridges over the Nahe. The rocks through 
which the cuttings are made consist chiefly of porphyry and dark red melaphyr, 
many of which are very precipitous and most grotesquely shaped. 

The line commences at Bingerbriick on the 1. bank of 
the Nahe and passes the foot of the Hunnsriicken mountains, 
traversing vineyards and a fertile tract of country, passing the 
old tower of Trutzbingen, erected in 1494 by a prefect of 
Kreuznach, and several small stations, the most important of 
which is Langenlonsheim ( Weisses Ross). 

Kreuznach and environs, s. R. 29. 

After leaving the station the train crosses the Nahe, winds 
round the E. side of the town, passing the saline spring of 
Carhhalle, on the r., the jagged porphyry" precipice of the 
Gans, and, on the 1. bank, the buildings of the mineral spring 
of Theodorshalle. Near the bridge, which crosses to the 1. bank 
of the river, rises, on the 1., almost perpendicularly the rugged 
cliff of the Rheingrafenstein .(comp. R. 29). 

Beyond the station of Minister am Stein the line passes 
through a deep cutting, on emerging from which the Rhein- 
grafenstein is again visible on the 1., and, separated from it by 
the Alsenz, which here falls into the Nahe, the ruins of *Ebern- 
burg (p. 113), now converted into an inn. 

Immediately afterwards the train passes between the Nahe 
and the jagged and precipitous cliffs of Rothenfels (900 ft.), the 
best view of which may be had from the train by looking 
back on the 1. side, after passing through two long tunnels, 
and before reaching the village of Norheim. 

The line now follows the picturesque windings of the valley, 
passing the villages of Niederhausen on the r., and Oberhausen 
on the 1., and a steep rock rising on the r., surmounted by 
the ruins of Bockelheim, in which the Emperor Henry IV. was 
kept a prisoner by his son Henry V. in December, 1105, in 



110 Route 28. KIRN. From Bingen 

order to compel him to give up the imperial treasures, kept 
in the castle of Hammerstein at Andernaeh on the Rhine. 
The village of Waldbockelheim lies in a side valley, about 
2 M. from the station of that name. 

Half an hour's walk from Waldbockelheim are situated the castle and 
abbey of Sponheim, the seat of one of the oldest families of the Rhenish 
noblesse. The church built in the Romanesque style is an object of interest 
for lovers of art. 

On emerging from the tunnel beyond Boos (r.), the traveller 
will observe on the 1. the considerable ruins of * Dissiboden- 
berg, a monastery founded by the Irish bishop Dissibodus 
(d. 560), the first propagator of Christianity in this district. 
It was abandoned to decay in 1560, and is now converted 
into tastefully laid out pleasure grouuds, which afford a good 
survey of the valley of the Nahe and the Gtan, which here 
falls into the Nahe. 

Staudernheim (*Salmen) is in the dominions of the Land- 
grave of Hessen-Homburg, and lies on the r. bank of the river, 
and is connected with the station by the "Landgrave-bridge."' 

Sobernheim (Adler; Hoheburg), a small town of some 
antiquity, enclosed by a town-wall. 

Monzingen (Pflug) lies on the hillside to the r., and yields 
one of the best wines of the Nahe. The next station is that 
of Martinstein, curiously built on a rock to the r., with a 
church on an eminence surrounded by a fine group of trees-'. 
Beyond it is a valley opening on the r., in which the grand 
ruins of *Dhaun are situated. 

'Dhaun, a castle of an old family of the Rhenish noblesse which became 
extinct in 1750, was erected in the 12th cent., and in later years greatly 
enlarged and improved. It is situated about 6 l / 2 M. from stat. Monzingen, 
and 3% 11. from Kirn (see below). A relief over one of the doors, represent- 
ing an ape in the act of giving an apple to a child, commemorates the fact 
that a child of one of the Counts was carried off by an ape, but fortunately 
recovered. Munificent view of the valley of the Nahe as far as Lemberg, 
and of the Simmerthal and the dark ravines of the Soonwald. 

The traveller who takes the road from Monzingen to Dhaun should again 
descend into the valley of the Nahe by Johannesberg (see below), the church 
of which contains monuments of members of the above-mentioned family. 

On an eminence to the r. is situated the church of Johannes- 
berg. The valley here becomes narrower; the train passes 
through a tunnel and reaches Kirn (*Posf). It contains a very 
old church, with a Romanesque nave, and Gothic choir, added 
in the 15th cent. The town is commanded by the ruined 
castle of Kyi-burg (* Restaurant), once the residence of the 
Princes of Salm-Kyrburg, the last of whom perished by the 
guillotine in Paris in 1794. 

About l'/ 2 M. up the valley of the Hahnebach, which unites with the 
Nahe at Kirn, are situated the ruins of Stein-Callenfels, curiously perched 
on the side of the rock like a swallow's nest. In the background is seen the 
white castle of Wartenstein ; thence by OOer/tausen to Dhaun, and from 
Dhaun by Johannesberg, or through the wood to Kirn, a pleasant walk of 
3'/ 2 hrs. 



to Saarbrucken. BIRKENFELD. 28. Route. Ill 

After traversing an opener and less romantic tract, the 
line again enters a more mountainous district at Sulzbach, 
where the melaphyr cliffs become more abrupt, and confine the 
river in narrower limits. After passing Fischbach, a bridge, a 
tunnel, and another bridge, the train comes in view of Ober- 
stein, situated most picturesquely on the opposite bank. The 
station is at some distance from the town. Inn on the r. bank 
(*Heindl, R. and B. 15, D. 10, S. 8 Sgr.). On the 1. bank are 
the shops where the agates (see below) are sold at moderate 
prices. Below Oberstein are huge masses of conglomerate, 
the "Fallen rocks" on the r. side of the road, which have 
become detached from the steep hillside and now stand leaning 
against it. 

Oberstein is the finest point in the valley of the Nahe. The 
precipitous melaphyr cliffs, 400 ft. in height, on the 1. bank of 
the river, confine the town within very narrow limits. On their 
summits are situated the ruins of two castles, belonging to the 
Barons of Oberstein, who became extinct in 1670. Half-way 
up is the * Protestant church, curiously built (12th cent.) into the 
face of the rock. It contains an old tombstone, said to belong 
to the founder, and a picture of the Oberstein family. The 
flight of steps which lead to the church are opposite to the 
bridge; the sexton lives in the last house on the 1., as the 
visitor ascends. The new Gothic Roman Cath. church, constructed 
of dark red melaphyr, lies on the r. bank of the Nahe. 

Oberstein has a population of 3500 ('/ 4 Rom. Cath.), the greater portion 
of which is occupied in cutting and polishing agates, -which were formerly 
found here in great abundance. They are now, however, much more scarce, 
and lai - L r e quantities are imported from Brazil and Montevideo. A process 
has recently been discovered, by which colourless agates are converted into 
onyxes, sardonyxes &c, by the addition of colouring matter. On the Idar- 
bach, which falls into the Nahe near Oberstein, there are upwards of 50 pol- 
ishing mills; Idar (Gurlit:), V/„ M. to the N.W. of Oberstein, contains a sort 
of merchants' hall in which these wares are sold at officially regulated prices. 
In Idar and Oberstein upwards of 100 so-called goldsmiths are engaged in 
setting the stones in silver and other metals. — Beautiful excursion to the 
Wildenburg (l'/ 2 hr.) by the Katzenloch; guide necessary. 

On leaving Oberstein the train passes through a rapid 
succession of tunnels and cuttings. The town of Birkenfeld 
(Emmerich), situated 3 M. to the r. of the station, is the capital 
of the principality of Birkenfeld, and now belongs to the Duchy 
of Oldenburg. At IVallhausen the line attains its greatest 
height (1"225 ft.), the culminating point (watershed) between 
the Nahe and Saar. It now descends to the district-town 
of St. Wendel (Jochem), which contains a fine old Gothic 
church with pulpit of 1462. On emerging from the tunnel 
(450 yds.) of Wiebelskirchen, the train reaches Neunkirchen, 
and joins the Saarbriicken line. From this point to Saar- 
briicken, see R. 45. 



112 

29. Kreuznach and its Environs. 

(Comp. Maps R.R. 45 and 24.) 

Hotels. "Pfalzer Hof, next to the post-office; Adler, both in the 
town. — Berliner Hof, near the bath-island. Bath-establishments and 
hotels on and near the bath-island: Curhaus, Englischer Hof, Kan- 
ze n berg, Oranienhof, Rheinstein, Hof von Holland, Ebern- 
Ourg, &c. 

Carriage fares (to the following places and back with 4 hrs. stay): 
Minister am Stein one-horse 1-/, Thlr., two-horse S'/gThlr.; Rheingrafenstein 
and Minister am Stein 2—3 Thlr.; Ebernburg 2 — 3 Thlr. ; Altenbaumberg 
2— 3 Thlr.; Rothenfels 2'/,— 3 Thlr.; Dissibodenberg 2%— 4 Thlr.; Stromberg 
2'/„— 3V 2 Thlr.; Rheinbollcr Hiitte 5 Thlr.; Schloss Dhann 5 Thlr. Bridge 
au3 road tolls are included in the above. Driver's fee optional. 

Donkeys at the Curhaus (to the following places and back with halt of 
% day) : Munster am Stein 1 Thlr., Rheingrafenstein 1 Thlr., Ebernburg 1 Thlr., 
Rothenfels 1 Thlr. A ride to the Gans, Rheingrafenstein, Ebernburg, and 
back to Kreuznach, costs about V/ t Thlr. The pedestrian would require 
about 4 hrs. to make this beautiful round. He is recommanded, when on 
the summit of the Kiihberg, not to keep the carriage road, but to diverge to 
the r. by the signpost. The path leads through wood and along the brow 
of the hill, commanding a succession of fine views and a survey of the deep 
ravine of the Salmeu. 

Railway to Bingeu and Saarbriicken, see R. 28. 

Nahe-wines, The best are yielded by the vineyards of the Scharlachberg 
and Kauzenberg, of Norheim, Monzingen , Ebernburg, Munster am Stein, 
Wiuzenheim and Bosenheim. 

'Statuettes made of an imitation of ivory (stucco saturated with stearic 
acid) at Cauer's. 

English Church Service during the season. 

Kreuznach (11,000 inhabitants; V 3 Rom. Cath.) has within 
the last 20 — 30 years become a place of importance on account 
of its baths, which are particularly beneficial in cases of 
scrofula, and is visited by about 6000 patients annually. The 
baths are situated on and near the Badeinsel (bath island), 
near the bridge over the Nahe. A row of handsome houses 
has lately been erected here, among which is the Curhaus, 
with a bath-establishment, conversation-hall, &c. The island 
is in the morning and evening resorted to by the visitors, 
who assemble here to drink the waters of the Elisabeth spring 
(containing iodine and bromine), situated at the S. extremity, 
and to enjoy the grounds and promenades. Temporary stalls 
abound with all those objects with which the traveller is 
usually tempted, the most conspicuous among them being the 
really beautiful agate wares peculiar to the neighbourhood 
(p. 111). The Church on the island was erected in 1768 to 
replace that destroyed by the French in 1689. The ruins of 
the Gothic choir (1333) of the latter have been fitted up as 
an English Chapel. 

On the N.W. side of the town, on the 1. bank of the Nahe, 
rises the Schlossberg, a hill laid out in private gardens and 
pleasure grounds; the vineyards on its S. slopes yield an 
excellent wine. The summit, which is surmounted by the ruined 
castle of Kauzenberg, seat of the Sponheim family, destroyed 



RHEINGRAFENSTEIN. 29. Route. 113 

by the French in 1689, commands a fi»e view of the Nahe 
vallsy from the Rheingrafenstein to Bingen. A lion hewn in 
stone brought here from Dhaun (p. 110) commemorates the 
gallant conduct of Michel Mort, a butcher of Kreuznach, who 
sacrificed his life to save his Prince, Johann von Sponheim, 
in the battle of Sprendlingen (4% M. to the E. of Kreuznach), 
which the latter fought in 1279 against the Archbishop Werner 
of Mayence. Kreuznach was from the 13th to the 15th cent, the 
capital of the dominions of the Counts of Sponheim , and 
afterwards became subject to the Electors Palatine. 

In the valley of the'Nahe, 1 M. above Kreuznach, in Prussian 
territory, but the property of the Grand-duke of Hessen, are 
situated the saline springs of Carls- and Theodorshalle, the 
baths in connection with which are a private undertaking 
(Hotel Rees; Foreith; R. in both 3 — 5 Thlr. per week). 

At Minister am Stein, 2'/ 2 M. from Kreuznach, are 
extensive salt-works belonging to the Prussian Government, and 
warm saline baths (87 ° Fahr.). Good accommodation may be 
had at the springs, or in the village (Gurhaus; Hotel Low). 

Here the * Rheingrafenstein, a porphyry cliff, rises almost 
perpendicularly from the Nahe to the height of 420 ft. The 
river should be crossed near the saline springs (to the 1. a 
* restaurant), opposite to which a somewhat steep but easily 
accessible path leads to the top, which commands a fine view. 
The boldly situated ruined castle, built in the 11th cent., was 
once a residence of the "Rheingrafen" (or Rhenish counts), 
but was blown up by the French in 1689. The new castle, 
farm-buildings, vineyards, &c, are now the property of the 
Prince of Solms-Braunfels, who sometimes resides here in the 
summer. (Direct path from Kreuznach to the Rheingrafen- 
stein, see R. 45.) 

The *Gans (1070 ft.), %M. to the N.E. of the Rheingrafen- 
stein, commands a still more extensive view, comprising the 
Nahethal as far as Bingen, a portion of the Rheingau, the 
Rochuscapelle, Johannisberg, and the course of the Rhine ; 
far below are the Rheingrafenstein and Ebernburg, and in the 
distance to the 1. the Donnersberg; in the valley the village 
of Minister am Stein, farther up Norheim, and on the opposite 
bank of the river the barren cliffs of Rothenfels. 

Opposite to the Rheingrafenstein, to the W., is situated the 
ruined castle of * Ebernburg, once the stronghold of Franz 
von Sickingen (d. 1523, see p. 103), and which at that time 
often served as an asylum for outlaws and fugitives. Under 
his roof several of the early Reformers found shelter from 
persecution, and Ulrich von Hutten here composed his letters 
to Charles V., to the German nobility and nation. Shortly after 
Baedeker's Rhine. S 



114 B->ute 30. SAARLOUIS. 

Sickingen's death the castle fell into the hands of the Electors 
of Treves, Hessen, and the Palatinate. It was fortified by the 
French in 1689, but, in accordance with the stipulations of 
the peace of Ryswyck in 1698, it was again dismantled. Out 
of the ruins rises a pinnacled building of strange appearance, 
built by the present owner, and employed as an *inn. It 
contains portraits of Sickingen and his wife, of Ulrich von 
Hutten, and others. The weapons, bullets &c, found in the 
old well (295 ft. deep), as well as several old sculptures, are 
to be seen in the castle yard. The prospect is fine, especially 
that of the valley of the Alsenz, with the ruins of Kronenburg 
in the background. 

The view from the * Rothenfels, a porphyry cliff, rising 
precipitously from the valley to the height of 900 ft., surpasses 
those commanded by the Gans and Ebernburg, as it embraces 
the valley of the Nahe as far as the Lemberg and the Alsenz- 
thal to the Moschellandsberg. The distant view is quite as 
extensive as that from the Gans. The footpath leading to it 
ascends from the saline springs through shady woods. Donkeys 
and conveyance, see p. 112. 

Two delightful but more distant excursions may be taken 
from Kreuznach to the Dissibodenberg, and Dhaun (p. 110), 
which may best be reached by railway. — From Kreuznach 
by Stromberg to Bacharach, see p. 101. 

30. From Saarbriicken to Treves and 
Luxembourg. 

By railway to Treves in 2 3 /„ hrs.; fares: 2 Thlr. 15'/.,. 1 Thlr. 22'/,. 
1 Thlr. 5 Sgr.; to Luxembourg in 3'/ 2 hrs.; fares: 3 Thlr. 2", 2 Thlr. Hi, 
1 Thlr. 24 Sgr. 

The line follows the course of the Saar, the most picturesque 
parts of which are between Saarbriicken and Saarlouis, and 
afterwards between Mettlach and Saarburg. 

Saarlouis (* Rheinischer Hof; Zwei Mohreri), a Prussian 
fortress built by Vauban within one year, in consequence of 
a bet with Louis XIV., and the birthplace of the unfortunate 
Marshal Ney; the house in which he was born is indicated 
by a marble tablet. 

The next stations are Dillingen, Beckinyen, and Merzig 
(Trierscher Hof), at the last of which are the remnants of a 
pointed-arched piazza of the 12th cent. 

At Mettlach (before reaching which a long tunnel is passed 
through) are the buildings which once belonged to a Benedictine 
abbey, founded in the 7th cent., now occupied by the extensive 
stone-ware manufactory of Villeroy and Boch, one of the most 
important in Germany. 



SAARBURG. 30. Route. 115 

At Mettlach the Saar makes a considerable circuit, which the line avoids 
by means of the above-mentioned tunnel. The N. point of the hill which it 
penetrates (4% M. to the N.W. of Mettlach, reached by a pretty, shady walk) 
is called the 'Clef, which affords a fine survey of the two arms of the 
valley of the Saar, separated by a narrow strip of land, on which stands the 
ruined castle of Montclair, destroyed as early as 1350 by the Elector Balduin 
of Treves. 

One mile \V. from the Clef lies the village of Orscholz (*Thiellemanns) 
from which a carriage road leads to Weiten, 2'/., M. to the N. A mile farther 
in the same direction is the old castle of Freudenburr/, and 1 M. beyond it 
a signpost indicates the way to the village of Castell. Near it, on a bold 
rock overhanging the Saar, is an old chapel restored by the late king Fred. 
William IV. in 1630, when Crown-prince, and to which he caused the bones 
of his ancestor, the blind 'king John of Bohemia who fell at Cressy in 1346, 
to be transported. The castellan lives in the village below. 

At the Prussian village of Nennig (8 M. to the W. of FreudeDburg) is a 
remarkably line. Roman *Slosaic-floor. 50 by 33 ft. It represents 8 different 
pictures, the principal being a combat of gladiators surrounded by groups 
of animals and athletes. 

The line still keeps the r. bank of the Saar, and its lofty- 
embankments traverse the grauwackian hills, between which 
the river flows. As the train approaches Saarburg, the above- 
mentioned chapel of Castell is seen rising on a precipitous rock 
on the 1. bank. 

Saarburg (Post, carriage to Castell [see above] 2 ] / 3 Thlr. ; 
*Trierscher Hof) is picturesquely situated in a basin formed 
by the surrounding hills, and overtopped by the considerable 
ruins of a castle of the former Electors of Treves. The Lei/k, 
which here unites with the Saar, forms a waterfall, 60 ft. in 
height, near the "Post." 

The line still continues in the valley of the Saar, passing 
several wine-producing villages, till it reaches Conz, the Con- 
sitium of the Romans, immediately below which the valley of 
the Moselle is entered. The bridge over the Saar at Conz is 
mentioned by the Roman poet Ausonius (d. 392) in his poem 
entitled "Mosella," but the present structure was erected by 
Clemens Wenceslaus, the last Elector of Treves, the original 
bridge having been destroyed by the French under Marshal Crequi, 
on their retreat on the 11th of August, 1675, when defeated by 
the imperial confederates under George William of Brunswick. 

The railway here crosses the Moselle by a massive stone 
bridge. On the 1. bank the line to Treves diverges; the station 
is near the old Moselle bridge. Treves, see p. 117. .1 : 

The Luxembourg line next passes the village of Igel. 
The celebrated * Monument of Igel (p. 121), the most beautiful 
Roman relic on this side of the Alps, is visible from the 
train. Above Igel are extensive gypsum and lime quarries. 
Before reaching stat. Wasserbillig the line crosses the frontier 
of Luxembourg; scenery picturesque; the Salter (Sure) here 
unites with the Moselle, after having for a considerable distance 
towards the N. formed the boundary between Prussia and 

8* 



116 Route 30. LUXEMBOURG. Fortifications. 

Luxembourg. Near stat. Mertert the line quits the valley of 
the Moselle and ascends that of the Sire. After passing several 
minor stations, the train crosses the Pulverthal by a viaduct 
800 ft. in length and 100 ft. in height; the station, which is 
situated on the r. side of the Petrusthal, is connected with the 
town by means of a handsome bridge. 

Luxembourg, formerly Liitzelburg {Hotel de Cologne; Hotel 
de Luxembourg), * fortress of the German confederation with a 
Prussian garrison (6000 men) and a pop. of 12,170, is the 
capital of the duchy of the same name, now subject to the 
king of Holland. The situation of the town is at once peculiar 
and picturesque. The upper portion is perched upon a rocky 
table-land, connected with the open country towards the W. 
only, whilst the other three sides are bounded by abrupt 
precipices, 200 ft. in height, at the base of which flows the 
Petrusbach and the Alzette (Alzig); beyond these streams again 
rise equally abrupt walls of rock. In this narrow ravine lies 
the lower portion of the town, distinguished by its industrial 
animation, and consisting of Pfaffenthal, the N. suburb, and 
Clausen and Grund, the S. suburbs separated by a rocky ridge 
termed le Bouc (Bock). The valley of the Alzette, studded 
with numerous habitations, and occasionally intersected by the 
walls of the fortress, forms a natural fosse. The view of the 
town with its variety of mountain and valley, gardens and 
rugged rocks, handsome military edifices and groups of trees, 
as seen from the Treves road, is singularly striking. This 
imposing aspect is enhanced by the gigantic railway viaducts, 
and the handsome, colossal bridge which connects the railway 
station with the opposite side of the valley. 

The fortifications combine the massive proportions of 
modern structures of this description with the boldness of 
ancient mountain castles. The most interesting portion is the 
Bouc (Bock), a narrow projecting ridge, honeycombed from top 
to bottom with casemates, loopholes and embrasures, by which 
the valley of the Alzette is commanded in all directions. On 
this ridge is constructed the road to Treves, descending from 
the upper part of the town by numerous windings. 

The construction of these works has during a period of 
500 years gradually progressed under various possessors, — 
Henry IV., Count of Luxembourg, afterwards German emperor 
as Henry VII. (d. 1312), his son John, the blind king of Bohemia 
(killed at the battle of Cressy in 1346), the Burgundians, the 
Spaniards, the French (whose eminent military engineer Vauban, 
under Louis XIV., reconstructed a great portion of the fortress), 
and finally the German Confederation. Luxembourg is de- 
signated by Carnot as "la plus forte place de I' Europe apres 



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TREVES. 31. Route. 117 

Gibraltar, le seal point d'appui pour attacpier la France du cote 
de la Moselle." 

Beyond the fortifications and the delightful environs Luxem- 
bourg possesses little to arrest the traveller. Of the magnificent 
castle of the Spanish Governor Count Mansfeld (1545 — 1604) 
no vestige is left, with the exception of a Gateway in the 
lower part of the town, into which several Roman reliefs and 
inscriptions are built. The celebrated Mansfeld Gardens 
and parks now only nominally exist in a walk along the E. 
slope of the hill, in # the vicinity of the Treves Gate, which 
however merits a visit on account of the striking view it 
commands. The traveller who has sufficient leisure will be 
well repaid by a walk through the entire valley. 

31. Treves. 

Hotels. 'Trierseher Hof (PI. a), R. 20, L. 5, B. 10 Sgr. *Rothes 
Haus (PI. b) (similar prices), formerly senate-house. •Luxemburget Hot' 
(PI. c) and *Stadt Venedig (PI. d), both good second-class houses with 
moderate charges. 

Caf6s. Fischer, in the market-place. Belle vue and Schneider's 
Hof, both on an eminence on the 1. bank of the Moselle, commanding a 
magnificent view, */ t M. distant from the ferry at Zurlauben at the lower end 
of the town ; back to Treves by Zurlauben, passing the entrance to the Pallien- 
Thal, a pretty glimpse of which is obtained through the arch of a bridge 
built by Napoleon. 

Carriages. Two-horse carriages i Thlr. per diem; to Igel (p. 115; 2 Thlr., 
one-horse 1 Thlr. 10 Sgr. 

Railway station on the 1. bank of the Moselle. Railway to Saar- 
briicken, see R. 30, and to Luxembourg. 

Telegraph Office near the Neuthor. 

Steamboat to Coblenz, see p. 121. 

Treves (Ger. Trier), said to be the oldest town in Germany, 
was the capital of the Treviri, a race of the Belgic Gauls, 
conquered B.C. 56 by Ca?sar, who converted it into a Roman 
colony under the name of Augusta Trevirorum. The new colony 
increased rapidly in importance, and was on more occasions 
than one the residence of the Emperors. Under Constantine 
the Great it was the capital of the whole of Gaul, and had 
its senate, magistrates, nobility, and priesthood; and with its 
arts, sciences, and extensive commercial relations became no 
mean rival of Imperial Rome itself. The relics and remnants 
of buildings belonging to that age with which the vicinity 
abounds, are incontestibly the finest on this side of the Alps. 

Upon the introduction of Christianity by Constantine, Agricius 
of Antioch was in 328 elected first Bishop of Treves, which 
for nearly 15 centuries continued to be the residence of the 
bishops, archbishops, and electors, till Clemens Wenceslaus, 
the last elector, transferred his residence to Coblenz in 1786. 

On Aucr. 10th, 1794, the French took the town, exacted 



118 Route 31. TREVES. Porta Nigra. 

from it a contribution of l l / 2 million francs, and in 1802 
abolished all the monasteries and religious establishments. 
Till 1815 Treves was the chief town of the Department of 
the Saar, when it was made over to Prussia. Its population 
is 17,240 (1500 Prot, and 2000 soldiers). The vine-clad hills 
in the environs, the wooded heights, the rich and fruitful plain 
in which the town, with its red sandstone walls and numerous 
towers, is situated, form a most picturesque and striking 
landscape. 

The most important and at the same time the most in- 
teresting and best preserved of the Roman antiquities of Treves 
is the * Porta Nigra (Romerthor, Simeonsthor, PI. 21) at the 
N. end of the town. The dimensions of this magnificent relic 
are: length 115 ft., height 74 — 93 ft., breadth including the 
wings 167 ft. It consists of three different stories, with two 
gateways, 23 ft. in height, and is constructed of huge, un- 
cemented blocks of lias sandstone, blackened by time. In 
1035 this structure was converted into a church, arid the lower 
story filled up, and in this state it remained till 1817, when 
it was restored to its ancient condition and use as a gateway 
by the Prussian government. In the part formerly used as 
the choir a collection of Roman antiquities is exhibited by 
the custodian of the baths. 

Next in interest are the * Roman Baths (PI. 24), entered 
from the Promenade and also through a wicket-gate from the 
Esplanade (5 Sgr.), forming the S.E. corner of the town. They 
were as late as 1817 almost entirely buried beneath a mass of 
earth and rubbish, but this has been removed by the Prussian 
government, and the spacious apartments, halls, and channels 
for hot air, carefully and tastefully constructed of large bricks 
and small blocks of limestone, are now completely exposed 
to view and preserved from the farther ravages of time. The 
summit is reached by a steep spiral stair-case, and affords a 
good survey of the structure itself and the town. 

On a rising ground about 500 yds. from the Baths is the 
*Amphitheatre, termed by the inhabitants the Kaskeller (cheese- 
cellar), situated among vineyards. This arena, still in excellent 
preservation, has a diameter from N. to S. of 225, and 
from E. to W. 156 ft., and was capable of accommodating 
57,000 spectators. Here Constantine the Great sullied his fame 
in the year 306 by causing several thousand captive Franks, 
with their leaders Ascarich and Ragais, to be torn to pieces by 
wild beasts, which barbarous scene was repeated in 313, when 
thousands of the Bructeri were sacrificed for the amusement 
of the people. The ten apertures in the walls, which led to 
the vaulted dens (cavece) where the wild beasts were kept, are 



Cathedral. TREVES. 31. Route. 119 

still to be seen. The * Villa Recking, abwe the Amphitheatre, 
affords the best view of the town, as well as of the amphi- 
theatre itself. Pleasant walk to the village of Clewig (1 y 2 M.). 

The *Basilika (PI. 9) is a building said to date from a 
period prior to the time of Constantine, the purposes of which 
antiquarians have been unable to determine with precision; 
some suppose it to have been a theatre, others an imperial 
residence. In the early part of the middle ages it was the 
seat of the Governors of the town, but at the commencement 
of the 12th cent, was, with the supreme jurisdiction of the 
town, transferred to the bishops, and constituted a part of the 
■episcopal palace, afterwards erected by them. When the town 
became Prussian, it was converted into a barrack, but in 1816 
was restored to its. ancient condition by the late king Fred. 
William IV. In 1856 it was fitted up and consecrated as a 
Protestant church. The entire length is 220 ft., breadth 98 ft., 
and height of the hall 97 ft.; the N. side is built in a semi- 
circular form, and the interior is lighted by a double row of 
windows. 

In the time of the Romans the * Bridge over the Moselle 
was situated in the middle of the town. It was partially 
destroyed by the French in 1689, and in 1729 the remnants 
were employed in the construction of the present bridge, which 
crosses the river at the S.W. extremity of the town. 

In the Diedrichstrasse, at the fourth house from the market- 
place on the 1., are the old walls of a building, now employed 
as a coach-house, believed to have been a Roman tower of 
defence (propugnaculum) (PI. 29), but in reality dating from the 
6th or 7th cent. 

Among the older ecclesiastical buildings only two are worthy 
<jf note, the Cathedral, and the adjacent Liebfrauenkirche, 
both situated near the Basilik'a. The * Cathedral (PI. 10) was 
once, according to an ancient tradition, a palace of the Roman 
emperors, and the birthplace of St. Helena, the mother of 
Constantine the Great. It is difficult to convey an idea of its 
architectural merit, as no less than six different styles have been 
combined in its construction: Corinthian columns of the time 
of Constantine contrast with Romanesque and Gothic arches; 
the grotesque styles of the 17th and 18th centuries, and the 
unsuitable Ionic pillars erected in 1849 to support the organ, 
form, with the recent external and internal decorations, an 
incongruous though not unimposing whole. Fragments of the 
pillars of Odenwald granite, which once decorated the portion 
of the structure where the grand choir now begins, lie in front 
of the W. Portal. The entire length of the edifice, exclusive 
of the treasury, is 314 ft., breadth 135 ft., and height 90 ft. 



120 Route 31. TREVES. Liebfrauenkirche. 

It contains three aisles and two choirs. The different periods 
of the architecture, beginning with the Roman period, are 
■well exhibited in the interior of the church. In its vaults 
repose the remains of 26 archbishops and Electors. The 
finest of the monuments is that of Johann III. (yon Metzen- 
hausen, d. 1540), on the wall of the N. aisle. On the tombstone 
of the Elector Richard III. (von Grei/enciau, d. 1531), the 
successful opponent of Protestantism, are small medallions 
with likenesses of the Elector on the ]., and his most violent 
antagonist, Franz von Sickingen (p. 103), on the r. side. 
This church is the depositary of some highly prized relics. 
Foremost may be named the "Holy Coat" without seam, the 
exhibition of which at rare intervals attracts enormous crowds 
of pilgrims. A nail from the Cross and a portion of the 
Crown of Thorns are also objects of superstitious veneration. 
By the steps leading to the High altar are statues of Constantine 
and St. Helena, and on the pulpit, reliefs in stone of 1572, 
representing the 8 Beatifications and the Last Judgment. 

Adjacent to the cathedral, and connected with it by beautiful 
cloisters restored in 1847, is the * Liebfrauenkirche (PL 15), 
a church of inconsiderable dimensions, but deservedly admired 
as one of the most exquisite specimens of Gothic architecture 
in Germany. It was completed in 1243, five years before the 
foundation-stone of the cathedral at Cologne was laid. The 
form of the structure is circular, intersected by a lofty vaulted 
cross, and supported by 12 slender pillars, on which the 
12 apostles are represented, painted probably in the 15th cent.; 
they may all be seen simultaneously from a slab of slate in 
the pavement, about 8 yds. from the entrance, which the sacristan 
points out. The church contains numerous monuments of 
ecclesiastical dignitaries, and the mummy of Bishop Theodulf, 
who died in the 6th cent. The *Portal is richly decorated 
with sculptures, symbolical of the Old and New Testament. 

The Town Library, in the buildings of the Grammar 
School (PL 26), contains a considerable collection of rare and 
valuable works, amongst them the bible of Faust and Guten- 
berg of 1450, and the Catholicon of 1460; of the MSS. the 
most interesting is the Codex aureus, which contains the four 
Gospels, presented by Ada (d. 809), the sister of Charlemagne, 
to the Abbey of St. Maximin, within the precincts of which 
she was afterwards interred. It is illuminated with strictly 
allegorical paintings; the binding is superbly ornamented with 
precious stones and a cameo of uncommon size, representing 
the Familia Augusta. 

The Museum (PL 20) in the same building may be visited 
on account of the valnable collection it contains of fossils and 




IGEL. 31. Route. 121 

volcanic productions from the Eifel, and a great number of 
coins and antiquities of the Roman period and the middle ages. 

By far the most interesting Roman mo- 
nument on this side of the Alps must now 
be mentioned — the celebrated *Igeler 
Saule, or Igel Monument, popularly termed 
"Heidenthurm" (heathens' tower), situated 
in the middle of the village of that name, 
about 20 yds. to the r. of the Treves and 
Luxembourg road. It is, a square sandstone 
column, 71 ft. in height, and 16 ft. broad at 
the base, probably erected in the 2nd cent. ; 
it bears a number of reliefs, carvings and 
inscriptions on the different panels. An- 
tiquarians differ in their conjectures con- __. 

cerning the origin and purpose of this fine v^JSES^ 
relic, and its inscriptions have been variously interpreted. It 
was, however, in all probability a monument erected by the 
rich mercantile family of Secundini, who lived in this vicinity, 
to the memory of one their sons, who, as some of the allegorical 
reliefs seem to intimate, perished by drowning, and, as another 
relief exhibits a man and woman in the act of joining their 
hands, it may also have been intended to commemorate a 
happier and more auspicious event. 

Another object of almost equal interest is the * Mosaic 
floor of a Roman villa, discovered in 1852 atNennig, a village 
on the r. bank of the Moselle, see p. 115. 

32. The Moselle from Treves to Coblenz. 

Steamboats four times a week, in summer daily, down the river in 
10 — 12 hrs., up in l'/ a day. \Vhen*the river is very low they do not ply. 
Fares: Cabin, 4 Thlr.," steerage 2-/ 3 Tnlr. These boats are smaller but not 
inferior in comfort and accommodation to those on the Rhine. 

From Treves to Coblenz by water is about 150 M., by land 
half that distance. To the traveller in search of the picturesque, 
the course of the river presents the greatest attractions. The 
scenery, though not on so extensive a scale, is hardly inferior 
to that of the Rhine; indeed there are those who yield the 
preference to the softer and more varied charms of the lesser 
stream. The fall from Treves to Coblenz is 204 ft. 

The villages on the banks, other objects of interest, and 
the best points for inland excursions are here enumerated : 

1. Pfalzel (Palatiolum) , where Adela, daughter of King 
Dagobert, founded a convent in 655. 

r. Ruwer on the river of the same name, the Erubrus of 
the Roman poet Ausonius (d. 392). 



122 Route 32. NEUMAGEN. From Treves 

1. Ehrang, the Quint (ad quintum, i. e. 5 M. from Treves) 
with extensive iron-foundry, and Jssel. 

1. Schweich (*Dany), with ferry to the Treves and Coblenz 
road. 

r. Kirsch; beyond is Longwich. 

1. Riol (Rigodulum), where the Roman general Cerialis 
conquered the rebellious Treviri, and took their leader Va- 
lentinus prisoner (Tacit, hist. IV. 70). 

1. Trittenheim, birthplace of Johann Trithemius, an eminent 
historian, and abbot of Sponheim. 

r. Neumagen (Claeren, Hain), the Noviomagum of the 
Itomans, where Constantine had a castle (the "inclita castra 
<Jonstantini" of Ausonius), few traces of which now remain. 
The church is believed to have been partly constructed (1190) 
■with the stones of the castle. 

1. Pisport (Pisonis Portus) is celebrated for its wine. 

1. Minheim nearly opposite to 

r. the Ohliysberg , Dusemond. 

1. The Brauneberg, another celebrated wine district. 

r. Muhlheim (*Karsch), a village of some importance. 

1. Xiieser (Heyder), with several country houses in the 
vicinity, at the mouth of the brook of the same name. 

1. Cues was the birthplace of the learned Cardinal Nicolaus 
■Cusanus (d. 1464), where he founded a hospital to which he 
bequeathed his library, containing some valuable MSS., a 
considerable number of Codices and some rare old impressions. 

r. Berncastel (*Drei Konige), capital town of this district, 
partly burned down in 1857; ruined Castle of Landshut. 
Diligence daily to Treves in 6, to Kreuznach in 9 hrs. 

From Berncastel a footpath, commanding a fine view, crosses the hill to 
Trarbach, which may be reached in l'/ 4 hr. At the highest point, 1100 ft. 
above the river (40 min. walk), stands a direction post. To the r. of the 
path may still be seen traces of extensive intrenehments, made partly by the 
French. The descent to Trarbach is stony and somewhat steep. Distance 
by water 15 M. ; steamboat down in l 1 /, hr., up in 3 hrs. 

r. Graach, and beyond it Zeltingen (de Wilde), both 
■celebrated for their wine. 

1. Uerzig (*Post, Berres) at the beginning of the road 
leading to Wittlich and the Eifel (p. 126). Below the village 
is a tower built into the rock, formerly a castle of the family 
von Urlei, afterwards a hermitage. 

1. Croff (Comes); opposite to it, 

r. Wolf, with ruins of an old monastery on the height. 

r. Trarbach (Grafinburg), completely burned down in 1857, 
is the busiest and wealthiest town on the whole river; it is 
commanded by the ruin of the Grafinburg, erected in the middle 
of the 14th cent, by the Countess Laurette von Starkenburg 



to Cublenz. TRABEN. 32. Route. 123 

-with the ransom she exacted from Bakluin, archbishop of 
Treves, for his release from the Castle of Starkenburg, where 
she had caused him to be confined as a punishment for an 
attempted infringement of her rights. The castle was dis- 
mantled by the French in 1734. 

Opposite to Trarbach, at the foot of vine-clad slopes, 
lies 

1. Traben (* Clans), on the wide table-land above which 
may be seen the traces of the extensive fortification of Mont- 
royal, constructed by Louis XIV. in 1686, and levelled in 1697 
in accordance with stipulations made in the Treaty of Ryswyck. 
Fine view. 

r. Enkirch (*Immich), from which a footpath leads over 
the hill to Zell in 1 y 2 hr.; distance by water 9 M. 

1. Reil (Barzen). 

r. Punderich (Schneiders). On the 1. bank, opposite to the 
landing place, a steep path ascends to the r. through vineyards 
to *Marienburg, a ruined castle or monastery, which may 
be reached in y 2 hr. The view is one of the most beautiful 
v.n the Moselle; lat the top refreshments may be procured. 
The descent on the other side of the hill to Alf may easily 
be accomplished in less than y 2 hr., while the whole distance 
by the river is about 12 M., which the steamboat performs in 
1 hr. with, and 2 hrs. against the stream. A tolerable walker, 
disembarking at Punderich, may without difficulty cross the 
hill and regain the boat at Alf. 

r. Briedel (*Theisen). 

r. Zell (Melchiors ; Fier), principal town of the district, 
surrounded by remnants of an old wall and tower. 

r. Merl, view of the Marienburg. 

1. Alf (*Theisen; Bad Bertrich) beautifully situated at the 
mouth of the lovely valley o'f the Alf. The walk from Alf 
to Piinderich is particularly recommended to those ascending 
the river. 

A day may be advantageously devoted to the Baths of Bertrich. and its 
voleanie environs. The road from Alf to Bertrich (5 M. ; carriage there and 
luck I 1 /, — 2 Thlr.) leads through the romantic Valley of the Alf, enclosed 
l»y precipitous rocks, 700 ft. in height, passing the ruins of the Burg Arras, 
;md S'irae extensive iron-works. 

Bertrich (*Werling; *Klering; Adler; 'Post), a watering-place much 
frequented by the inhabitants of the banks of the Moselle, is visited annually 
by upwards of 1000 patients. The warm springs (!>U° Fahr.) contain a con- 
siderable quantity of Glauber s salt, and are especially efficacious in cases 
•of gout, rheumatism, and nervous maladies. Bertrich is a place of rising 
importance. It is delightfully situated in a secluded valley, enclosed by 
-wooded hills, and offers many attractions to the valetudinarian who would 
fain be free from the allurements of the gaming table and the other excite- 
ments which must too often retard the cure at the more fashionable watering- 
places. On an eminence called the Riimerkessel, where the Roman relics now 
to be seen in the garden of the bath-establishment were found, stands a small 
Protestant chapel. 



124 Route 32. ELLER. From Treves 

About y 2 M. to the W. of Bertrich the road twice crosses the Uesbach. 
At the second bridge, in the hill to the 1., is the so-called 'Kftskeller 
(cheese cellar), a grotto composed of basaltic columns, each of which is 
formed of 8 or 9 spheroids, exactly resembling cheeses. Near it is a Waterfall, 
50 It. in height. A basaltic stream of lava is visible in several places in the 
bed of the Uesbach. 

The new road to Lutzerath leads at a considerable elevation on the I. 
bank of Uesbach as far as a crescent (% M.), whence it ascends to the r. in 
a zigzag direction to the village of Kenfuss (1 M.). A footpath to the r., to 
the rear of the gardens of the village, leads in 6 min. to the *Falkenlei 
(1276 ft.), a semi-conical hill, the S. side of which is a precipice 160 ft. in 
height, exhibiting the geological constitution of the interior. At the bottom 
lie solid masses of lava; and at the top scoriae and slag, in which numerous, 
caves and clefts have been formed. The summit affords an extensive view 
of the numerous volcanic peaks of the Kifel, the highest of which are the 
Hohe Acht (2340 ft.), the Niirburg (2118 ft.), with a tower on its summit, 
and the Hohe Kelberg (2070 ft.), to the N. On the W. the prospect is circum- 
scribed by the long isolated ridge of the Mosenberg (p. 132). Lutzerath 
(1259 ft.), a post station on the Coblenz and Treves road, is 4% M. distant 
from theFalkenlei. Diligence twice a day between Bertrich and Lutzerath. 

On the Moselle, opp. to Alf, lies 

r. Bulla;/, whence a precipitous path leads to the (50 min.) 
*K6nig, commanding an extensive prospect. Descent in 30 min. 
to Merl (p. 123). 

I. Aldegund (Andries) with ancient church. 

r. Xeef, surrounded by fruit trees. A footpath over the 
hill, on the summit of which the churchyard of Neef and the 
Chapel of St. Peter are situated, leads in 3 / 4 hr. to Eller, cutting 
off the long circuit which the Moselle here describes. At the 
extremity of the bend lies 

1. Bremm (* Amelinger). 

r. Stuben, a monastery erected in the 12th cent, and se- 
cularized in 1788; finally abandoned to decay in 1793. 

1. Eller (Gietzen; Maintzer) with old castellated houses and 
farm-houses belonging to the feudal ages; path over the hill 
to Cochem in 2 hrs. The banks of the river are however 
particularly beautiful at this point, and the traveller is recom- 
mended not to leave the boat. 

1. Ediger (Maass), a small town, surrounded with old 
fortifications ; on the height the ruins of the Kreuzkapelle. 

1. Senhals, where Roman coins and relics have been 
repeatedly discovered. 

r. Beilstein; the castle on the heights was once the 
residence of the counts, now princes, of Metternich-Winne- 
burg. 

r. Bruttig, birthplace of the celebrated grammarian Petrus 
Mosellanus, professor at Leipsic, who died in 1524. 

1. Ober- and Nieder-Ernst. Between them a handsome new 
church and school-house. 

r. Vahvig; the rocks are here very picturesque and resemble 
the Lurlei on the Rhine. 



to Goblenz. COCHBM. 32. Route. 125 

1. Cochem ( Union ; *Kehrer), principal" town of the district, 
with ruins of a castle which frequently served as a residence 
of the Archbishops of Treves in the 14th and 16th centuries. 
Picturesquely situated on an eminence are the buildings which 
formerly belonged to a Capuchin monastery. Beyond it, on 
the summit of a mountain, rise the ruins of the castle of 
IVinneburg, the most ancient seat of the Metternich family. 
Cochem is one of the most beautifully situated places on the 
Moselle. 

1. Clotten (Thomas) with an old castle; depot for the slate 
of Mullenbach, a village 9 M. to the N.W., with numerous 
and remarkable subterranean quarries. 

Treis (Castor; Ruueiser) with a modern church. Opposite 
to it lies 

1. Carden (Brauer), where, in the 12th cent., a church 
was founded by St. Castor, which in the 12th cent, was enlarged 
and converted into a handsome three-towered Stiftskirche in 
honour of the saint. 

1. Mi'iden. Footpath to Schloss Eltz in 3 / 4 hr. 

1. Moselkern (Deiss) at the mouth of the Eltz. 

In the narrow and winding valley of the Eltz, about 4 M. to the N.W. of 
Moselkern, stands * Schloss Eltz, an ancient residence of the noble family of 
Eltz. The castle is most picturesquely situated, and presents one of the best 
preserved specimens of a feudal residence of the middle ages in Germany, 
"which the traveller is strongly recommended to visit. Many, of the rooms 
are furnished in the ponderous style of bygone ages, and the walls hung, if 
not adorned, with a collection of family portraits, ancient armour, &c. In 
the Kittersaal (knights' hall) a book is kept in which visitors may record their 
names, and, if so disposed, inspect the autograph of the Prince of Wales, 
who during his sojourn in Germany visited this delightful spot. Opposite 
to Schloss Eltz are the ruins of Trutz-Eltz, erected by Archbishop Balduin 
to command the castle, with the counts of which he carried on a protracted 
feud. About 3 M. farther up the valley lie the ruins of the fine old castle 
of Pyrmont. The road from Moselkern to Schloss Eltz through the valley 
is very rough, and only adapted to the hardy pedestrian. The stream must 
be crossed 13 times, a steppiug-stonV here and there affording but an in- 
different footing, but if a prospect of wet feet does not deter the pedestrian, 
the beauty of the walk will amply repay him. Another footpath runs along 
the brow of the hill on the r. bank of the Eltz, but is much overgrown with 
brushwood and to be traced only with difficulty. By carriage the excursion 
can only be made from Miinstermaifeld (Maifelder Hof), a venerable town 
of some importance, 3 M. to the N.E. of Schloss Eltz. The church was 
founded as early as 642 ; the front with the towers appears as if it appertained 
to some old fortress rather than to a sacred edifice. — Diligence daily to 
Coblenz in 3 hrs. 

Below Moselkern a tall round tower rises on the hill to 
the 1., a remnant of Burg Bischofstein, erected in 1270. 

1. Hatzenport (Hattonis porta) (*Moritz). Opposite to 
it lies 

r. Brodenbach (Joh. Probst) , from which a road ascends 
through a mountain ravine to the ruins of *Ehrenburg 
(2 M.), situated on an isolated peak, the finest ruin on the 
Moselle. Road to Boppard on the Rhine, see p. 94. 



126 Route 32. COBERN. 

1. The Tempelhof or Sternberg, a ruined Gothic castle, 
situated in the midst of vineyards. 

r. Aiken, an ancient borough connected by walls and towers 
with the old castle of Thurant, on the height above, built by the 
Count Palatine Heinrich in 1197. It was besieged in 1246 — 48 
by the Archbishops of Treves and Cologne, during which 
time upwards of 600,000 gallons of wine are said to have 
been consumed by the besiegers. 

r. Oberfell; Ruhr (*Giinther). 

1. Lehmen (*Zirwas). 

r. Xieclerfell (*Fasbender). 

1. Gondorf (Haupt) with a country-seat erected by the 
Elector Johann von der Leyen in 1560. 

1. Cobem (Fischer). Above it stands the Niederburg, once 
the seat of the knights of Cobern. Higher is situated the 
Ober- or Altenburg , in the interior of which is the * Chapel 
"f St, Matthias, celebrated for the beauty of its architecture. 
It is built in the form of a hexagon, and, according to 
tradition, owes its origin to a crusader in the early part of 
the 13th cent. 

r. Dieblich (*N6rtershauser) possesses a handsome new 
church. 

1. Winningen (Krone), a small market -town, where the 
best wine of the Lower Moselle is produced, below it, r. Lay, 
and 1. GUIs with a handsome church, situated in the midst of 
an vast orchard. 

r. Mo*elweis, completely surrounded by fruit-trees. 

r. Coblenz (R. 20). Steamboat-passengers disembark 
above the railway bridge. 

33. The Volcanic Eifel. 

An excursion into the Yorder - Eifel , the most remarkable part of this 
mountaiuous district, may be advantageously combined with the tour of the 
Moselle as follows. 1st day: from Coblenz by steamboat to Alf (p. 123) in 
7 — 8 hrs.; ascend the Marienburg (l'/j hr.) ; on foot in 2 hrs. to Bertrich 
(or in an open carriage), inspect the Falkenlei and A'dskeller (l'/j hr.), pass 
the night at Bertrich. 2nd day: on foot through Hontheim, Sirotzbiisch, 
Trautzberg and Slrohn to Gillen/eld (12 M.) , to the Pulverrnaar and back 
(2 M.), to dinner at Gillenfeld; in the afternoon to Schalkenmehren , Wein- 
felder Maar, Mduseberg and Daun (10 M.). 3d day: by carriage to Gerol- 
stein and back to Daun in 8 hrs.; afternoon on foot to Manderscheid (9 M.). 
4th day : environs of Manderscheid, and on foot to Wittlich, or, if the 
traveller's time be limited, to Uerzig, 6 M. farther, where on the following 
morning he may take the boat (in summer daily) to Coblenz. A 6th day 
would be well spent in visiting Treves (by diligence from Wittlich, twice 
daily in 4 hrs.). 

The Moselle between Coblenz and Alf has been already 
described in the preceding route. From the Grotto of Cheeses 
a road leads in a S. W. direction to Hontheim (2% M.), 



GILLENFELD. 33. Route. 127 

thence to Strot:biisch (4'/ 2 M.) , and through Truutzherg to 
Strohn (1% M.), a village in the valley of the Alf. The- 
Wartesberg (1498 ft.), one of the largest volcanic mountains 
in the Eifel, extends along the E. side of the valley, com- 
mencing at Strohn and terminating at Sprink (1 M. farther 
S.). The crater, which it undoubtedly possesses, is difficult 
to recognize on account of the extensive masses of slag by 
which it is concealed. 

Gillenfeld (1263 ft.) (* Klusen-Otto; \Caspari) is situated 
1% M. farther up the. valley. On the heights, 1 M. to the 
E. of Gillenfeld, lies the *Pulvermaar (1249 ft.), an extinct 
crater of a nearly circular form, now filled with water 330 ft. 
in depth. It is enclosed on three sides by wooded hills, and 
is the most beautiful, and, with the exception of the Laacher 
See (p. 72), the largest of these crater-lakes of the Eifel; it 
occupies an area of about 90 acres. The banks consist of 
volcanic sand, tufa and scoriae. On the S. side of the lake 
rises the volcanic Romersbery (1468 ft.). \_Manderscheid lies 
7 ] / 2 M. to the S.W- of. Gillenfeld; the road leads by Eckfeld 
and Buchholz; l / 2 M. beyond Buchholz the pedestrian, having; 
skirted the wood for a short distance, must enter it and proceed 
to the Belvedere, p. 131.] 

The road to Saxler and Schalkenmehren leads through 
several peculiar volcanic valleys. The village of Schalken- 
mehren, 3% M. to the N. of Gillenfeld, and the same distance 
from Daun, is situated on the banks of the Schalkenmehrer 
Mctar (or tarn) (1301 ft.), covering an area of 50 acres; on the 
E. side is a peat-bog. The Alf flows out of the tarn on the 
S. side. At the inn a good dish of pike may generally be 
procured, but not desirable accommodation for the night. 

The road to Daun leads qlong the W. bank of the lake,, 
and ascends the natural barrier which separates it from the 
Weinf elder Maur (1475 ft.) The latter is nearly square (areav 
45 acres) , and has no visible outlet. On its N. bank rises 
the Weinf elder Kirche, a cemetery -chapel for the village of 
Schalkenmehren. 

The pedestrian should now leave the direct road to Daun, 
and ascend to the 1. on the N. W. bank of the tarn. There 
is no regular path, but he must proceed in a W. direction 
along the hill about half-way up: in about V 2 nr - from the 
Weinfelder Kirche he will reach the Gemundener Maar (1246 ft.) r 
the smallest of these tarns, situated 150 ft. above the bed of 
the Lieser. The summit of * Mauseberg (1735 ft.), the N. 
side of which rises somewhat abruptly from the Gemundener 
Maar, commands a remarkably fine view of a great portion 
of the Eifel. 



128 Route 33. GEMUNDEN. 

The three above-mentioned tarns ("Dauner Maare") lie 
in an extensive tract of volcanic formations, consisting chiefly 
of slag-sand, scoria? and occasionally of volcanic tufa. The 
greatest breadth of this tract is from E. to W. , from the 
village of Mehren to the slopes of the valley of the Lieser; 
the only spot in it where the grauwacke is visible is low 
down on the margin of the Weinfelder Maar. 

From the Mauseberg the traveller must descend the heights 
which bound the Gemiindener Maar on the E., and cross the 
mountain-ridge, on the N. side of which he will reach the 
footpath which leads from the Weinfelder Kirche (skirting a 
portion of the tarn) to Daun; then descend to the high road 
(from the Mauseberg to the road 1 M.) near the village of 
Gemunden, from which the road leads through the valley 
of the Lieser to Daun, 1 % M. farther. 

The little town of Daun (1254 ft.) (* Grethen, E. and B. 
15 Sgr. ; carriage to Gerolstein, Manderscheid, or Lutzerath 
2 l / 2 Thlr. ; diligence every morning to Lutzerath to meet the 
Coblenz and Treves coach ; night-diligence to Wittlich) is the 
principal place in this district, picturesquely situated on the 
brow of a mountain, and commanded by a modern building 
founded on the ruins of the castle of the counts of Daun, 
celebrated in the annals of Austrian warfare. Their arms 
are still to be seen over the entrance of the building which 
is now the residence of the royal head-forester. 

To the N. about 1 y 2 M. from the town, rises precipitously 
the long, scorified ridge of a crater, called the Dauner -Lei 
(Lei = cliff), from which a lava -stream of considerable size 
descends westward towards the Lieserthal. About 4y 2 M. to 
the W. of Daun rises the Nerother Kopf (2000 ft.), another 
volcanic cone, surmounted by a ruined castle. 

The vicinity of Daun, especially in a N. W. direction, 
possesses peculiar interest for the geologist. Here he finds, 
more than in any other part of the Eifel, evidences of volcanic 
agency in many places covered with minerals , which , in all 
probability partly issued from the beautifully and distinctly 
formed craters. The district in which these formations occur 
in such abundance covers an area of about 50 sq. M. , ex- 
tending N.W. to Hillesheim and Stefflen, from the former 
place down the Kyllthal as far as Birresborn, and then E. to 
Daun, and from Daun N. to Dockweiler and Dreis. The 
cones , which protrude from the surrounding grauwackian 
and calcareous formations, are partly of a basaltic nature, but 
far more frequently consist of slag, with well preserved craters 
or traces of them. 

Proofs of the former volcanic activity of this region are 



Eifel. HOHENFELS. 33. Route. 129 

most distinctly visible at the Scharteberg (2094 ft.), situated 
to the S. of Kirchweiler. The summit of this mountain consists 
of blistered-looking masses of slag which surround the extinct 
crater. About 100 ft. lower the lava- streams commence, 
extending towards the N. , S. and E. The last of these 
streams, though for the most part covered with scoria and 
volcanic sand is not only easily recognized in its distance 
and extent by the protrusion of isolated rocks, but may be 
more minutely inspected at the quarries of Steinborn. The 
lowest part consists of a porous and very slightly cleft 
basaltic lava, the upper of slag, 3 — 5 ft. in thickness, above 
the latter is a layer of scorise and volcanic sand, 20 ft. 
thick, and, next to the surface of the earth, basaltic lava 
(comp. p. 73). 

The most considerable of these craters is the basin in 
which the village of Hohenfels (1 % M. to the N. of Kirch- 
weiler, see below) lies. The heights which surround the 
village are entirely composed of masses of lava, often descend- 
ing precipitously towards the interior; the highest part is 
1825 ft., and the bed of the brook which issues from the 
crater 1334 ft. above the level of the sea. 

From the Erensberg (2134 ft.) (the highest point of this 
part of the Eifel, situated to the N. of the road between 
Steinborn and Kirchweiler), the principal stream of lava, which 
begins 200 ft. below the summit, extends in a N. direction, 
past Dockweiler, nearly as far as Dreis. On the E. and S. 
margins of the Dreiser Weiher, a boggy meadow situated in 
a hollow on the road-side, 7 l f 2 M. to the N. of Daun, are 
frequently found masses containing olivine (some of them 
iy 2 ft. in diameter and weighing 30 lbs.), ejected by volcanic 
action, and occurring in the deposits of the less compact 
volcanic products which surround all these basaltic and lava 
cones. From the summit of the Erensberg a fine view is 
obtained, and the ascent is recommended. 

Travellers who desire to visit the most remarkable points 
in the vicinity of Daun in the shortest possible time, should 
early in the morning, cross the hill from Daun into the valley 
in which Neunkirchen and Steinborn are situated; to the r. of 
the latter rises the Felsberg, and to the 1. the Rimmerich, two 
craters with lava streams; a little farther are the slag-moun- 
tains of Neroth (p. 128). From Steinborn the path which ascends 
a side-valley to the 1. must be taken , leading along the 
southern slope of the lava -stream above described, and 
crossing the Scharteberg to the Erensberg; then by Hinter- 
weiler and Hohenstein into the Kyllthal to Pelm and Gerolstein. 
Baedeker's Rhine. 9 



130 Route 33. GEROLSTEIN. Eifel. 

The whole walk, for which a guide (15 Sgr.) is almost in- 
dispensable, occupies 5 — 6 hrs. 

Except in a geological point of view the high road from 
Daun to Gerolstein (12 M.) presents no objects of interest to 
the pedestrian, till the Kyllthal at Pelm is reached, 3 M. from 
Gerolstein. Where time is limited, a carriage should be 
taken from Daun to Neunkirehen , Steinborn (with mineral 
spring), Kirchweiler, the highest point of the road, and Pelm, 
a village on the Kyll, beautifully situated at the foot of the 
*Casselburg (1464), the considerable ruins of which look 
down into the valley from a wooded basaltic peak, 300 ft. 
above it. It was originally the seat of the knights of Castel- 
berg, subsequently of the Counts of Manderscheid, and at a 
later period of the Duke of Aremberg, and is now the pro- 
perty of the state. In the Forsterkaus, at the entrance to the 
castle, good and moderate accommodation may be obtained. 
The summit affords a fine prospect of the Kyllthal. 

In the immediate vicinity of the castle, to the N. W., rises 
a lava cone, the N. base of which consists of grauwacke, 
and the S. of calcareous stone. Between this cone and the 
Casselburg are deposits of scoria; and volcanic sand, and on 
the S. side of the latter the calcareous stone is partly covered 
with variegated sandstone. 

The high and precipitous calcareous rocks (dolomite) on 
the r. bank of the * Kyllthal, extending from Pelm to beyond 
Gerolstein , give a grand and picturesque appearance to the 
valley; indeed, in more respects than one, this is the finest 
part of the whole Eifel, and abounds with fossil crabs, coral, 
and shell-fish, belonging to the period when the whole of 
this district was covered by the sea. The valley diverging 
in a S. direction from Pelm to Gees is particularly rich in 
these specimens, which may be purchased from the school- 
master at Pelm, or Frau Scholz at Gerolstein. 

Gerolstein (1218 ft.) (*Schreiber; carriage to Daun 
2V 2 Thlr. ; Clemen) is a village built on the narrow strip of 
land between the rocks and the stream, and is commanded 
by the ruins of a castle of the Counts of Manderscheid. At 
the summit of the limestone mountain opposite is a small crater, 
the Papenkaul, from which a narrow stream of lava descends 
into the Kyllthal, and along the r. side of the valley as far 
as Saresdorf. 

About 3 M. farther down the valley, some distance before 
reaching Birresborn, are situated the Mineral springs of the 
same name, under a roof supported by pillars, on the r. bank 
of the Kyll. It is the strongest and best-known of the mineral 
waters of the Eifel, and is celebrated for its salubrious qualities. 



Eifel. MANDERSCHEID. 33. Route. 131 

On a hill in the Gerolstein wood on the 1. bank of the stream 
(not to be found without a guide), is a hole, the Brudeldreis, 
2 ft. broad and 1 ' ' 2 ft. deep, from which a stream of carbonic 
acid gas issues. In wet weather the hole is filled with water, 
and the gurgling sound of the gas forcing its way up may 
sometimes be heard 300 — 400 yds. off. At the margin the 
bodies of mice, birds, &c. , are frequently found suffocated 
by the powerful fumes of the gas. 

According to the plan proposed at p 126, the traveller 
would now return t» Daun, and proceed S. to Manderscheid, 
9 M. distant. That part of the road which leads through the 
Lieserthal offers many picturesque points of view. It passes 
the village of Gemiinden (1 y 2 M.) ; the Maar (p. 127), on the 
height to the 1., is about 5 min. walk from the road. From 
this point the ascent of the Mauseberg may be made in less 
than y 2 hr. 

Below Weyersbach (1 y 2 M.) in the Lieserthal are seen the 
vast and lofty masses of lava enclosing the village of Ueders- 
dorf, which lies 277 ft. above the bed of the Lieser. They 
are believed to have proceeded from two extinct volcanoes, 
one to the S. of Uedersdorf, the Weberlei (1453 ft.), and the 
other (1698 ft.) to the N. W. 

Manderscheid (1170 ft.) (* Pantenburg), a village of some 
importance, lies on the table-land between the Lieser and the 
Little Kyll. On the S. side, in a singularly picturesque and 
striking situation, are two * Castles, perched on cleft and 
jagged slate-rocks which rise precipitously from the Lieser. 
They were the seat of the Counts of Manderscheid (whose 
family became extinct in 1780), and are still well preserved. 
In the beauty and grandeur of their situation they are surpassed 
by none of the castles on the Rhine. 

High up in the wood at the back of the castle, a bare 
spot is visible called the "Belvedere ," a favorite resort of the 
inhabitants of the neighbourhood on account of the view which 
it commands. The ascent occupies nearly 1 hr.: the bridge 
over the Lieser below must be crossed, and the road followed 
which gradually ascends through the wood, and at the top 
crosses the fields in the direction of the church-tower of 
Buehholz; the wood must now be skirted on the S. then 
in a W. direction, and finally entered. The view from 
the summit is peculiar and grand, but less picturesque 
than that from the bridge over the Lieser, or from the 
N. slopes of the valley. From the Belvedere a footpath 
descends in the direction of the valley , but it is a very 
dangerous one, and the traveller should return by the same 

9* 



132 Route 33. THE MOSENBERG. Eifel. 

road to Manderscheid (Diligence from Manderscheid through 

Wittlich to Treves; to Bonn through Daun, Kelberg, and 

Altenahr). 

The following path (3 hrs. walk) between Daun and- Man derscheid 
is recommended in preference to the road, us the walk from Manderscheid 
to the Belvedere (see above) is hereby saved. The pedestrian lea'ves the high 
road at Gemiinden, and ascends to the 1. passing the Gemutidener and Wein- 
felder Tarns. On the B. side of the latter he continues to skirt the height 
(far below lies the Sihalkenmehrer Maar, p. 127), through wood and across 
moor. In the distance is seen the church-spire of Buchholz (see above), but 
before it is reached two gullies and the villages of Brockscheid and Kckfeld 
must be passed. On reaching Buchholz the path to the r. by the church 
must be taken, leading to a sign-post indicating the way to Manderscheid to 
the 1., and the u Waldweg" to the r., which leads to the Belvedere. 

The finest and most remarkable point of the volcanic 
mountains of the Eifel is the Mosenberg , 3 M. to the W. of 
Manderscheid. The mountain with its three peaks cannot be 
mistaken. About 3 / 4 M. from Manderscheid, before descending 
into the valley of the Little Kyll, the traveller must take the 
road to the 1. leading to Bettenfeld, the continuation of which 
may be distinctly seen on the Mosenberg opposite. 

The * Mosenberg (1626 ft.) is a long lava-mountain 
extending from N. to S., and has four craters, the lava-walls 
of which rise in the most grotesque shapes to the height of 
50 ft. The masses of basalt and slag which form the summit 
have here protruded through the grauwacke to a height of 
240 ft. The N. crater was formerly filled with water, but 
was drained in 1846 and now yields peat. The S. crater has 
an opening from which a huge lava-stream ( % M. in width ) 
has issued, and may be traced as far as Horngraben, where 
it reaches the bed of the Little Kyll; the lava-cliffs here rise 
perpendicularly to the height of 100 ft. The view is very 
extensive and well repays the fatigue of the ascent. The 
village of Bettenfeld lies on the table-land 1 M. to the W. 
of the Mosenberg. 

About 1% M. to the N. of the Mosenberg lies the Meer- 
felder Maar, formerly one of the largest of these volcanic 
lakes, but now almost entirely drained. The scoria? and 
volcanic sand of the Mosenberg extend as far as the heights 
round the Meerfelder Maar, but may easily be distinguished 
from the volcanic productions of the latter, being mingled 
only at one spot. Meerfeld, on the W. side of the Maar, 
is % M. from Bettenfeld, and 3 M. to the W. of Mander- 
scheid. 

From the Mosenberg a path leads S. into the valley to 
Neumuhl (3 M.), where the Little Kyll falls into the Lieser. 
The scenery of the valley, at all times pleasing, at some 
points reaches almost to grandeur. The pedestrian, as before 



RtJDESHEIM. 34. Route. 133 

stated, may effect a saving of 3 M. by taking this road 
instead of returning to Manderscheid. 

The road from Manderscheid to Wittlich (13 '/ 2 M.; car- 
riage 2 Thlr.) , descends in numerous windings to Neumiihl 
(3 M.), and ascends the opposite slopes in the same way; it 
then leads for a short distance through wood and reaches the 
unfertile moor on the table-land. At the villages of Gross- 
(4'/ 2 M.) and Minder- Litgen (2% M.) the land becomes more 
fertile. 

Beyond Minder -iiitgen the road winds down into the 
valley, 3 M. below, but by following a footpath, y 2 M. from 
the village, half the distance is saved. The *view over the 
rich and fertile plain which sinks towards the Moselle, and 
the mountains of the latter, rendered more picturesque by the 
red sandstone which here takes the place of the grauwacke, 
is a pleasant conclusion to the tour. 

Wittlich (*Post), district-town on the Lieser, is situated 
in a fertile country where tobacco is much cultivated. Di- 
ligence twice a day to Treves in 4 hrs. 

A good road leads from Wittlich E. through Bombogen, 
where two basaltic cones rise from the plain, to Uerzig (*Post) 
on the Moselle, 6 M. distant. 



34. The Rhine from Bingen to Mayence. 

The Bheingau. 

Railway on the 1. bank of the Rhine, see R. 35, to Mayence in 3 / 4 hr. 

Railway on the r. bank of the Rhine, see R. 23. If time permits, it is 
preferable to ascend by 

Steamboat in 2'/, hrs. (down in l'/ 4 hr.) to Mayence; piers at Bingen, 
Eltville and Biebrich, small-boat stations at Rudesheim, Geisenheim, Oestrich 
and Walluf. 

Pedestrians will be amply repaid by the walk from Rudesheim to Elt- 
ville; this tract, the garden of the Rhine, is replete with interest. If a 
carriage be employed, the driver should be expressly told to include the 
castle of Johannisberg in the excursion, otherwise the traveller will lose one 
of the finest points on the Rhine. 

Those who are already acquainted with the banks of the river may vary 
their tour by proceeding from Geisenheim to Schloss Johannisberg (1% M.) ; 
thence, passing Schloss Vollraths , to Hallgarlen (3 M.); by the Steinberg 
and across the Bos to Eberbach (2'/ 4 M.); by the Lunatic Asylum of Eich- 
berg to Kiderich (3 M.); thence to Eltville (l'/ 2 M.). The path leads chiefly 
through vineyards, destitute of shade, but the castle of Johannisberg, the view 
from the Bos. the monastery of Eberbach and the Gothic chapel at Kiderich 
will amply reward the pedestrian. 

Rudesheim (* Darmstddter Hof, R. and L. 1 fl., D. 1 fl., 
B. 24 kr., A. 18 kr. ; *Rheinstein, an excellent second-class 
house; Massmann; * Rheinischer Hof; * Scholl, confectioner and 
restaurateur, near the station). The celebrated wine of the 



134 Route 34. GEISENHEIM. From Bingen 

place is yielded by the vineyards immediately behind the 
town. At the lower extremity is situated the castle of *Brom- 
serburg, or Niederburg, the property of Count Ingelheim. It 
is a massive rectangular stone tower, 105 ft. long, 83 ft. broad, 
and 60 ft. high, and is said to have been once a Roman fort. 
The three vaulted stories belong to the 13th cent. Till the 
beginning of the 14th cent, it was a residence of the Arch- 
bishops of Mayence; subsequently it became the property of 
the knights of Riidesheim, and was occupied by the celebrated 
Bromser family, whose family residence is in the vicinity of 
the castle, and still well preserved. One of these knights 
who had distinguished himself by destroying a dragon in the 
Holy Land, and had escaped out of the hands of the 
Saracens, vowed that, if he ever returned to Riidesheim, he 
would devote his only daughter Gisela to the Church. The 
latter had during her father's absence formed an attachment 
to a young knight of a neighbouring castle, and heard with 
dismay her father's fatal vow. The old crusader was in- 
exorable, and Gisela in a fit of despair threw herself from 
the tower of the castle into the Rhine. According to popular 
belief her pale form still hovers about the ruined tower, 
and her lamentations are heard mingling with the moaning 
of the wind. 

The Oberburg, or Boosenburg, an old tower to the rear 
of the Bromserburg , was for 300 years the property of the 
Counts Boos ; it now belongs to Count Schonborn. 

On the opp. bank of the Rhine rises the Rochusberg, sur- 
mounted by the Rochuscapelle , a conspicuous object in the 
landscape, at the foot of which is situated the Villa Lundy; 
farther on are the villages of Kempten and (rail, stat.) Gauls- 
heim. 

The clean little town of Geisenheim {*Stadt Frankfurt; 
Wynekeu) contains a handsome red sandstone church of the 
15th cent, with a modern portal and openwork Gothic 
towers. The country residence of the Zwierlein family con- 
tains a collection of stained glass which deserves inspection. 
The garden contains about 600 different species of vines. 
The wine of this distiict, especially the Rothenberger, is 
highly esteemed. 

On the hill behind Geisenheim, near the village of Eibingen, is seen the 
former nunnery of that name, founded in 1143, secularized in 1802, and again 
appropriated to divine worship in 1835 Farther to the N. E. are the rem- 
nants of another convent, founded in 1390. About »/ 4 M. farther N. (2'/ 4 M. 
from Riidesheim) is the convent of Murientlial, picturesquely situated in 
a forest. 

*Schloss Johannisberg, situate on a vine-clad eminence, 
040 ft. above the Rhine, is a conspicuous object in tlus land- 



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to Mayence. JOHANNISBERG. 34. Route. 135 

scape, and visible from a great distance.* The castle with its 
two wings was erected in 1716 by the Abbot of Fulda, on 
the site of a Benedictine convent founded by an Archbishop 
of Mayence in 1106. On the secularization of the Abbey of 
Fulda in 1802, the castle became the property of tho Prince 
of Orange, in 1805 it was presented by Napoleon to the 
French Marshal Kellermann, and in 1814 it was given by the 
Emperor of Austria to the late Prince Metternich as an 
imperial fief. The vineyards, which occupy an area of about 
40 acres, and yield an annual income of 6 — 7000/., are most 
carefully cultivated , and once took the lead among the vine- 
yards of the Rhine; but of late years there has been a great 
rivalry between the two estates of Johannisberg and Steinberg, 
in some years the latter realizing the higher price. The *view 
from the balcony of the castle is very fine (fee 24 kr. ; good 
Johannisberger in the restaurant at 5 fl. per bottle), and com- 
prises the whole course of the Rhine from Mayence to Bingen. 
The Chapel, founded in the 12th cent., and restored at a more 
recent date, contains a monument to the eminent historian 
and tutor to the Prince, Nic. Vogt, who died a senator of 
Frankfurt, but was interred here by his own wish. 

At the foot of the Johannisberg lies the " Klause" (hermi- 
tage), the remnant of an ancient nunnery, founded in the 
12th cent. In the vicinity is a hydropathic and pine-cone-bath 
establishment. Winkel is 1, and Geisenheim 1 '/ 2 M. distant. 

Mittelheim, with the borough of Winkel (Rheingauer 
Hqf), forms one long street, long enough, according to Goethe, 
to exhaust the patience of all who traverse it. At the W. 
extremity is situated a country residence of M. Brentano-Bir- 
kenstock of Frankfurt, mentioned in Goethe's "Correspondence of 
a Child", and containing various reminiscences of the poet 

At Oestrich (lffland) the -inhabitants of the Rheingau 
formerly swore allegiance to the newly elected Archbishops of 
Mayence, who came here for the purpose, and were obliged 
first to confirm the rights and privileges of the land. The 
village with its projecting crane, and the castle of Johannisberg 
in the background, forms a most picturesque scene. 

On the hill-side behind Oestrich lies the village of Hallgarten in the 
midst of vineyards, aud near it the well preserved castle of Vollratht, erected 
about the year 1362 by a member of the family core Folraz, in whose posses- 
sion it continued till a few years age. 

Before reaching the village of Hattenheim (Laroche), 
the road passes Schloss Reichartshausen , situated in a small 
park (1 M. from Oestrich), once a depot for the wines of 
Eberbach, now the seat of Count Schonborn. 



136 Route 34. ELTVILLE. From Bingen 

Between Hattenheim nnd Erbach lie the three islands of 
Sandau, Langicertheran, and Rheinau. On the 1. side of the 
road between these two villages is situated the Markbrunnen 
(or boundary-well) adjacent to which are the vineyards, now 
intersected by the railway, which yield the Markobrunner, one 
of the most highly prized Rhenish wines. 

Erbach {Engel; Wallfisch), mentioned as early as 980, is 
concealed from the steamboat passenger by the long island of 
Rheinau. At the W. extremity of the village is situated the 
country residence of the Princess Albrecht of Prussia. 

A broad path leads inland from Erbach to the once celebrated and 
richly endowed Cistercian Abbey of Eberbach, founded by *St. Bernhard of 
Clairvaux in 1131, and situated in one of those lonely valleys which this 
order always selected for the site of their monasteries. Hence the Latin 
proverb : 

Bernardus valles, nujutes Benedictus umubat, 
Oppida Franciscus, celebres Ignatius urbes. 

The Abbey was secularized in 1?03 and soon afterwards converted into 
a House of Correction. The building was erected at various periods from 
the 12th to the lath cent. The Komanesuue convent- church, consecrated 
in 1186, and recently restored, contains a number of * Monunients, most of 
them of Abbots of the 12th — 19th cent., and interesting in an artistical as 
well as historical point of view. The handsome Gothic monument which 
encloses the gravestones of the Archbishop of Mayence Gerlach (d. 1371) and 
Adolph II., Count of Nassau (d. 1474), particularly deserves inspection. 
The Refectory, belonging to the 13th cent., is now occupied by wine-presses, 
and the cellars below are employed by the Duke of Nassau for the celebrated 
"Cabinet" wines, the most choice production of the vineyards of the Rhein- 
gau. In the immediate vicinity is the celebrated Steinberg vineyard, care- 
fully cultivated by the industrious monks of Eberbach ever since the end 
of the 12th cent. It covers an area of upwards of 60 acres, and now belongs- 
to the Duke. The *Bos (obsolete word = hill), an eminence close to the 
monastery, commands a magnificent prospect, embracing the whole of the 
Steinberg vineyard. To the E. of the Eberbach valley are seen in the 
distance the handsome buildings of the Asytum of Kichberg. 

At Eltville or Elfeld (Rhein gutter Ho/; Engel; Rheinbahn 
Hotel), formerly the capital of the Rheingau, the German king 
Giinther of Schwarzburg resigned his royal dignity, when 
hard pressed and besieged by his opponent Charles IV. In 
the 14th and 15th centuries Eltville was a residence of the 
Archbishops of Mayence, to which they often resorted to 
escape from civic broils , and contained the archiepiscopal 
mint. Here too was erected one of the first printing-presses 
in 1465, 50 years after the first invention of the art, and 
before the death of Gutenberg. The tall and handsome watch- 
tower with the arms of the founder, and the adjoining castle- 
wall are the sole remnants of a castle erected by Balduin, 
Archbishop of Treves, in 1330, who was at that time High- 
steward of Mayence; the church- spire belongs to the same 
date. Eltville is also a favorite residence of several members 
ol the German nobility, whose country-seats give a handsome 



to Mayence. BIEBRICH. 34. Route. 137 

appearance to the place. Diligence t5 Schlangenbad and 
Schwalbach see p. 89. 

About l'/ 2 M. to the N. W. lies the large village of Kiederich ('Fischer; 
Pape; Krone) formerly a favorite resort of pilgrims, where the church of 
St. Valentine, and the * St. Michaelscapelle, erected in 1440 in the later 
Gothic style, restored in 1858, are well worth a visit. Near Kiederich is 
situated the Grafenberg, one of the most celebrated vineyards of the Rhein- 
gau, surmounted by the castle of Scharfenstein, erected by the Archbishops 
of Mayence at the close of the 12th cent., dismantled by the Swedes in 1632, 
and finally by the French in 1682. 

Beyond Eltville several country- residences, situated in 
carefully kept vineyards, arc passed; the island opposite is 
tastefully laid out as a pleasure-ground. The church-spire of 
Hauenthal is visible on the hills in the background. The 
* Rauenthaler Hohe (p. 155), one of the finest points of view 
in the Rheingau, may be reached from Eltville in ] / 2 hr. The 
road from Eltville or Niederwalluf to Schlangenbad and Schwal- 
bach unites at Neudorf (Krone) with the Biebrich and Schlangen- 
bad high-road. 

At the village of Niederwalluf (*Schwan; Gartenfeld), 
mentioned in an old record as early as 770 , the rich wine- 
tract of the Rheingau terminates. The entire district was in 
ancient times surrounded by a thick and impenetrable barrier, 
formed by a belt of trees, 50 yds. in width, planted close 
together, their branches being so interwoven as to form a 
gigantic hedge. 

At the ancient village of Schierstein (Drei Kronen), which 
stands in the midst of one vast orchard, M. Habel, the keeper 
of the Ducal archives, has a collection of pictures and antiquities 
which deserves a visit. About 1 '/ 2 M. inland are situated the 
ruins of the castle of Frauenstein and the village (Weisses 
Ross) of that name. 

Biebrich. (* Rkeinischer Hof; Rellevue; European Hotel; 
prices as in Mayence, p. 38; Krone, where good beer may 
be procured; Lowe. English Church service on Sundays in 
the Ducal chapel), which, with the adjoining village of Mos- 
bach, forms one town, and is the summer residence of the 
Duke of Nassau. At the upper end of the town is situated 
a large new barrack, and at the lower, the Ducal palace, 
erected in 1706 in the "renaissance" style. The group of 
statues with which the centre is adorned was much injured 
in 1793 during the siege of Mayence, by the French batteries- 
on the island of Petersau, whilst the Palace was occupied by 
Prussian troops. The garden and park, nearly 1 M. in length, 
are well kept, and abound with beautiful walks. The ex- 
tensive hot-house, constructed in 1850, containing arbours, 
seats, and fountains, forms a delightful winter -garden. The 



138 Route 35. MAYENCE. 

small castle in the palace-garden, built in the middle ages on 
the site of the old imperial palace Biburk, once the residence 
of Louis the Pious, is fitted up in the Gothic style, and 
contains monuments of the Counts of Katzenelnbogen, brought 
from the Abbey of Eberbach (p. 136). Biebrich is connected 
with the Taunus railway by a horse-railway, with Wiesbaden 
by the Rheingau line, and also by an omnibus (24 kr. with 
luggage) which runs to meet the steamboats. 

Soon after leaving Biebrich the steamboat passes between 
two islands , that of Ingelsheimer Au on the r. and Petersau 
•on the 1. ; on the latter, where he had a summer residence, 
the emperor Louis the Pious, the son and successor of Charle- 
magne, expired, June 20th, 840, in the 64th year of his age. 
His body was conveyed to Metz and there interred. 

The steamboat-pier at Mayence is at the lower end of the 
town, below the bridge of boats, and a considerable distance 
from the railway station, situated on the Rhine at the upper 
•end. Conveyances etc. see below. 



35. Mayence. 

Hotels. On the Rhine: *Khenish Hotel, R. 1, L. IS, B. 36, D. 1 fl. 
30, A. 24 kr.; *H6tel de Hollande, somewhat more moderate; English 
Hotel; Victoria Hotel. — Hotel d"e Cologne; * Hotel de Mayence, 
11. 48 kr. , 1). 1 fl., A. 18 kr. , restaurant on the ground-floor; Stadt 
•Coblenz; Hotel Taunus. — In the town: Karpfen, opp. the post- 
office; Sell iitzenhof , opp. the cathedral; *Landsberg, Lohrgasse. — 
In Castel, near the station: *H6tel Barth. R. 1 fl., B. 30, A. 18 kr. ; 
Taunus Hotel, more moderate; both of these hotels are conveniently 
situated for travellers arriving or departing by the Taunus line. Anker, 
a good third-class house. 

Cafes. Rheinisches Kaffehaus, opposite to the Rhine bridge; 
near it, Cafe Francais. In the Theaterplatz, Cafe de Paris. 

Restaurants. Volk, in the Emmerausgasse (only in the evening), 
good wines, game of all kinds according to the season. Rothes Haus, 
in the Theaterplatz. Cafe de Paris. Anker (see above), in Castel, 
Bavarian beer. 

Baths, cold and warm, near the railway station. Swimming-bath 
outside of the Neuthor. 

Military music on Wednesdays at 12 o'clock in the Schillerplatz, per- 
formed by the band of the Prussian garrison; on Thursdays in the Palace- 
square by the Austrian band. Once a week, from 5 to 8 , military concert 
in the new Anlage (p. 145). 

Railway Stations. Trains for Cologne (R. 36), Ludwigshafen (R. 55), 
Frankfurt (by direct way It. 40) and Darmstadt (R. 41) start from the 
Mayence station on the Rhine, at the upper end of the town; for Frank- 
furt and Wiesbaden from Castel (p. 167). — Steam ferry-boat, omnibus 
and carriages from station to station see below. 

Steamboats (see Introd.). The steamboats for the Lower Rhine have 
their landing-place below the railway bridge, at Mayence as well as 
at Castel, where they are in direct correspondence with the Taunus Rail- 
way. 

Carriages in Mayence. One-horse for '/ 4 hr., 1 — 2 pers. 12 kr., 3 — 4 
I>< is. IS kr.. by the hour 48 kr. or 1 fl. Two-horse carriage about '/ t more. 




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MAYENCE. 35. Route. 139 

For waiting, half the above charges. Trunk 6 kr.j smaller packages free. 
Bridge-toll (16 kr.) charged extra. — in Castel charges somewhat higher. 

Porterage. From the steamboat or station to the hotels on the Rhine : 
Trunk under 50 lbs. 6 kr., over 50 lbs. 9 kr., smaller packages 3 kr., or 
several together 6 kr. To Castel, see p. 42. 

English Church in the Clara Strasse. Chaplain resident. 

The Town-gates are closed at 10 p.m., and admission is denied to all 
except travellers arriving by the public conveyances, or persons furnished 
with a card from the military head-quarters of the town. 

The traveller whose time is limited had better inspect the town as follows; 
•Cathedral and monuments (p. 141), Gutenberg monument (p. 14.1), Eigelstein 
(s. below), collections in the Palace (p. 144), and spend the evening in the 
new Anlage (p. 145), in Wiesbaden (p. 149), or in the Palace -garden at 
Biebrich. 

Mayence, or Mainz, lies below the confluence of the Main 
and the Rhine, and is amongst the most interesting of the 
Rhenish towns in an historical point of view. Its important 
strategic situation has in all ages attracted the attention of 
the different nations to whom the Rhine has belonged. As 
early as B.C. 38, Vipsanius Agrippa caused a camp to be 
pitched on the spot where Mainz now stands, for the security 
■of his line of defence against the Germanic tribes. In the 
year B.C. 14, Augustus sent his son-in-law Drusus to the 
Rhine as commander-in-chief, and to him Mayence owes its 
foundation. The camp which he pitched was called the 
Castellum Magontiacum, and occupied the whole of the table- 
land between Mainz and Zahlbach, as is proved by the 
abundant Roman remains still to be seen in the vicinity of 
the town. In order the more effectually to secure the passage 
of the Rhine, a second Castellum was soon afterwards con- 
structed on the opposite side of the river by Drusus , from 
which the present Castel derives its origin and name. Many 
traces have been recently discovered of the four roads which 
led from the Castellum Magontiacum in different directions, 
and milestones which belonged to them are exhibited with 
other Roman relics in the Palace (p. 144). 

Within the walls of the Citadel is the *Eigelstein, a 
monument erected by the 2nd and 14th Legions in honour of 
Drusus (" exereitus honorarium tumulum excitavit". Sueton. 
Claud. 1.). The name is believed to have been derived from 
the uqitila or aigle, with which the tower was formerly 
surmounted. The external masonry has long since disappeared, 
and the height and form of the monument have undergone 
many changes. It is now a grey circular mass of stone, 
42 ft. in height; the interior was furnished with a spiral 
stair-case in 1689; the summit commands a view of the town 
and environs. Cards of admission at the Platz- Commando 
(military head-quarters) in the Schillerstrasse. The visitor is 
accompanied by a soldier who shows the tower (fee 12 kr.). 



140 Route 35. MAYENCE. Aqueduct. 

Excavations made in the former half of the last century 
led to the discovery of the hexagonal reservoir which supplied 
the Roman fortress with water, and was situated near the 
Gauthor, on the spot now occupied by the "Entenpfuhl" 
(duck-pond). An * Aqueduct, of which 62 pillars, some of 
them 30 ft. in height, still exist, out of the 500 it is 
said once to have been supported by, conveyed the water to 
this basin. Remains of the pillars are to be seen near ZahL- 
bach, % M. to the S. W. of Mayence, not far from the 
Stahlberg. In an acacia-plantation on a rising ground to the 1.,. 
once the burial-ground of the Romans, a number of Roman 
tombstones have been erected on the spot where they were 
discovered. The spring which the aqueduct connected with 
the Castrum is called the Kiinigs-Born, and is situated at 
Finthen (Fontanw) on the road to Bingen, 5 M. from 
Mayence. 

Mayence, with other places, claims to have been the scene 
of Constantine's vision of the Cross, as described in his letter 
to Eusebius, in 311, when he set out with his legions on his 
expedition against Maxentius. But besides this traditional 
distinction Mayence may unquestionably claim to be the oldest 
Archiepiscopal See in Germany, and the English traveller may 
be interested to know that the first Archbishop was St. Boni- 
face, a native of England, who was raised to this high dignity 
by Pope Zachary in 746. He is generally called the Apostle 
of the Germans. It has been erroneously asserted that Boni- 
face was of royal descent, but he was the son of a wheel- 
wright, and so little ashamed of his parentage that he bore 
wheels in his arms, which out of compliment to him have 
been invariably assumed by his successors in the See of 
Mayence. The founder of the Rhenish Towns' Confederation 
(1254) was a citizen of Mayence, and his native town thus 
became the central point of this powerful and influential 
society. It was at that time celebrated for its commercial 
prosperity, which gained for it the title of the "Golden Mainz." 
Two centuries later it was deprived of its extensive privileges 
by the Archbishop Adolf of Nassau, and from that time it 
lost its freedom and remained subject to the Archiepiscopal 
jurisdiction. 

On Oct. 22nd, 1792, the French republicans under Custine, 
wearing their red Jacobite caps, entered the town almost 
without a blow, but it was retaken by the Prussians under 
Kalkreuth in the following year. It became French in 1797 
by the peace of Campo Formio, and was the capital of the 
department of Donnersberg till 1814, when it was assigned 



Cathedral. MAYENCE. 35. Route. 141 

to the Grand-duchy of Hessen. Population' 42,000 (7000 Prot., 
3000 Jews). 

Mayence is the strongest Fortress of the German Con- 
federation. It is surrounded by a threefold line of forti- 
fications: 1st, the chief rampart consisting of 14 bastions with 
the citadel already mentioned; 2nd, a line of advanced forts, 
connected by glacis ; 3d, by still more advanced intrenchments, 
erected partly by the Prussian , partly by the Austrian en- 
gineers, of which the principal are the Weissenauer Lager, 
the Hartenburg , and the Binger Thurm. On the N. side of 
the town stands the vast Military Hospital, facing the Schloss- 
platz. In time of peace the garrison consists of 3000 Prussian, 
and a similar number of Austrian troops ; in time of war the 
number is trebled. 

The *Dom, or Cathedral, was founded in 978 by Arch- 
bishop Willigis. Six times it suffered more or less from fire, 
and on each occasion was restored and enlarged in the style 
of the age; it therefore affords specimens of the architecture 
of the 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries, and is in this respect 
well worthy of inspection. During the siege of 1793 every 
thing of a combustible nature in it was destroyed by fire. 
At the commencement of the French period it served as a 
hay magazine, but was restored to its sacred uses in 1804. 
On Nov. 9th, 1813, after the retreat of the French at the 
battle of Leipsic, 6000 men took up their quarters in the 
edifice, and again the benches and wood- work became a 
prey to the flames. During the siege of 1814 it was ignobly 
employed as a slaughter-house by the garrison, and subsequently 
as a salt and corn magazine. Since then it has been kept 
sacred as a place of worship, and is indebted for its restoration 
to the architect Moller of Darmstadt. The E. round towers 
belong to the most ancient part of the structure, and the E. 
fronton and choir to the beginning of the 12th cent.; the W. 
choir was erected in 1239, and the cloisters in 1412. The 
octagonal " Pfarrthurm" is surmounted by a cupola of cast 
iron, designed by Moller. The two brazen gates on the N. 
side, at the entrance from the market place, formerly be- 
longed to the Liebfrauenkirche. The inscriptions which they 
bear were engraved in 1135, and record the various privileges 
granted to the town by the Archbishop Adalbert I. out of 
gratitude for his liberation from the hands of Henry V., 
and an enumeration of his grievances and the cause of his 
imprisonment. 

The vaulted Interior of the church, which rests on 56 pillars, 
is richer in tombstones and monuments of Electors, Arch- 
bishops, and other dignitaries, than any other church in Ger- 



142 Route 35. MAYENCE. Cathedral. 

many. The most interesting of these are the following, be- 
ginning with the aisle on the r., at the N. entrance. (The 
attendance of the sexton is quite unnecessary). The monument 
of the Canon von Breidenbach, 1497; von Gablentz, 1572. — 
N. aisle. On the 1st pillar, the monument of Albert of 
Brandenburg, Elector of Mainz, and Archbishop of Magdeburg 
(the statue admirably executed, and said to be a faithful 
likeness), 1545; in a chapel opposite, the monument of the 
family of Brendel von Hombnrg, a well -executed Adoration 
of the Cross in stone, 1563; on the 4th pillar, Adalbert of 
Saxony, administrator of the Archbishopric, 1484; on the 6th 
pillar, opposite to the pulpit, the Elector Dethier of Isenburg, 
1482; on the altar at the side, St. Boniface (p. 140), a relief 
of 1357. — ■ S. aisle. On the 7th pillar, the Elector Damian 
Hartard v. d. Leien, 1678; on the 4th pillar, the * Elector 
Berthold von Henneberg, 1504, the tinest monument in the 
cathedral, and said to have been executed at Rome. 

On the 1. side of the entrance to the cloisters, a stone- 
tablet is built into the wall, with an inscription to the 
memory of Fastrada, the third wife of Charlemagne, who 
died at Frankfurt in 794, and was interred in the church of 
St. Alban's (destroyed in 1552 by the Markgrave Albrecht 
of Brandenburg), whence the tablet was removed to its present 
position. 

The S. part of the transept contains more modern monu- 
ments, amongst which the only object deserving of particular 
inspection is the fine head of Saturn which surmounts the 
monument of the Canon von Breidenbach -Biirresheim. The 
well -executed monument of the Archbishop Conrad II. von 
Weinsberg belongs to the year 1396. 

TheMemorie, or Chapter-house, erected in 1248, adjoins 
the cathedral, and now forms an entrance-hall to the Clois- 
ters, constructed in 1412. The latter are the best preserved 
of all structures of this description in the Rhineland; they 
served as a place of exercise for the clergy, and afforded an 
opportunity for the observance of the monastic rule: "post 
cienam stabis, sen passus mille meabis." 

The Memorie and the recently restored Cloisters contain 
several monuments worthy of note. On the S. wall is * Schwan- 
thaler's monument to Frauenlob , a female figure decorating a 
coffin with a wreath, erected by the ladies of Mayence in 
1842, in memory of the Minnesanger Count Heinrich von 
Meissen (d. 1318), surnamed Frauenlob (women's praise), "the 
pious minstrel of the Holy Virgin, and of female virtue and 
piety." Beyond it, on the E. wall, is a remarkable *Scu/pture, 
brought in 1839 from the Capuchins' garden, representing the 



Kastrich. MAYETTOE. 35. Route, 143 

reconciliation of the clergy with the townspeople after the 
insurrection of 1160, in which the Archbishop Arnold lost 
his life. Near it is an older tombstone of Frauenlob, erected 
in 1783, a copy of the original of 1318, which had been 
accidentally destroyed by some workmen. 

The cathedral is open in the morning till 11 % o'clock, 
and in the afternoon from 2 to 6. The view from the sum- 
mit of the tower (283 ft.) is similar to that from the Eigel- 
stein, but less extensive than the prospect commanded by the 
Stephansthurm (p. 145). 

Near the cathedral is the Gutenbergsplatz, so called by 
order of Napoleon in 1804, It is adorned with a * Statue 
of Gutenberg (d. 1468; (PI. 24), designed by the Danish 
sculptor Thorwaldsen and executed at Paris, the expenses 
being defrayed by subscriptions from all parts of Europe. 

The Theatre (PI. 29) was erected in 1833 by Moller, and 
is, excepting the instances at Dresden and Carlsruhe, the 
only modern edifice of the kind , the use of which is in- 
dicated by its external form. The Hall of Industry in the 
E. wing is a kind of bazaar, principally of wares manufactured 
in the place. The furniture and leather goods of Mayence 
have long enjoyed a high reputation. 

The Fruchthalle (PI. 8), or Fruit-market, lies to the W. 
of the theatre, and is' one of the largest buildings of the kind 
in Germany. The interior can be converted into a concert 
or ball-room by the addition of a moveable ceiling and floor, 
and is capable of containing 7 — 8000 persons. 

If the traveller now return to the theatre and follow the 
broad Ludwigsstrasse in a W. direction, he will reach the 
Schillerplatz (formerly Thiermarkt), a rectangle planted with 
lime-trees, bounded on the S. side by the Government buildings, 
and on the W. by the Prussian Barracks and Military Casino, 
where a bronze Statue of Schiller was erected in 1862. 
The pillar of the fountain is said to have been brought from 
the palace of Charlemagne at Ingelheim, and the Schillerplatz 
itself was in Roman times the Forum gentile, or market-place 
of the fortress. 

(A new, broad street leads from the Schillerplatz to the 
Kastrich, a vine-clad eminence formerly occupied by a powder- 
magazine, accidentally blown up in 1857, where a new quarter 
with a terrace, commanding an extensive view of the town 
and its environs, is in course of construction.) 

Near the N. extremity of the Schillerstrasse are the Govern- 
ment buildings, passing which and turning to the E., the traveller 
enters the Grosse Bleiche, the longest (800 yds.) street in 
Mayence, which bounds the old part of the town and leads 



144 Route 35. MAYENCE. Elector. Palace. 

to the Rhine. On the N. side of this street are situated the 
Residence of the Commandant and the old Library buildings. 
In the small square to the 1. is the Neubrunuen, a pillar with 
symbolical reliefs, erected at the commencement of the last 
century; the base is adorned with representations of river-gods. 
The building with the gilt horse, farther down the street, 
formerly the stables of the Electors, is now used as cavalry- 
barracks. 

On the r. at the E. extremity of the street, where it enters 
the large Palace square, is situated the Church of St. Peter 
(PI. 18), erected in 1751, and formerly Court-church of the 
Electors. The interior contains little to interest the traveller. 

The Palace of the Electors (PI. 3) forms the N.E. point 
of the town. It was erected in 1627 — 1678 and was the re- 
sidence of the Electors till 1792; during the French war it 
served as a hay-magazine, and afterwards as a depot for the 
cargoes of vessels. It is now occupied by different collections 
of objects of interest. That of Roman monuments is the 
richest in Germany. These, as well as the picture-gallery, 
are open to the public on Wednesdays from 2 to 5, and on 
Sundays from 9 to 12 o'clock. At other times cards of ad- 
mission (12 kr.) may be procured at the "Octroi" at the S. 
side of the building. 

The *lloman antiquities consist of altars, votive -tablets, sarcophagi, 
and tombstones of Roman soldiers with sculptures and inscriptions. — The 
Roman-Germanic Museum contains upwards of 2000 casts of relics of 
the Roman-Germanic period down to the time of Charlemagne. The Collec- 
tion of coins contains between two and three thousand Roman specimens, 
about 1800 of the town of Mayence from Charlemagne to the fall of the 
Electorate, and 1500 of modern times. — The Library possesses 100,000 
vols., among which are old impressions by Gutenberg, Faust, and Schoffer, 
dating from 1459 — 1462. The Natural hist, collection is also one of 
considerable value, especially the zoological portion. 

The *Pictu re-gallery belongs to the town and the Art-union; the best 
paintings were presented by Napoleon I. The following by well-known masters 
are among the most interesting: 1st Room: 98. Cattle by Snyders, the figures 
by Rubens; 97. The Duck-stealer, by Murillo. 2nd Room: 4. Filial affection, by 
Titian; 75. The Rape of Europa, by G. Reni. 3d Room: 185. Woman in the 
ancient German costume, by the younger Holbein; 6. Adam and Eve, by Al- 
brecht Durer; 108—110. St. Hieronymus, Adoration of the infant Jesus, and 
the young Tobias, three fine pictures by Gaudenzio Ferrari. 4th Room: 173. 
Portrait of a Cardinal, by Velasquez. 5th Room: 96. David anointed king 
by Samuel, by Rubens. 7th Room: 5. Adoration of the shepherds, by Luc. 
Giordano; 121. Coronation of the Virgin, by Agostino Garracci. The 8th 
Room contains modern pictures. 9th Room: 27. John in the wilderness, by 
Agost. Carracci; 3. Madonna receiving the scapulary, by A/tnib. Garracci; 
92. St. Franciscus, by Guercino. 

Opposite to the Electoral Palace, to the S., is situated the 
House of the Teutonic Order, now fitted up as a Grand-ducal 
Palace (PI. 5), connected with which is the Arsenal (PI. 41), 
containing collections of old armour and weapons, as well as 



Church, of St. Stephen. MAYENCE. 35. Route. 145 

large stores of modern engines of warfare, but of little interest 
to persons who have visited more important collections. Cards 
of admission may be procured gratis at the Artillery-office at 
the corner of the Grosse Bleiche and the Bahnhofstrasse. 

On an eminence to the N. W. of the Citadel is situated 
the Church of St. Stephen (PI. 19), erected in 1318, and 
restored in 1857. It contains three aisles of nearly equal 
height, a form rarely seen in the churches of the Rhineland. 
The octagonal tower (210 ft.), the base of which is 100 ft. 
above the Rhine, commands the finest view in the whole town. 
To procure admission the visitor must ring at the door of the 
N. tower. The interior contains but few objects of interest. 
The Cloisters are remarkable for their tastefully constructed 
ceilings and windows. 

The * Cemetery, once the burial-place of the Roman legions, 
and of the most ancient Christian church (St. Alban's), is 
situated on an eminence in the vicinity of Zahlbach (p. 140), 
and deserves a visit on account of the beauty of its situation, 
as well as of the monuments it contains. 

The Neue Anlage (* Voltz's Restaurant), or new public 
grounds, are situated on a slight eminence, near the 
Neuthor, on the site of the electoral Lustsch/oss Favorite, 
where on July 25th, 1792, the well-known manifesto of the 
Duke of Brunswick addressed to the French nation was 
framed by a large assembly of princes. The fine view from 
the grounds embraces the town, the river, and the Taunus 
mountains. 

The Mainspitze (or promontory of the Main), opposite to 
the Neue Anlage, is occupied by a bombproof fort commanding 
the two rivers. Near it are the remnants of a hexagonal 
star-fort, erected by Gustavus Adolphus. At this point the 
river is crossed by the railway-bridge of the Aschaffenburg- 
Darrnstadt-Mainz line, opened Nov. 22nd, 1862. 

Mayence is connected with Castel (see p. 167) by a 
bridge of boats, 740 yds. in length (toll 2 kr.), below 
which, when the water is low, remnants of pillars may 
be seen, probably the supports of the wooden bridge built 
by Charlemagne in 793 — 803, afterwards ignited by light- 
ning and burned to the water's edge. The greater number 
of the 17 water-mills are attached to these foundation 
pillars. Castel is also strongly fortified its, line of forti- 
fications being connected with those of Mayence. By railway 
from Castel to Wiesbaden in 20 min., to Frankfurt in 1 hr., 
see p. 166. 

Baedeker's Rhine. 10 



14(j 

36. From Mayence to Cologne. 

Railway journey. (Comp. Maps R. R. 24, 15 and 4.) 

By the Hessian-Ludwig Railway to Bingen, thence by the Rhenish 
line to Cologne; by express in 4 hrs. 35 min., by ordinary trains in b'/ t — 
5 3 / 4 hrs.; fares: 4 Thlr. 25, 3 Thlr. 15, or 2 Thlr. 10 Sgr. Return tickets 
are valid for 3 days for the 3d cl., and for 5 days for the 1st and 2nd cl. ; 
passengers provided with the latter may break the journey twice, provided 
they get their tickets stamped on leaving the carriage. — 50 lbs. of luggage 
free. — View of the Rhine to the r. only. 

The train traverses the fortifications of Mayence, and near 
stat. Mombach passes opp. to Biebrich (p. 137). The district 
between Mayence and Bingen is flat and uninteresting. The 
first station of importance is 

Nieder - Ingelheim (Post; Lowe; Hirsch), where a cele- 
brated palace of Charlemagne, described by ancient historians 
and poets as an edifice of great magnificence, once stood. 
Mosaics, marble sculptures, and other works of art, were sent 
in 784 by Pope Hadrian I. from the palace of Ravenna to adorn 
the building. The granite columns of the fountain at the 
castle of Heidelberg (p. 183) were once in the palace of 
Ingelheim, and other relics from it are to be seen at Mayence, 
Eberbach, &c. At Ingelheim the convocation of the bishops 
of Mayence, Cologne, and Worms, who dethroned Henry IV., 
assembled on Dec. 30th, 1105. 

An obelisk on the S. side of the village marks the road 
begun by Charlemagne, and completed by Napoleon. From 
this point a fine prospect of the entire Rheingau is obtained. 
The red wines of Ingelheim and Heidesheim (*Friederich) 
opposite to Eltville (p. 136) enjoy a high reputation. In the 
district between this and Mayence are numerous quarries of 
limestone, composed of innumerable snail-shells (LitorineUl), 
which is conveyed by the returning coal-barges to the Lower 
Rhine and Holland, and burned in the numerous lime -kilns 
on the banks of the river. 

On the opposite (r.) bank of the river rises the castle of 
Johannisberg (p. 134). The train now skirts the base of the 
Rochusberg and stops at the station of 

Bingen (R. 26), where the finest scenery of the Rhine 
commences. (For a more minute description of the banks 
of the river between Bingen and Coblenz see RR. 24, 25). 
The Nahe is now crossed at some distance below the old stone 
bridge, and Bingerbruck (Hotel Rheinstein; Ruppertsberg) 
reached. Opp. to it is the Mouse Tower (p. 105), and in the 
immediate vicinity, the station of the Rhine-Nahe line (R. 27). 
As the train leaves Bingerbriick, a beautiful retrospective vievr 
of the distant Rheingau may be obtained. 



BACHARACH. 36. Route. 147 

From Bacharach to Oberwesel, see pp. 101, 100. The 
delightfully situated town of Oberwesel is next reached; 
station at the upper end of the town, near the Church. 
After passing through two tunnels, the traveller obtains a 
glimpse of the * Lurlei (p. 98) on the r. bank. The train 
now enters a tunnel penetrating the rocks near the "Bank," 
on emerging from which it stops at 

St. Goar (p. 96); beyond the town the base of the 
ancient fortress of Rhein/els is skirted. On the opp. bank, 
above the village of Welmich, rises the Maus (p. 96); farther 
down, the castles of Liebenstein and Sterrenberg. The station 
of Boppard is in the rear of the town. Beyond Boppard the 
village of Osterstpay and the picturesque, white castle of 
Liebeneck are seen on the r. bank. The train next passes 
through the village of Brey, opp. to Braubach and the castle 
of Marksburg (p. 93), and the small but ancient town of 
Rhense, beyond which, to the r. is situated the Konigsstuhl 
(p. 92). Stat. Capellen is situated at the foot of Stolzenfels, 
and opp. to the castle of Lahneck and Oberlahnstein (railway 
to Ems and Limburg, see R. 22), with which it is connected 
by a steam ferry-boat. — Opp- to the island of Oberwerth the 
train quits the bank of the Rhine, skirts the base of Fort 
Constantine and traverses the fortifications of 

Cobleuz, see R. 20. From the station little or nothing 
can be seen of the town. As the train crosses the Moselle 
a fine view is obtained of Ehrenbreitstein to the r., rising 
above the arches of the stone bridge. At the foot of the 
fortified Petersberg , to the 1. , is situated the monument of 
Marceau (p. 80). A pleasing view is now obtained of Neu- 
wied, commanded by the chateau of Monrepos, to the r. ; above 
the village of Weisserdhurm , -to the 1., rise the monument of 
General Hoche (p. 67) and the ancient boundary tower. The 
station of 

Neuwied (p. 66) is situated 1 M. from the town , which 
lies on the opposite bank. The train next crosses the Nette, 
passes the Netterhof (p. 67) and stops at the station of 

Andernach (p. 65), % M. distant from the town; the 
church, the ancient tower and walls are the most conspicuous 
objects. The Lunatic Asylum (1.) was once the Augustine 
nunnery of St. Thomas. Beyond Andernach the train runs 
close to the river and commands a beautiful view in both 
directions; farther on, it passes the Krahnenberg, where, on 
the construction of the line , the remains of a Roman villa 
were discovered, and intersects the lava-stream of the Fornicher 
Kopf (p. 65) (to the r. the castle of Namedy is visible). Opp. 
to stat. Brohl is situated the church of Rheinbrohl (Brohl- 

10* 



148 Route 36. SINZIG. 

thai, etc., see R. 19); the train then skirts the base of the 
castle of Rheineck and passes stat. Nieder-Breisig, opp. to (r.) 
the castle of Arenfels, where the bank of the river is quitted. 
The next station is 

Sinzig (* Hotel Baur; Deutsches Haus) a small and very 
ancient town, surrounded by high walls, 1 % M. from the 
river. The ruins of the Franconian palace, afterwards Imperial 
residence, which stood here, and from which various decrees 
of Pepin, the emperor Henry III., and others were issued, 
have been converted into a picturesque modern Gothic villa. 
The Helenenberg , to the 1. of the line and S. of the town, 
derives its name from a tradition that the empress Helena 
once founded a chapel on it. The handsome * Church, in the 
finest transition style, the round predominating, is constructed 
of tuffstone and dates from the 13th cent. A natural 
mummy called the "holy Vogt", found in the churchyard 
200 years ago, is exhibited in a glass case in one of the 
chapels. A worthless picture, painted in 1708, alludes to 
Constantine's vision of the Cross (p. 140), the scene of which, 
according to some traditions, was at Sinzig. The choir con- 
tains a fine winged picture on gold ground by a Dutch master 
(John Foeten, 1480), restored in 1855. (Ahrthal, see R. 17; 
diligence from Sinzig twice a day to Ahrweiler in 1 '/ 2 hr., 
see p. 56). 

Remagen (and the Apollinarisberg, see pp. 61, 62) is 
one of the stations (Sinzig the other) for the Valley of the 
Ahr (R. 17). Here the train re-approaches the river; beautiful 
retrospective view. Farther on, the scene of the landslip 
of the Birgeler Kopf is intersected by the line, where, as 
well as at Rolandseck, the peculiar formation of the moun- 
tains is exposed to view by the railway cuttings. Beyond 
the village of Oberwinter the train reaches 

Rolandseck (* Railway refreshment-rooms ; magnificent view, 
see p. 51), a favorite resort of the inhabitants of Bonn and 
Cologne. — Mehlem, the station for Konigswinter on the r. 
bank, is % M. from the Rhine ; ferry to Konigswinter in 5 min. 

Most of the handsome residences of Godesberg (* Blinzler), 
opposite to the station, belong to wealthy merchants of Cologne, 
Elberfeld, &c. The Draischbrunnen, a weak alkaline, chalybeate 
spring, was known to the Romans, as is proved by a votive-tablet 
to Aesculapius, found in the vicinity. Half a mile to the N. 
of the station, on an eminence (275 ft.), stands the handsome 
castle-tower (100 ft.). At the foot of the hill a Roman colony 
is said formerly to have existed, and at the summit a fort, 
founded by the emperor Julian (360), a temple, and afterwards 
a Christian church. The castle was erected in the 13th and 



HOCHKREUZ. 36. Route. 149 

following centuries by the archbishops of Cologne, principally 
as a protection against the incursions of the citizens of Cologne 
(p. 27). In 1583 it was defended by Count Adolf of Neuen- 
ahr against the Bavarians, who fought in support of the newly 
chosen Archbishop Ernst of Bavaria against the deposed 
Gebhard of Waldburg, who had turned Protestant. They 
succeeded in storming the castle, and blew it up; the tower 
alone has escaped destruction. Fine view from the summit. 
The ruin now belongs to the queen of Prussia. 

As Bonn is approached, to the r. stands the Hochkreuz, 
an obelisk 30 ft. in height, erected in 1332 — 49 to the memory 
of a knight who fell in a duel at this spot. The train now 
crosses the Poppelsdorf avenue and enters the station of 

Bonn, see R. 14. On leaving the station, the Cemetery 
with its chapel are seen to the r., and the Kreuzberg to the 
1. Roisdorf possesses a mineral spring, similar to that of 
Selters. Near stat. Sechtem the wine-growing district termin- 
ates. The former royal hunting-residence Falkenlust, con- 
nected with Briihl by an avenue, is now private property. 

Briihl (* Pavilion; * Belvedere; *Barion, on the Cologne 
road). The train stops opposite to the royal Palace of Briihl, 
a handsome building, erected by the Elector Clemens August 
in 1728. During the French period Marshal Davoust resided 
in it for several years, and it was afterwards assigned to the 
4th cohort of the French Legion of Honour. For many years 
it was untenanted and fell to decay, but was restored in 1842 
by the late king Fred. William IV. The halls contain old 
portraits of Rhenish electors and other princes. The garden 
and park are favorite resorts of the inhabitants of Bonn and 
Cologne. 

After passing stat. Kalscheuren , the train skirts the W. 
side of the city, passes by the Town Garden and the goods 
station, traverses the fortifications and a portion of the town, 
and finally enters the station of 

Cologne, see R. 10. 



37. Wiesbaden. 

(Comp. Map. R. 34) 

Hotels. Hotel Victoria, 'Tauous Hotel (R. and L. l'/„ fl., A. 24 kr.), 
both near the railway stations. — With baths: *The Four Seasons Hotel, 
* Eagle, *Rose, *Nassauer Hof, all of the first class. — Hotel de 
France, *Gruner Wald (Green Wood), more moderate. — *Table d'hote 
in the Cursaal, at 1 o'cl. 1 fl., at 5 o'cl. l 3 / 4 fl. 

There are also numerous Bathing-establishments: ^European Hotel, 
at the Kochbrunnen, well fitted up, English Hotel, *Bear, *Romer- 
bad, Engel, *Sch"wan, Krone, Ac. The charges vary with the season. 
In the Romerbad, for example, from October to April a bedroom is let for 



150 Route 37. WIESBADEN. 

2 fl. per week, in May and September for 5 fl., in June and Aug. for 7 fl., 
and in July for 9 fl. ; a bath in the 7 winter months costs 15 kr. , in the 
5 summer months 24 kr. Tea and coffee are the only refreshments supplied 
in these establishments. 

Restaurants. *Christmann, Lugenbiihl; Restaurant Francais, 
all in the untere Webersgasse, near the Theaterplatz ; Spehner; Cafe 
Hartmann; table d'hote in all during the season. Beer at Christmann's 
(see above), at the *Bierstadter - Berg, '/., M. to the S. E. of the Cur- 
saal, and at Duensiugs near the station. 

Newspapers in the Reading-room of the Cursaal; the guests of the 
establishment can procure cards of admission gratis from the directors. 

Military Concert in the Curgarten from 4 to 6 p.m., and frequently later 
in the evening by gas-light. 

Cursaal. During the height of the season "Reunions dansantes" on 
Saturdays, for which separate cards of admission are necessary. Concerts on 
Fridays, performances by musicians of the highest class; adm. 1 — 3 fl. 

Theatre, 3 — 5 times a week at 6'/„ o'clock. 

Carriages. From the station to the town 1—2 pers. 30, 3-4 pers. 48 kr. 
(inc. trunk, travelling bag, and hat-box) ; each additional trunk 6 kr. A drive 
in the town 1—2 pers. 18, 3—4 pers. 24, ] /i hr. 24—36, 1 hr. 1 fl. 12—1 fl. 
24 kr. ; two-horse carriages about '/ 3 rd more. To the Greek Chapel and 
back 1 fl. 30-1 fl. 48 kr. ; to the Platte and back 4—5 fl.; to Schlangenbad 
5—7 fl. ; to Schwalbach 6—8 fl. 

Donkeys, on the Sonnenberg road, opp. to the Berliner Hof, 30 kr. per 
hour (inc. fee) ; to the Platte and back 1 fl. 24 kr. 

Railway Stations of the Taunus line (R. 40) and the Right-Rhenish 
or Nassovian line (to Oberlahnstein, Ems, Limburg, Wetzlar, comp. RR. 22, 
23) at the E. extremity of the Rheinstrasse. 

Telegraph Office Bahnhofstrasse 1. 

The Mineral Waters are drunk from 5 to 8 a.m.. seldom in the evening. 

English Church Service is performed by a resident chaplain in the new 
English church is the Wilhelmstrasse. 

Wiesbaden (pop. 20,797, 6022 Rom. Cath.), the capital 
of the Duchy of Nassau, and principal residence of the Duke, 
is one of the oldest watering-places in Germany. "Sunt et 
Mattiaci in Germania fontes calidi trans Rhenum, quorum haustus 
triduo fervet" is the account given by Pliny (hist. not. XXXI. 2) 
of Wiesbaden. On the Heidenberg , which rises to the N. of 
the town, traces of a Roman fortress (500 ft. in length, and 
nearly as broad) were discovered in 1838, which according to 
the inscriptions was garrisoned by the 14th and 22nd Legions. 
The Heidenmauer (heathens' wall), 650 ft. long, 10 ft. high, 
and 9 ft. thick, among the stones of which fragments of ruined 
temples, votive -tablets &c. may be recognized, now forms a 
sort of town-wall on the N. W. side, and was perhaps a con- 
necting line between the fort on the Romerberg and the town. 
Urns, implements, weapons, and tombstones of Roman soldiers, 
found here on different occasions, are exhibited in the Mu- 
seum (p. 152). 

Wiesbaden lies on the S. W. spurs of the Taunus moun- 
tains, 90 ft. above the Rhine, and is surrounded by 
handsome villas standing in pleasure-grounds tastefully laid 
out. These are most numerous in the vicinity of the Cursaal 
and the railway stations, and are principally designed for the 



Cursaal. WIESBADEN. 37. Route. 151 

accommodation of visitors. The annual ' number of strangers 
who visit Wiesbaden amounts to (1863) 35,000, of whom one- 
third are passers-through. It also attracts about 1600 winter 
residents by the various public institutions of art and science 
it contains. It is needless to say that there is a considerable 
difference between the summer and winter prices. 

On leaving the station (at the S. E. end of the town) 
the traveller enters the Wilhelmstrasse, planted with trees 
and about % M. in length, bounding the entire E. side of the 
town. At its extremity on the 1., is the Theaterplatz , three 
sides of which are occupied by the Hotel of the Four Seasons, 
the Hotel Zais, the Nassauer Hof, and the Theatre; on the r. 
is the square in front of the Cursaal, embellished with two 
handsome fountains. On each side of the square are long 
and spacious colonnades , where every description of fancy 
article is on sale. 

The * Cursaal is the chief resort of visitors. The principal 
hall is embellished with niches containing copies of celebrated 
antiques. The orchestra galleries are supported by handsome 
pillars of the red and grey marble of the country. To the 
r. and 1. are spacious and magnificently decorated saloons, 
dedicated to play(open from 11 a.m. to 11 p.m.), dining, ball, 
drawing, and reading rooms. To the rear of the building are 
tastefully laid -out pleasure-grounds, much frequented in the 
afternoon as a promenade; a good band is in frequent atten- 
dance, and the scene is highly animated and gay. In the 
midst of a fish-pond of considerable size a fountain throws a 
jet of water upwards of 100 ft. Paths laid out in a delightful 
grassy dale lead past the Dietenmuhle (good inn), where a 
Hydropathic estab. (Dr. Genth, director) has been recently 
opened, to the ruin of Sonnenberg (1 y 2 M.) and the Rambacher 
Capelle, 1 % M. farther, where remains of a Roman camp 
were excavated in 1859. 

The Kochbrunnen , or boiling spring, is the most im- 
portant of the warm springs (156° Fahr.), and is connected 
with the Curgarten by means of a long iron Trinkhalle 
or Pump-room, in the form of a veranda. The * Hygeia 
group, near the spring, was executed by Hoffmann of Wies- 
baden in 1850. 

The warm spring in the garden of the Adler (Eagle) Hotel 
is also provided with a pump-room. Another spring (122° 
Fahr.) in the Schiitzenhqf is enclosed in a large vaulted build- 
ing belonging to the Roman period, where Roman relics have 
heen found. The principal ingredient in the water is chloride 
of sodium. 

The most conspicuous building in the town is the Gothic 



152 Route 37. WIESBADEN. Museum, 

Protestant Church with five lofty towers, opposite to the 
palace, built of polished bricks in 1852 — 1860. The Roman 
Cath. Church is also a handsome modern structure in the 
round-arch style, with vaulted network ceiling. The altar- 
piece to the r. , a Madonna and Child is' by Steinle, that to 
the ]., St. Boniface, by Rethel. 

The other buildings worthy of note are the Ducal Palace, 
the Palace of the Dowager Duchess, constructed in the style 
of the Alhambra, situated on the height near the Cursaal, and 
the Ministerial buildings, in the Florentine palatial style. 

The Museum in the so-called "Schlosschen" in the Wil- 
helmstrasse contains a collection of Roman and other anti- 
quities (open to the public Mon., Wed. and Frid. 3 — 6 p.m.) 
on the ground-floor, amongst which the Mithras - altar, with 
remarkably well preserved sculptures , discovered at Heddern- 
heiru (Novus Vicus) on the Nidda, 4y 2 M. to the N. W. of 
Frankfurt, deserves particular inspection. Among the curiosities 
of the middle ages is a gilded and carved wooden altar of 
the 13th cent., which formerly belonged to the Abbey of 
Marienstadt near Hachenburg. On the ground-floor to the r., 
a Picture Gallery (Sun., Mon., Wed. and Frid. 11 — 4) has 
begun to be formed. The first floor contains an admirably 
arranged collection of objects of Natural History, especially of 
geological specimens from the Duchy of Nassau, and Gerning's 
celebrated Collection of Insects (Mon., Wed. and Frid. 2 — 6, 
also Wed. 11 — 1). — The Library in the upper story (open 
on Mon. , Wed. and Frid. from 9 to 12 and from 2 to 5). 
contains some valuable old MSS., among which may be men- 
tioned "The Visions of St. Hildegard", a parchment MS., 
illuminated with curious miniatures of the 12th cent, and 
"The Visions of St. Elisabeth of Schonau", with painted and 
gilt letters. 

The Collection of Antiquities and objects of art from Italy, 
the property of Prince Emil v. Wittgenstein, is open to the 
public Mon., Wed. and Frid. afternoon. 

Wiesbaden possesses several excellent educational establish- 
ments, the most important of which are the Chemical Labora- 
tory of Fresenius, the Agricultural institution on the old Geis- 
berg, Schirm's Commercial School, the Grammar School, &c. 

On the Neroberg, 1 M. to the N. of the town, where, ac- 
cording to an obscure tradition, the Emperor Nero once had 
a palace, is situated the * Russian - Greek Chapel, erected 
by the Duke as a Mausoleum for his first wife, the Duchess 
Elizabeth Michailowna, a Russian princess who died in 1845. 
From the portal a fine view is obtained of Wiesbaden and 
Mainz, to the S. the Melibocus, and S. W. the long ridge 



Cemetery. WIESBADEN. 37. Route. 153 

of the Donnersberg. The Chapel is constructed of sandstone 
in the form of a Greek cross, and is richly decorated, prin- 
cipally in the round-arch style. It is surmounted by one 
large, and four smaller cupolas, all richly gilded, on the highest 
of which is a Russian double cross, 183 ft. from the ground, 
secured by hanging gilt chains , in the style of the Kremlin 
at Moscow. The interior consists entirely of marble, white 
and coloured. A rich Altar-screen (Ikonostas), with repre- 
sentations of numerous saints, especially those revered in 
Russia, separates the «hoir, which is only accessible to the 
priests and their attendants, from the body of the chapel. The 
altar itself, with a Crucifix of crystal, is only visible during 
divine service. A pentagonal recess on the N. side contains 
a magnificent monument to the Duchess. The recumbent 
effigy is of white marble, and rests on a sarcophagus, at the 
sides of which are statuettes of the 12 Apostles, and at the 
corners Faith, Hope, Charity, and Immortality, executed by 
Professor Hopfgarten of Berlin. Divine service, according to 
the ritual of the Greek church, is performed here every Sun- 
day at 10 a.m., but the public are excluded. At other times 
the chapel is shown by the sacristan who lives near (fee for 
1 pers. 24 kr., for a party of 3— 4, 1 fl.). Near the chapel is a 
well-kept Russian Burial-ground, containing several monuments. 

About 3 / 4 M. to the N. W. beyond the chapel is an open 
temple supported by pillars , which commands a fine view. 
Promenades and walks of all kinds traverse the wood in every 
direction, and extend as far as the Platte (see below). At 
the base of the hill on the S. is the Hydropathic Establishment 
of Nerothal. 

The * Cemetery, on the hill-side opposite to the Neroberg, 
and 1 M. from the Cursaal , contains many handsome monu- 
ments, several of which are Russian. To the r. of the build- 
ing used for depositing the coffins, stands the monument of 
the Hanoverian General von Baring, the defender of La Haye 
Sainte at the battle of Waterloo. A fragment of a pillar on 
the E. wall bears the name of the Polish General Uminsky 
(d. 1851). A chapel is in course of construction over the 
grave of the Duchess Pauline (d. 1856), who, according to her 
own wish, was interred here. 

The * Platte, a hunting-residence of the Duke, stands on 
a height (1511 ft.), about 4'/ 2 M. to the N. of Wiesbaden, and 
is frequently visited for the sake of the view. The above- 
mentioned walks on the Neroberg are connected with the 
Platte, and abundantly provided with signposts. The carriage 
drive is the old Limburg road. (Far below in the valley to 
the 1. is situated the ancient nunnery of Glarenthal, founded 



154 Route 37. WIESBADEN. 

in 1296 by the Emperor Adolf of Nassau and his consort 
Imagina of Limburg; above it, the former Fasanerie, or 
pheasantry). The view from the platform of the building 
extends over the Westerwald, Spessart, Odenwald, Donners- 
berg, the entire valley of the Rhine as far as the Haardt 
mountains, with Mayence iu the foreground. The large tele- 
scope enables the spectator distinctly to recognize the people 
crossing the bridge of boats. The interior of the shooting- 
box contains no objects of arts, with the exception of some 
pictures of animals, but is appropriately fitted up. Near it is 
a good inn. The pedestrian may descend from the Platte in 
a S. E. direction to the Sonnenberg (p. 151) about 3'/ 2 M. 
distant. The path leads past an oak plantation to the 1. of 
the high road, and is distinctly visible from the platform. 
Wiesbaden lies 1 y 2 M. to the S. W- of "the Sonnenberg. 

Wiesbaden is connected with Mosbach (p. 137) by a road 
planted with a quadruple row of horse-chesnuts. Half-way to 
the village is the Adolphshohe, a restaurant, which affords a 
survey of the Rheingau as far as the Rochuscapelle at Bingen. 

Another fine view is obtained from the Chausseehaus or 
Forester's house, on the old Schwalbach road, about 3 M. 
from Wiesbaden, where the road to Georgenborn and Schlangen- 
bad diverges. — Excursion to the Taunusmountains see R. 40. 



38. Schwalbach and Schlangenbad. 

(Comp. Map R. 34.) 

Hotels in Schwalbach. *Alleesaal; *Post; *Duke of Nassau, R. 
I fl., L. 15, B. 30 kr., D. exc. W. 1 fl. 12 kr. ; Taunus Hotel; *H6tel 
Wagner; *Russischer Hof, D. 48 kr. in the two latter. 

Boarding Houses (without dinner). Among others may be mentioned: 
Neglein, Kranich (telegr. office and starting point of the Wiesbaden 
cmnibus), Wiener Hof, Stadt Hanau, Einhorn, Victoria, Belle- 
vue, Tivoli (large and well fitted up, but somewhat expensive) Panorama, 
Widow Grebert, Pariser Hof (dinner), Stadt Coblenz, Englischer 
Hof. — Dinner may be procured from the Duke of Nassau Hotel, Hotel 
Wagner, Dieffenbach's Restaurant or the Pariser Hof; price from 1 fl. to 36 kr. 

Beading Room in the Alleesaal. 

Baths in the Badhaus (from 5 a.m. till l'/j p.m., 1 fl.). Kranich, 
.stadt Mainz, Engl. Hof, Einhorn, Baltzer 54 kr. per bath. Con- 
tribution to the band 2 fl. for the season. 

Carriages and Horses have no fixed charges; donkeys according to a 
printed tariff. 

Diligence to Wiesbaden in 2 hrs., at 7 a.m. and l'/ 4 p.m., to Schlangenbad 
(in 1 hr.) and Eltmtle (in 2 brs.) at 8 a.m. and 5'/ 2 p.m. in summer only; to 
Diez (p. 86) at 8 p.m. in 4 hrs. - Omnibus to Wiesbaden at 7'/ 2 a.m. 
iu 2'/, hrs. 

Telegraph Office in the "Kranich". 

English Church Service in the Lutheran Church during the season. 



LANGEN- SCHWALBACH. 38. Route. 155 

Langen - Schwalbach , commonly called Schwalbach, is 
situated on the Wiesbaden and Coblenz road, 10 % M. to the 
N. W. of Wiesbaden and 25 M. S. E. of Ems. The three 
principal springs, the Stahlbrunnen in one of the valleys, and the 
Wein- and Paulinenbrunnen in the other, are connected by 
by means of walks and shrubberies. The Bath-establishment 
is at the Weinbrunnen; the water, which is strongly impreg- 
nated with iron and carbonic acid gas, is adapted for internal 
as well as external use, and is especially efficacious in nervous 
and female complaints. , 

The village itself 3 / 4 M. in length, is situated in a beautiful 
wooded ravine. The annual number of visitors is upwards 
of 3000. The Paulinenberg, Platte, the ruins of (2 M.) Adolphs- 
eck (Kling) and (6 M.) Hohenstein (Ziemen) are very favorite 
resorts. — A good road leads from Schwalbach through the 
Wisperthal to Loreh (21 M.) on the Rhine. 

Schwalbach is usually approached from Wiesbaden , from 
Eltville by Schlangenbad (diligence twice daily) or from Ems 
(railway to Diez, thence by carriage [no diligence] in 4 hrs.) 

The new high-road from Wiesbaden to Schwalbach (diligence 
at 8y 2 a.m. and 10 p.m. in 2'/ 4 hrs., omnibus at 5y 2 p.m. from 
the Taunus Hotel, opp. the rail, stations), soon after Wies- 
baden is left, quits the old road leading by the Chausseehaus 
and the Hohe Wurzel (1600 ft.), and enters the Aarthal, which 
it follows, passing by Bleidenstadt, till Schwalbach is reached. 

The road from Biebrich to Schlangenbad and Schwalbach 
(carriage to Schlangenbad in iy 2 , to Schwalbach in 3'/ 4 hrs.) 
leads by Schierstein and Neudorf (Krone), where it unites with 
the road from Eltville ; it then passes the former convent of 
Tiefenthal (now a mill) , and traverses a picturesque valley, 
enlivened by numerous mills. The pedestrian is recommended 
to make a circuit of 1 y 2 M. by Rauenthal; about y 4 M. 
beyond Neudorf a signpost indicates the road to the 1., leading 
to Rauenthal (Nassauer Hof), celebrated for its wine, situated 
on the ridge of the hill. On leaving the S. side of the village 
the tourist will see a cross, 50 yds. beyond which he must 
turn to the r. and then ascend to the 1.; in a few minutes 
he will reach the Rauenthaler Hohe (1668 ft.), which commands 
a magnificent view of the entire Rheingau from Mayence to 
below Johannisberg, with the handsome buildings of Eltville 
in the foreground. 

On the N. side of Rauenthal a good path leads along the 
hill-side to Schlangenbad. Those who prefer to return to the 
high road must turn down to the r. by the signpost, ] / 4 M. 
from the village, and a descent of '/ 4 hr. more will bring them 
to the road; 1% M. farther, Schlangenbad (4y 2 M. from 



156 Route 38. SCHLANGENBAD. 

Schwalbach) is reached (* Nassauer Hof, D. 1 fl. 12 kr., R. at 
fixed rates ; Hotel Victoria, D exc. W. 1 fl. — The refreshment 
rooms in the upper and lower Gurhaus, and on the terrace, 
belong to the landlord of the Nassauer Hof). The baths are 
visited principally by ladies. The water (84° — 90° Fahr.), 
only used externally, is clear and free from odour, and is 
smooth and oily to the touch; it is most efficacious in skin 
complaints, convulsive affections, nervous weakness, and similar 
maladies. For a minute and masterly description of the whole 
of this locality, the reader is referred to the work of Sir 
Francis Head, "Bubbles from the Brunnens of Nassau." Suffice 
it here to say that Schlangenbad, unlike Ems in its circle of 
hills, is situated in a richly wooded valley, refreshed by a 
constant current of air, which invigorates the enervated frame. 
Paths of easy ascent are cut in all directions through the 
woods, affording enjoyment even to those whose pedestrian 
powers are limited. Instead of the day being devoted to the 
excitements of "roulette" and "rouge et noir", it is passed in 
healthful recreation and the pure enjoyment of exquisite sce- 
nery and a delightful and invigorating atmosphere. 

According to a tradition the springs were discovered by 
a cow-herd, 200 years ago, who found his herd diminishing, 
and going in search of the truant animals found them lux- 
uriating in the warm spring. The Bath establishment was 
erected by the former lord of the soil , the Landgrave Carl 
of Hessen-Cassel, and surrounded by pleasure grounds. The 
terrace at the Curhaus and the grounds connected with it are 
the only public places of resort for visitors. Schlangenbad 
also possesses a whey-cure establishment. 

From Schlangenbad to Wiesbaden the new carriage - road by 
Georgenborn (7% M.) is the best route for pedestrians. The road ascends 
in an E. direction to Georgenborn (1152 ft.;. From the highest point a 
magnificent prospect is enjoyed of the neighbourhood of Frankfurt as far as 
the confluence of the Main and Rhine, the Rhine from Worms to Bingen, 
and in the background the Dounersberg. A road leads from the village to 
the Chausseehaus (p. 154), about 2 l / 4 M. distant; thence to Wiesbaden by the 
old Wiesbaden and Schwalbach road (3 3 / 4 M.). 

The high-road from Schlangenbad by Wambach to Schwal- 
bach (4y 2 M.) rises considerably for about 2 M., commanding 
a fine view from the culminating point, and then descends to 
Schwalbach. 

39. Frankfurt. 

Hotels. Outside of the town, conveniently situated between the Taunus 
and Main-Weser stations: *Westendhall, R. 1 fl. and upwards, L. 18, B. 
30 kr., D. exc. W. 1 fl. 12 kr., A. 24 kr. ; also a cafe -restaurant. In the 
town: *H6tel de Russie (of the highest class) and *Roman Emperor, 
in the Zeil; *H6tel d'Angleterre, in the Rossmarkt, R. 1'/, fl. L. 24, 



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FRANKFURT. 39. Route. 157 

B. 42 kr., D. V/„ fl., A. 30 kr. — *Swan, B. 1 fl., t. 18, B. 18, B. 36, A. 
24 kr. , excellent table-d'hote at 1, inc. W. 1 fl. 45 kr. , and Hotel de 
['Union (similar prices), near Goethe's monument. — *Hollandischer 
Hof, in the Goethe -Platz, R. 1 fl. 20 kr., L. 18, B. 36, A. 24 kr., at the 
same time a cafe-restaurant. *Landsberg, 11. 1 fl., L. 18 kr.; good dinner 
at 1, inc. W. 1 fl. 30, B. 36, A. 18 kr,; Rheinischer Hof, in the Buch- 
gasse; Pariser Hof, in the Paradeplatz, all second-class houses. Griiner 
Baum, grosse Fischergasse, and Stadt Darmstadt in the same street, 
Tery moderate. 

Cafes. Milani, next door to the theatre; Holland, in the Goethe- 
platz; Parrot, next to the Post office; Cafe neuf, in the Schillerplatz. 

Confectioners. Roder, opposite to the Goethe-monument; good ices 
12 kr.; Butsehli, kleiner Hirschgraben 8; Knecht. by St. Paul's Church. 

Restaurants. Jouy, Gallengasse, good but dear. *Jacoby, in the 
Stiftsstrasse, near the Zeil; wine good. Westendhall at the Taunus station; 
Ostendhall at the Bavarian station. Beer may be procured at the following 
restaurants: *EysMr, by the Main-Weser station; in the town: *Zum 
Guttenberg in the Gallengasse, not far from the stations. 

Newspapers in the Biirgerverein (p. 165). 

Theatre (PI. 34), representations nearly every day. 

Railways. Taunus- line and Hessen- Luduig-line see R. 40, Main- 
Keckar-line, R. 41, Main- Weser-Kne, for Homburg (p. 170). The three stations 
adjoin each other, and are situated on the W. side of the town. The 
Bavarian station is on the E. side, outside of the Allerheiligenthor. The 
Ojf'enbach station is in Sachsenhausen, on the 1. bank of the Main. 

Omnibus from the station to the town 12 kr., for each box 6 kr. From 
the town to the station 6 kr. for a passenger without luggage, 12 kr. for a 
passenger with ordinary luggage, for each additional box 6 kr. 

Fiacres from the station to the town for 1 — 2 persons with ordinary 
luggage 24 kr., 3 pers. 30 kr., 4 pers. 36 kr. ; for each box 6 kr. By time: 
(1 horse) for y 4 hr. 1 — 2 pers. 12 kr., 3—4 pers. 18 kr. ; (2 horses) 18 and 
24 kr. For longer periods at somewhat reduced rates. N.B. The unnumbered 
vehicles have no fixed tariffs. 

Telegraph - offices. The Frankfurt and Prussian offices are at the Ex- 
change, the Bavarian Paulsplatz No. 2. At the Taunus station despatches 
within the limits of this line only are received. 

Valets de place l 3 /,— 2 fl. per diem. 

Shops, the best in the Zeil. Bohler, Zeil, 54, ornaments of carved 
stag's horn. Ihlee, Zeil 63, small bronze objects (Ariadne). Antonio 
Vanni, Kruggasse 8, depot of casts from antiques and modern sculptures. 
Jos. Milani, Bleidenstrasse 6, Sartorio, grosser Kornmarkt, fruit- 
merchants. Toys at Albert's, Zeil 36. 

Baths. Warm-baths at the Leonhardsthor and at the island, 48 kr. Cold- 
baths at the Untermainthor 12 kr. ; also swimming-bath, 12 — 16 kr a 

Military music at the W. end of the Zeil at 12 o'clock ; on Wednesday 
at the Goetheplatz. The garrison consists of Austrian, Prussian, Bavarian, 
and Frankfurt troops. 

English Church Service performed every Sunday by a resident chaplain 
in the French Church in the Goetheplatz. 

Collections and Exhibitions: 
* Ariadneum (p. 164), or Bethmann's Museum, daily 10—1 o'clock; fee 18— 

24 kr. 
Exhibition of the Art-union (PI. 23), Junghofstr. ; adm. (9—6 o'clock) 30 kr. 
Town-library (p. 162). Mond , Wed. and Frid. from 2—4, Tues. and Thurs, 
from 10—12. 

* Diorama near the Main-Weser- station; adm. 1 fl.. or 36 kr. 

* Kaisersaal, in the Romer (p. 159), open from the beginning of May till the 

end of September, on Mon., Wed. and Frid. from 11 — 1 o'clock. 
Senckenberg natural hist, society (p. 164); the collections open on Wed. 

2 — 4, and Frid. 11—1, gratis: at other times for a fee of 24 kr. 
Stddel picture-gallery (p. 165) daily 11 — 1 gratis, at other times for a fee 

of 30 kr. 

* Zoological garden (p. 166); adm. 30 kr. ; concert on Wed., Sat. and Sund. 



158 Route 39. FRANKFURT. Monuments. 

Those whose time is limited should inspect the Stadel Gallery (p. 165), 
the Kaisersaal (p. 159), the Dom (p. 161), Dannecker's Ariadne (p. 164), the 
monuments of Goethe, Gutenberg and Schiller. 

Frankfurt on the Main (Pop. 82,000; 11,000 Rom. Cath. 
and 4500 Jews) was formerly a free town of the Empire, 
and is now one of the free towns of the German Confede- 
ration, the seat of the Diet, and garrisoned by 4500 troops. 
Old watch-towers at different points in the vicinity indicate 
the extent of the ancient city in which the German emperors 
were formerly elected and crowned. Frankfurt is situated in 
a spacious plain bounded by mountains , on the river Main, 
navigable for ships of a considerable size, and forming a source 
of great commercial advantage to the city, which ranks among 
the handsomest and most opulent in Germany. 

The town is surrounded by the "Anlagen", or public 
grounds, in which are situated many substantial and tastefully 
built residences. An air of wealth and importance pervades 
the entire city, affording a striking indication of the success 
and extent of its commercial relations. 

Frankfurt dates its origin from the time of Charlemagne. In 794 the 
emperor held a convocation of the bishops and dignitaries of the empire in 
the royal residence " Franconofurt" (ford of the Franks). Louis the Pious 
granted to the town certain privileges, and from the time of Louis the German 
it gradually rose to importance. lu 1249 Frederick 11. sanctioned the Easter 
Fair. By the Golden Bull of Charles IV. Frankfurt was destined to be the 
Town of Election of the German Empire , and the majority of the emperors 
were here chosen. After the dissolution of the Empire in 1806, Frankfurt, 
together with Aschaffenburg, Hanau, Fulda and Wetzlar, was made over as 
a Grand-duchy to Carl von Dalberg, Primate of the Rhenish Confederation, 
and formerly Archbishop of Mayence. By the Congress of Vienna it was 
finally recognized as a free city. 

On entering the town the first object which attracts the 
eye is the * Monument of Gutenberg, erected in 1858, a 
large galvano-plastic group with sandstone pedestal, a work 
of great merit, executed by Ed. v. d. Launitz. The central 
figure with the types in the 1. hand represents Gutenberg, that 
on his r. Fust, and on his 1. Sehoffer. On the frieze are 13 
likenesses of celebrated printers, Caxton among others. In 
the four niches underneath are the arms of the four towns 
where the art of printing was first principally practised, 
Mainz, Frankfurt, Venice, and Strasbourg. On four separate 
pedestals are female figures emblematical of Theology, Poetry, 
Natural History, and Industry. The heads of four animals, 
which serve as water-spouts, represent the four quarters of the 
globe and indicate the universal diffusion of the invention. In 
the Junghofstr. in the vicinity is the * Permanent Exhibition 
of Art. 

In the "Allee" bounding the N. side of the town, the 
* Monument of Goethe is a prominent object. The poet in 



Romer. FRANKFURT. 39. Route. 159 

modern costume holds a wreath of laurel in his 1. hand. The 
half- reliefs upon the pedestal are emblematic of Goethe's 
literary activity. In the front (S. side) are represented Natural 
Science, Dramatic and Lyric Poetry; on the E. side Orestes 
and Thoas (Iphigenia), Faust and Mephistopheles; on the N. 
side to the r. Gotz von Berlichingen, Egmont, and Tasso, on 
the 1. the Bride of Corinth, the god and the bayadere, Pro- 
metheus, and the Erl-king with his child ; on the W. side to 
the r. Mignon with Wilhelm Meister, and on the 1. Hermann 
and Dorothea. 

The house in which Goethe was born (PI. 16) is in the 
Hirschgraben , near the Rossmarkt, and has a tablet affixed 
to it with the inscription: Jokann Wolfgang Goethe was born 
in this house on the 28th of August, 1749. The arms over 
the door, three lyres placed obliquely and a star, were chosen 
by Goethe's father on his marriage with the daughter of the 
senator Textor, from their resemblance to a horse-shoe, the 
grandfather of the poet having been a farrier by trade. In 
the attics facing the court the poet lived in 1773 — 75, and 
there his time was occupied with "Gotz" and "Werther"; 
they were also the scene of those boyish exploits and more 
serious adventures which render his biography so interesting. 
The house has been recently purchased by a society ("deutsches 
Hochstift") and is being suitably restored. Entrance free. 

Among edifices possessing an historical interest the 
*K.6mer (PL 28) is entitled to the first mention. It was 
purchased by the city for a Town -hall in 1405. The lower 
part serves as a depot for merchandize during the fairs. 
On the first floor is the * Kaiser saal (Imperial Hall), where 
the newly chosen emperor dined with his electors, and showed 
himself from the balcony to the people assembled on the 
Romerberg (p. 160). It was restored in 1840 and embellished 
with a series of portraits in oil of the emperors. This col 
lection was formed at the expense of princes, societies, and 
private individuals, to replace the miserable old frescoes which 
formerly disfigured the walls. 

From the Kaisersaal the visitor is conducted into the red- 
tapestried Wahlzimmer (election-room), which has been left in 
its original condition, and contains a portrait of Leopold II. 
The senate now holds its meetings here. The allegorical and 
burlesque ornaments which embellish the ceiling, as well as 
the entire internal arrangements of the building, date from 1740. 

One of the chief objects of interest preserved amongst the 
archives in this collection is the celebrated Bull of the Em- 
peror Charles IV., known as the ''Golden Bull", promulgated 
at Niirnberg in 1306. It is considered by the Germans as the 



160 Route 39. FRANKFURT. Rumerberg. 

basis of many of their most highly prized political privileges. 
''Bulla" was the name originally given to the little ornament 
worn as a kind of amulet round the necks of the Roman 
youth, occasionally used as a seal. In course of time the 
word was applied to the documents themselves, to which im- 
pressions of seals in gold, silver, and lead were appended, 
and the imperious edicts issued from the Vatican, which have 
sometimes shaken the world, came to be known as Bulls. 
Golden Bulls are very rare, and those of silver even more so. 
The British Museum possesses a fine series in lead. 

The Romerberg , or market-place in front of the Romer, 
which up to the end of the last century no Jew was permitted 
to enter, was the scene of those public rejoicings which Goethe 
so admirably describes in his Life. 

His masterly pen depicts to the life the glee of the people, when the 
Hereditary Marshal rode up, according to the old custom, to a heap of oats 
and filled a silver-handled measure with the grain for the supply of the im- 
perial stables. The Hereditary Chamberlain next made his appearance with 
a basin, ewer and towel for the use of his imperial master. That part of 
the ceremony performed, Ihe Hereditary High -steward raised the popular 
excitement to a still higher pitch ; the dignitary rode through the crowd to 
the large temporary kitchen erected in the square, and cut a slice from the 
ox which was roasting whole on this festive occasion, and brought it back 
in a silver dish for the use of the imperial table. It was now the turn of 
the Hereditary Cup-bearer to fetch from the fountain some of the wine with 
which it flowed. The imperial table was thus supplied; upon this all eyes 
were anxiously strained to catch a glimpse of the Hereditary Grand-treasurer, 
whose duty was to ride forth and scatter largesse among the people, and 
finally to throw amongst the eager crowd the richly embroidered purses 
which had contained the coins, and which were suspended on each side of 
his saddle in the place of pistol-holsters. The scrambling and jostling which 
now ensued afforded immense amusement to the spectators, but the scene 
did not reach its climax till the Emperor and his nobles retired from the 
balcony, which was the signal for the commencement of the most unbounded 
ebullitions of extravagance on the part of the populace. Finally a rush was 
made upon the kitchen, which was speedily demolished, and a fierce onslaught 
commenced upon the roasting ox. 

Behind the Romer is situated the Church of St. Paul 
(PI. 22), a circular building completed in 1833 in the new 
Romanesque style, which served in 1848-9 as the session- 
house for the "German National Assembly for remodelling the 
Constitution," but was again fitted up as a place of worship 
in 1852. 

Opposite to this church is the BSrse (Exchange) (PI. 3), 
erected in 1844 after the designs of Stiller in the round-arch 
style. The building is of grey sandstone with intermediate 
layers of red. Two statues, "Hope" by Wendelstatt, and 
"Prudence" by Zwerger, adorn the E. side. Those on the W. 
side are emblematical of Commerce by sea and by land, and 
between them are represented Europe, Asia, Africa, America 
and Australia, executed by Launitz and Zwerger. The hall 
of the exchange is in the old Indian style. From eight black 



Dom. FRANKFURT. 39. Route 161 

marble pillars project eight white fan -like Toofs, ornamented 
with painted bas-reliefs, and terminating at the top in large 
gilded rosettes. A considerable portion of the mercantile 
community of Frankfurt assembles here daily from 12 to 2 
o'clock, the most animated time being about 1, when the tu- 
mult of business attains its highest pitch. 

The S. side of the Romerberg is bounded by the Gothic 
Nicolaikirche (PI. 21), a small but elegant structure belonging 
to the 13th cent., restored in 1847. The altar-piece, executed 
by Rethel, represents the Resurrection. 

A few steps southwards from the Romerberg lead the 
traveller to the Saalhof (PI. 29), a gloomy building of 1717, 
situated on the Main, the old chapel of which, lately restored, 
is said to have formed a portion of the ancient palace of the 
Carlovingian kings. The site of the latter, on the river, a 
little below this spot, was in 1200 occupied by a chapel of 
the Virgin, converted in 1219 into the Rom. Cath. church of 
St. Leonhard; the Gothic choir of 1434 was restored in 
1808. On the spire may still be seen the imperial eagle, be- 
stowed by Louis the Bavarian in acknowledgment of ser- 
vices rendered to him in defiance of the papal ban. In the 
chapel on the r. by the choir is an altar-piece representing 
the liberation of St. Leonhard, painted in 1813 by the Bava- 
rian court-painter Stieler, and presented to the church by Carl 
von Dalberg. 

Retracing his steps to the Romerberg, and turning east- 
wards, the traveller soon reaches the (Rom. Cath.) *Dom 
(St. Bartholomaus. PI. 8). It was founded in 1238, the choir 
erected in 1315 — 18, and the tower (260 ft.), which is still 
unfinished, in 1415 — 1512 (admission 6 kr.). The church was 
restored in 1855, and all the sculpture painted and gilt. En- 
trance on the N. side. On the wall to the right are tomb- 
stones of the families of Holzhausen and Sachsenhausen, 
equestrian effigies of the 14th cent. At the high -altar the 
ceremony of the coronation of the emperors was performed 
by the Elector of Mayence. To the r. is the WaMkapelle 
(election-chapel), where the electors held their final deliberation, 
at the entrance to which stands the beautiful monument to 
the German king, Count Giinther von Schwarzbnrg, who died 
at Frankfurt in 1349, where he had taken refuge from his op- 
ponent Charles IV. The 18 coats of arms on the border 
belong to the families who erected the monument. The ori- 
ginal inscription is in old German, and the new one in Latin. 
The wall paintings are of 1427, renovated in 1856. The 
high-altar-piece (by Veit, 1851) represents the coronation of 
the Virgin. The sacristy to the 1. contains a Descent from 
Baedeker's Rhine. \\ 



162 Route 39. FRANKFURT. Bridge. 

the Cross, attributed to Diirer; and a Holy Family, to Rubens. 
In the chapel on the r. by the choir is a Sepulchre with the 
sleeping watchmen underneath, an old sculpture of the 13th 
cent.; next to it is an altar-piece representing St. Bartholomaus, 
and a small painting (by Roose) of the Adoration of the Magi. 
The cathedral is generally open till 12 o'clock, but visitors 
are prohibited from walking about during divine service. If 
the doors are closed, admission may be obtained by ringin<* 
at the N. portal (fee 9 kr.; for a party 24 kr.). 

On a corner house opposite to the E. side of the cathedral 
is an old stone effigy of Luther with an inscription. The 
great reformer is said to have addressed the people from this 
house, when on his journey to Worms (p. 198). 

The churches of St. Catherine (PI. 19), the Liebfrauenkirche 
(PI. 20), and others, contain no objects of interest. 

To the S. E. of the cathedral is the handsome old Bridge 
over the Main, built of red sandstone in the year 1340. The 
railroad under the first arch connects the E. and W. railway- 
stations. In the middle of the bridge a statue of Charlemagne, 
executed in red sandstone by Wendelstatt and Zwerger, was 
erected in 1844. Near it a cock is seen perched on an iron 
pole. According to an old tradition, the architect vowed that 
the first living being which crossed the bridge should be sa- 
crificed to the devil, and a hapless cock became the victim. 
On the restoration of the bridge in 1740 the architect indulged 
his exuberant fancy by placing grotesque stone carvings on 
the W. parapet on the Sachsenhausen side; they represent two 
artillerymen loading a gun, and beyond them the river -god 
Mo en us. 

Beyond the bridge lies Sachsenhausen, a suburb of Frank- 
furt, chiefly inhabited by gardeners and vintners. It was 
founded by Charlemagne, who assigned it as a residence for 
the more unruly of the conquered Saxons , from whom the 
place derives its name. To the 1., on the Main, is seen the 
Deutsch-Ordenshaus (PI. 14), or House of the Teutonic Order 
(erected 1709). It is with the church the property of the Arch- 
duke Maximilian, the Grand-master of the Order, and is now 
employed as a barrack for the Bavarian troops. 

On the r. bank of the Main is a row of large barrack-like 
houses called Zur schonen Aussicht, at the upper end of which 
is situated the Town - library (PI. 2) with the inscription: 
Studiis libertati reddita civitas. The entrance hall contains a 
* marble statue of Goethe in a sitting posture, executed by 
P. Marchesi of Milan in 1838, and presented to the library 
by three citizens of Frankfurt. Prehn's Picture-gallery (Tues. 
and Thurs. 10 — 12) contains 855 small pictures, most of them 



Judengasse. FRANKFURT. 39. Route. 163 

copies. The library itself (72,000 vols.) in «the upper rooms 
contains many literary curiosities, as well as several Egyptian, 
Greek, Roman and German antiquities. 

Behind the library is situated the Fremden Hospital (PI. 15), 
or Strangers' Hospital, destined for the reception of servants 
and journeymen; near it is the old Jewish Burial-place and 
Jews' Hospital, founded by the Rothschild family in 1830, at 
the entrance to the dark and narrow Judengasse (Jews' 
street) with its gloomy, dirty and antiquated houses, its nu- 
merous passages and brokers' shops. 

As early as the 12th cent, many Jews settled in Frankfurt, 
but on account of the tyrannical treatment to which they were 
subjected they founded the above mentioned street in 1462, 
where till 1806 the whole community lived. In the evening, 
and on Sundays and holidays, this street was closed with 
gates and bars, and no Jew ventured into any part of the 
town under a heavy penalty. In spite of this tyrannical and 
oppressive treatment, many of the denizens of these unwhole- 
some purlieus flourished, and among them the now enormously 
opulent family of Rothschild. Their offices are now in a 
corner house between the Zeil and the Judengasse, not far 
from the beautiful new Synagogue (PI. 33), built in the oriental 
style in 1855. 

In a N. W. direction from the new synagogue is situated 
the *Zeil, the finest street in Frankfurt, consisting almost ex- 
clusively of handsome shops and warehouses, and bounded at 
the W. end by the Hauptwache (chief guard-house), and at 
the E. by the Police-station. 

To the rear of the Hauptwache, in the Schiller (formerly 
Parade) Platz, stands Schiller's Monument, erected in 1864. 

Opposite to the Police-station, to the N. W., is the Schafer- 
gasse, in which the Old Churchyard is situated, where, to the 
r. on entering, the tombstone of Goethe's mother may be 
seen, as well as many others of eminent persons. 

In front of the Friedberger Thor stands the Hessian 
Monument, erected by Frederick William II. of Prussia "to 
the memory of the brave Hessians who fell victorious on this 
spot, December 2nd, 1792, fighting for their fatherland." It 
consists of masses of rock heaped together, on which a pillar 
stands, surmounted by a helmet, sword, and a ram's head, the 
latter being emblematical of the attack made by the Hessians 
on Frankfurt, at that time occupied by the French under 
Custine. On the sides are brazen tablets recording the names 
of the fallen, and a Latin inscription announcing that the 
monument was erected by Fred. William , King of Prussia, 
"the admiring witness of their bravery." 

11* 



164 Route 39. FRANKFURT. Cemetery. 

On the opposite side of the road is situated the *Ariad- 
neura, or Bethmann's Museum (PI. 1; admission see p. 157), a 
circular building lighted from the top, containing amongst 
various objects of art Dannecker's exquisite group of * Ariadne 
on the panther, the artist's master-piece, and deservedly the 
pride and boast of Frankfurt. The casts in the museum of 
Achilles, Silenus with the young Bacchus, Germanicus, the 
Gladiator, Laocoon, Apollo Belvedere, Venus de Medici, and 
Diana of Versailles, are all taken from the original antiques. 
Here are also preserved casts of the features of the Emperor 
Nicholas and the Prince Lichnowsky, who was brutally mur- 
dered near this spot during the revolution of 1848. 

The road to the 1. of the Hessian monument leads to the 
new * Cemetery, about % M. distant, where the remains of 
many celebrities of modern times are interred. It contains 
numerous well executed monuments and tombstones, among 
which may be mentioned the vault of the von Betkmann family 
(E. side farthest to the 1.), which contains an admirable bas- 
relief by Thorwaldsen, executed at an expense of 34,000 fl , 
to the memory of a member of the family, who died in con- 
sequence of his exertions in rescuing a boy from drowning 
in the Arno at Florence. The vault being closed, visitors 
must apply to the sexton , who lives at the gate (fee 30 kr.). 
Near it is a monument to another member of the same family, 
a well executed marble relief representing the angel announcing 
the resurrection to the women. 

On the N. side of the cemetery a new burial-ground was 
laid out in 1845, near the middle of which stands a monu- 
ment "to those who fell on Sept. 18th, 1848." Among the 
names recorded on its white marble tablets is that of the 
murdered Prince Lichnowsky. At the W. end of the en- 
closure are interred about 30 of those who fell at the barri- 
cades on the same occasion ; their graves are marked by 
crosses and inscriptions. Near the latter is a large Temple, 
erected by the Elector William II. (d. 1847) to his consort, 
the Countess Reichenbach. The S. E. side of the cemetery 
is bounded by the burying -ground of the Jewish community 
(open on Tues. and Thurs. afternoons). 

If the traveller now retrace his steps, enter the public 
walks (p. 158), which occupy the place of the old fortifications, 
and turn to the r., he will reach the Eschenheimer Thor, the 
only gate which has preserved intact its ancient exterior. In 
the immediate vicinity are the buildings of the Senckenberg 
Society (PI. 30; adm. see p. 157), which comprise a hospital, 
anatomical theatre, botanical garden, and contain a considerable 
collection of natural curiosities, the most valuable of which 



Stddel Gallery. FRANKFURT. 39. Route. 165 

are those brought by the traveller Riippel from Egypt, Nubia, 
Abyssinia, and the Red Sea. 

The large house adjoining the above-mentioned buildings 
was the residence of the Archduke John in 1848-9, in his 
capacity of Regent of the Empire, and is now the property 
of the Biirgeroerein (citizen's club) (PL 4), to which strangers 
may be introduced by a member. The entrance hall contains 
a good copy of a celebrated portrait of Goethe by Tischbein. 
The Palace of the Prince of Thurn and Taxis (PI. 36) in the 
same street, where the -Diet now holds its sessions, may be 
recognized by the sentinels posted at the gates. 

One of the handsomest buildings in the town is the new 
Saalbau, erected by the "Deutsches Hochstift" and containing 
spacious concert and assembly rooms. — The new Lunatic 
Asylum, on the Eschenheimer road, merits the inspection of pro- 
fessional men. 

The institution to which Frankfurt is perhaps most in- 
debted for its reputation as a cradle of the fine arts is the 
*Stadel Art -institute (PI. 31; adm. see p. 157) in the 
Mainzer Strasse, near the railway stations. It was founded 
by a citizen of Frankfurt, Joh. Fred. Stddel (d. 1816), who 
bequeathed his collection of pictures and engravings, his 
houses and a sum of 1,200,000 florins (100,000/.) to the 
town, for the purpose of founding a School of Art. The 
latter is frequented by about 200 students, and was formerly 
under the management of Veit, now under that of Pas- 
savant and Steinle. The collection consists of pictures, 30,000 
engravings, and drawings by eminent masters, as well as many 
excellent casts, and is valued at 480,000 fl. (40,000/.). The 
gallery is adorned with many valuable productions of the old 
masters, especially those acquired since the death of the 
founder, but the institution is more particularly celebrated 
for its collection of works by modern artists, which is second 
to none in the Rhenish cities. 

**St8del Gallery (adm. see p. 157). Catalogues for the use of the public 
in all the rooms. Entrance hall: Coloured engravings from Raphael's 
paintings in the Vatican at Rome ; sketch by Cornelius of the Last Judgment, 
the original of the fresco in the Ludwigskirche at Munich. 

1st Room, beginning on the r., Italian School: (N.) 29. Mars and Venus, 
by Paolo Veronese. (W.) 22. Portrait, by Sebastiano del Piombo ; 25. *Four 
priests at the throne of the Virgin , by Moretto , purchased in 1847 for 
35,000 fl. (S.) 36. Mary and Child adored by the infant John, by Perugino. 
(E.) 24. Mary and Child, St. Sebastian, and St. Anthony, by Moretto; *28. 
Portrait of the Doge M. Antonio Memmo by Tintoretto. (N.) 42. Mary with 
John the Baptist and St. Sebastian, by Innocenzio da Imola. 

2nd Room contains chiefly pictures by modern artists; the following 
are the most remarkable: (N.) 33'2. Ezzelin in prison after the battle of Cas- 
sano in 1259 exhorted to repentance by monks, by Leasing; 332. Alpine scene, 
by Funk; 326. The Tiburtinian Sibyl, by Steinle; 336, Daniel in the lions' 
den, by Retliel; 341. Lake scene, by Pose. (E.) 334. Landscape scene, house 



166 Route 39. FRANKFURT. 

in flames, by Leasing; "331. Huss before the Council of Constance, in the 
background Count Chlum, the friend of the reformer, a large picture occu- 
pying almost the entire E. wall, by Leasing; 333. Wood landscape, by Lea- 
sing ; 349. Sheepfold, by Verboeckhoven ; 339. Storm at sea on the Norwegian 
coast, by Achenbach. (N.) 347 (above the door). Norwegian mountain scene, 
by Saal. 

3rd Room. * Oeerbeck's celebrated picture of the Triumph of religion 
in the arts occupies the entire E. wall. Being a most elaborate work, and 
replete with portraits of eminent persons it must be studied with the aid of 
the catalogue. (N.) 67. Scenes from the life of John the Baptist, by a pupil 
of Roger of Bruges. (W.) 102. Father with sick child, by Holbein the 
Younger. (8.) 106. Biirer's portrait of his father; 106. Portrait, by Durer. 

Fresco Room: (N.) 357. The arts introduced into Germany by Chris- 
tianity, by Veit. Casts of the bronze doors of the Baptistery at Florence 
(which Mich. Angelo said deserved to be the gates of Paradise). 

4th. Room contains principally Dutch pictures of no great value. (E.) 
122. Child sitting on a stool, by Rubens. (N.) 146. Portrait, by Rembrandt. 
(S.) 124. Portrait, by Van Dyck. (W.) 145. Portrait, by Rembrandt. — The 
1st room in the wing of the building contains smaller pictures by older 
Frankfurt artists, and some Dutch pictures. 2nd Room: 330. The wise and 
foolish virgins, by Schadow; 335. Job and his friends, by Hubner; drawings 
of Steinle's "Sermon on the mount" in the chapel of Rheineck (R. 18); 
scenes from Dante, Ariosto, &c. by Schnorr. 

The * Zoological Garden (adm. see p. 157) is situated 
on the Bockenheimer road, about y 4 M. from the gate. The 
grounds are tastefully laid out, and contain a valuable col- 
lection of animals, birds, &c. 

40. From Frankfurt to Mayence and 
Wiesbaden. 

Taunus Railway. Excursion to the Taunus. 

By Railway to Castel (Mayencel in 1 hr. ; to Wiesbaden in l 1 /, hr., 
Fares to Mayence 1 fl. 48, 1 fl. 9, 42 kr.; to Wiesbaden 2 fl. 15, 1 fl. 24, 
and 51 kr. Views on the r. Omnibus <fcc. see p. 32. 

Since the completion (1862) of the railway-bridge at Ma- 
yence, the most direct route (in 1 hr. ; fares 1 fl. 54, 1 fl. 
12, 45 kr.) to Mayence is by the Hessian-Ludwig railway, via 
Niederrad, the Forsthaus, with wood-walks, a favorite resort 
of the Frankfurters, Schwanheim, Keltersbach, Raunheim, Russels- 
heim and Bischoffsheim ; before entering the last of these sta- 
tions the line unites with the Mayence- Darmstadt railway; 
comp. p. 172. 

The Taunus railway is one of the oldest in Germany, 
having been opened in 1838. Immediately on leaving the 
town the train passes the Gallenwarte, one of the towers 
which mark the territory of Frankfurt. Beyond Bockenheim 
the Nidda, often mentioned in the history of the French re- 
volutionary war, is crossed, and the busy little Nassovian 
town of HSchst is reached. The church of St. Justinus at 
the latter place is interesting in an architectural point of 
view. It was built in 1090 in the form of a piazza, the Go- 



HATTERSHEIM. 40. Route. 167 

thic choir added in 1443. By a branch railway from Hochst 
to Soden (p. 169) in 12 min.; fares: 30, 18, 12 kr. 

Stat. Hattersheim. As the train proceeds, a good view 
on the N. side is obtained of the principal peaks of the Tau- 
nus, the Altkonig, behind it to the r. the Great Feldberg, and 
to the 1. the Little Feldbery (p. 169). The Hofheimer Chapel, 
much visited by pilgrims, is also a conspicuous object in the 
landscape. 

Near Florsheim, to the r., are situated the handsome 
buildings of the watering-place of Weilbach (sulphur-springs). 
A pleasing view may be obtained by ascending the "Kanzel" 
(pulpit), a hill surmounted by four trees, % M. above Dieden- 
bergen, and 3 M. to the N. of Weilbach. To the N. are seen 
the peaks of the Taunus, to the S. the Melibocus, to the 
S.W. the Donnersberg, a part of the Rheingau, and then the 
towns of Frankfurt, Worms, Oppenheim, andMayence; to the 
N. W. are Johannisberg and the towers of Geisenheim. 

The line now traverses the foot of the long range of vine- 
clad hills of Hochheim (Schwari), where, in the best vine- 
yards, each plant is not unfrequently valued at a ducat (9s. 6d.). 
The most potent wine is yielded by the vineyards surrounding 
the old Domdechanei (deanery), now a shooting-box of the 
Duke of Nassau. At the point where the vineyards of Hoch- 
heim begin, stands (close to the line on the r.) a monument 
in the English-Gothic style, bearing the inscription "Konigin- 
Victoria-Berg" (Victoria-Vineyard) in gold letters, and the 
English arms in silver, erected by the owner, a speculative 
wine merchant of Mayence, to attract the attention of English 
travellers. 

On entering Castel (p. 145)_ the line intersects the fortifi- 
cations. Station near the Rhine bridge. Omnibus to Mayence, 
without luggage, 18 kr.; carriage for 1 person 30, for 2 pers.- 
36, for 3 pers. 42, and for 4 pers. 50 kr.; each box 6 kr. ; 
all these fares include bridge-toll. A steam ferry-boat plies 
between Castel and Mayence (fares: 4 and *2 kr.), on the ar- 
rival of each train. (Tickets for the Taunus line can be pro- 
cured at the Mayence booking-office). Porterage from railway- 
station to steamboat: each box 6 kr. , travelling-bag 3 kr. ; 
from station to carriage 3 kr. for each package, no charge 
made if the vehicle belong to Castel ; from Castel to Mayence, 
for each box 10 kr., travelling-bag 6 kr. , several smaller 
packages together 10 kr. ; bridge-toll (2 kr.) is extra. 

The train again intersects the fortifications of Castel, and 
leaving Fort Montebello on the 1., stops near Biebrich (see 
p. 137), and a few minutes later at Wiesbaden (see R. 37). 



168 Route 40. KCENIGSTEIN. From Frank/art 

The station (adjoining that of the so-called Right-Rhenish line, 
in contradistinction to the older Rhenish, now Left-Rhenish 
railway) is at the extremity of the Wilhelmsstrasse , which 
consists of new and spacious residences on the 1. and an 
avenue on the r., and terminates in the square in front of the 
Cursaal. 

Excursion to the Taunus. 

A pedestrian may in two days visit the finest points of this fertile 
district. Leaving the train at Hattersheii/i, he should first visit Jlofheim 
(2'/ 4 M.), inspect the chapel ('/, hr.), and then proceed to Eppstein (5'/ 4 M.) 
and its castle; next to Konigstein (5 M.); in the evening to the castle and 
the Falkensteiu (or with guide from Eppstein to the Rosserl and Konigstein, 
7 M.). — Early next morning the traveller should walk to the summit of the 
Great Feldberg (5 M.) by the smaller mountain of the same name; then to 
the Altkonig (3 M.), and back to Konigstein (3 1 /, M.); dine, and in the after- 
noon walk to Sodeu, about 3 M. distant, and there take the train to Frank- 
furt (Vj hr.). — A third day may be well employed in walking from 
8oden to Cronthal, Cronberg, Ober- Ursel, Homburg, a distance of about 
10 M. ; thence to Bonames, and by rail to Frankfurt. Even iu half a day 
a glimpse of this mountainous district may be obtained by starting from 
Frankfurt immediately after an early dinner, and proceeding by rail to Soden 
('/ 2 hr.), visit the grounds and. bath-establishment, ascend the Cronberg (1 hr.), 
take coffee at the Schutzeuhof under the chesnut trees, visit the * castle, and, 
leaving the latter on the N. side, proceed to Falkenstein (2 M.), the keys of 
which are kept in the village at the foot of the hill; walk to Konigstein 
(% M.); thence on foot or by omnibus to Soden, and by train to Frankfurt 
in '/ 2 hr. 

The road from stat. Hattersheim (*Nassauer Hof) on the 
Taunus line to Hofheim is destitute of shade, but the view 
from the Chapel (p. 167) well repays the ascent. 

The road through the Lorsbacher Valley to Eppstein passes 
through luxuriant meadows, carpeted with flowers, enclosed 
by shady slopes, and watered by the rapid Schwarzbach. At 
the extremity of the valley, above the old village of Eppstein, 
the castle of the same name is seen situated on a precipitous 
rock. It was in ancient times the seat of a powerful family, 
which numbered among its members five archbishops and 
electors of Mayence between the years 1059 — 1284. The 
Protestant church contains several monuments of the family, 
which became extinct in 1535. The castle is now in private 
hands, and the grounds connected with it are tastefully laid 
out. Near Eppstein is the inn Zur Oelmuhle, charges as in 
Frankfurt. 

The 'Eossert (1563 ft.) may be ascended best from the Eppstein side, and 
affords a fine prospect of the valleys of the Rhine and Main. 

The road from Eppstein to Konigstein leads through a 
picturesque mountain ravine to Fisehbach (iy 2 M.) after which 
it crosses a high table-land as far as Schneidhain (2 M.), and 
then ascends to Koenigstein (*L6we), 1% M. farther. Above 
the village are the ruins of the fortress of the same name 
(1321 ft.;, demolished by the French in 1596. From 1581 it 



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— 1 Fnalixh miles 



to Mayence. GREAT FELDBERG. 40. Route. 16!) 

belonged to the electors of Mayence , whose arms may still 
be seen above the entrance. After the re-capture of Mayence 
in 1753 (R. 31), the castle was employed as a state-prison. 
The platform affords a similar *view to that from the Fal- 
kenstein (see below). The Duke of Nassau possesses a hand- 
some villa in the vicinity. Hydropathic estab. Omnibus to 
Soden see p. 168; diligence to Hochst 3 times daily. 

About 1 Y 2 M. to the E. , the ruined castle of Falkenstein 
(1532 ft.) crowns the summit of a well wooded hill, and com- 
mands a fine view. It was the family possession of the power- 
ful archbishop Kuno of Treves (R. 40), and was built at the 
commencement of the 13th cent. 

Guide to the Feldberg 40 kr. ; donkey with guide 1 n. 12 kr., 
or, including the castle of Falkenstein, 1 fl. 24 kr. (The ser- 
vices of a guide may however be easily dispensed with). 
About 1 y 2 M. from Konigstein the pedestrian must leave the 
Frankfurt and Limburg road, and turn to the r., cross the 
Little Feldberg (2547 ft.), about 1 hour's walk, and in % hr. 
more the * Great Feldberg (2708 ft.) is reached. It is the 
highest peak of the Taunus; the summit consists of quartzose 
rock, and the slopes of tale and clay-slate. In fine weather 
the view from the top is very extensive; it comprehends the 
Rhine and the Main to the E. as far as the Inselsberg, the 
Rhongebirge, and Spessart; to the S. Melibocus, Konigsstuhl, 
Mercurius near Baden, and the Vosges; to the W. the Don- 
nersberg, Hunnsriick, and the mountains of the Moselle; to 
the N. the Seven Mountains and those of Westphalia. Re- 
freshments and if need be, a night's lodging may be procured 
at the "Feldberghaus." The block of quartz which crowns 
the summit is mentioned in an old document as early as 8i2, 
under the name of Brunhildenstem. A triangular stone placed 
here indicates the frontiers of Nassau, Frankfurt, and Hessen- 
Homburg. On the declivity the ruin of Ober-Reiffenberg is 
situated. (From the Feldberg to Homburg with guide in 3 hrs.j 

The AltkSnig (2428 ft.) is 1% hour's walk to the N. of 
the Great Feldberg. The ascent is somewhat fatiguing, but 
possesses considerable interest for the antiquarian. The sum- 
mit is surrounded by a gigantic double wall, constructed of 
loose stones, erroneously ascribed to the Romans, but more 
probably erected by the ancient inhabitants of the country as 
a place of refuge in time of war. The higher of the walls 
is in a good state of preservation. 

A good road descends S. from Konigstein to Soden (* Hotel 
Franz near the Curhaus; * Europ. Hof, hotel and bath-estab.; 
Frankfurter Hof, a quiet house; Holland. Hof; Hotel garni zum 
Stolzenfels), 3 3 / 4 M. distant. It is a flourishing little watering- 



170 Route 40. CRONBERG. 

place (3000 patients annually) with handsome Gurhaus and 
tastefully - arranged gardens and grounds. The villas in the 
environs, most of them in the Swiss style, belong to citizens 
of Frankfurt. Omnibus between Konigstein and Soden in the 
morning only; diligence between Soden and Konigstein 3 
times daily in 35 min., fare 18 kr.; between Hochst and 
Konigstein 3 times daily, fare 35 kr. Railway between Soden 
and Hochst see p. 168. 

About 2 M. to the E. of Konigstein is situated the Cron- 
berg (* Schutzenkof), celebrated for the productiveness of its 
orchards. The castle above the town, a ruin of considerable 
extent, commands a magnificent *view of the surrounding 
mountains and plain ; it well repays the ascent to the summit 
of the tower, which is accomplished by 132 wooden steps 
(the adventurous scrambler may reach the highest point of the 
belfry by means of a ladder). Konigsberg, or Cronberg, being 
both situated in the heart of the Taunus, are the best head- 
quarters for pedestrians who desire to become better acquainted 
with this beautiful mountain district. Omnibus 3 times 
daily to Weisskirchen , stat. on the Homburg railway. The 
mineral baths of Cronthal (1 1 / i M. to the S.), now little fre- 
quented, are delightfully situated in the midst of a chesnut 
grove, and are noted for the salubrity of the air. Rooms 5 fl. 
and upwards per week; table d'hote 42 kr. 

About 10 M. to the E. of Konigstein or Soden lies Hom- 
burg (Four Seasons, Russian, English, Imperial, and Hessian 
Hotels), the capital of the Landgrafschaft of Hessen-Homburg, 
and of late years a much frequented watering-place (average 
annual number of visitors 8000). It is situated on one of the 
hills at the foot of the Great Feldberg, and is, independently 
of the baths, a place of no importance. The activity of the 
place is almost entirely centred in the * Curhaus and avenues 
which lead to the chalybeate springs, 3 / 4 M. distant. 

The palace of the Landgrave of Hessen-Homburg is situated 
here, but, with the exception of some family portraits and a 
small collection of Roman relics found at the Saalburg, con- 
tains nothing worthy of note. 

For the antiquarian , the Saalburg is an object of cousiderable interest. 
Jt is the remnant of an old Roman fort, situated on a wooded ridge of the 
Taunus (1304 ft.), about 5 M. to the N. of Homburg, a few hundred yds. to 
the 1. of the road to Usingen. It belonged to the extensive line of fortifi- 
cations, known under the name of* Limes imp. Rom., which protected the 
Roman possessions from the incursions of the Germans, and was undoubtedly 
built by Germanicus to replace that erected by Drusns, destroyed a.d. 9, after 
the defeat of Varus (posito castello super vestigia paterni praesidii in 
vwnte Tauno expeditum exercitum in Cattos rapit. Taciti Annal. I. 30). 
Ptolemy mentions it as Arctaunon. It consists of a square, 705 ft. by 465 ft., 
with rounded corners, and surrounded by two deep fosses. In the centre 
•tands the Prcetorium, 153 ft. by 132 ft., with foundations of sandstone; 



DARMSTADT. 41. Route. 171 

here are also two large blocks of sandstone forming the pedestal of a large 
bronze statue, traces of which were found among the ruins some years ago. 

By railway from Homburg to Frankfurt in % hr. ; fares 

1 fl., 36 kr., 21 kr. 

41. From Frankfurt to Heidelberg. 

Main-Neckar line. Station to the 8. of the Taunus station (p. 157). 
To Darmstadt in '/ 4 hr.. to Heidelberg in 2 hrs. more. Fares to Darmstadt 
1 fl. 6, 42, and 30 kr. ; to Heidelberg 3 fl. 33, 2 fl. 21, and 1 fl. 33 kr. ; to 
Mannheim in the same time and at the same fares as to Heidelberg. Exp. 
trains dearer. Omnibus &c. see p. 32. The seats on the E. (left) side of 
the train should be selected for the sake of the view. 

As soon as the train has crossed the Main bridge, it di- 
verges to the 1. on the Offenbach branch, and passes (1.) the 
castle-like farm-house of Herr von Bethmann. The country 
between Frankfurt and Darmstadt presents few features of 
interest. 

Darmstadt (* Traube, R. and A. 1 fl. 6, B. 36 kr.; Darm- 
stadter Hof; Hotel Kbhler , the nearest to the station; * Alte 
Post, opp. to the Palace; * Stengel's Cafe, opp. to the stat.), 
the capital and residence of the court of the Grand-duchy of 
Hessen, with a pop. of 32,000 (2500 Rom. Cath.), was up to 
the close of the 18th cent, the capital of the Grafschaft 
of Katzenelnbogen , and a place of no importance. The 
Grand-duke Ludwig I. (d. 1830) erected the new part of 
the town with its broad streets and handsome houses, and to 
him alone Darmstadt is indebted for its present prosperity. 
In 1844 the Ludwiysdznkmal was erected by his "grateful 
people" to the memory of this prince. The summit of the 
column (fee 18 kr.) commands a good view of the town and 
its environs, but the surrounding country is flat and unin- 
teresting. 

The Schloss, the greater part of which was erected about 
the middle of the last century, is situated at the extremity of 
the Rheinstrasse, which leads from the station into the town. 
It contains a valuable Library of 200,000 vols, as well as 
some MSS. and typographical curiosities (open to the public 
9 — 12 a. m. and 2—4 p. m.). The collections of pictures, 
relics , costumes , coins , &c. are open on Tues., Thurs., and 
Sund. 10 — 12; admission at other times may be procured for 
& fee of 1 fl. 

The 'Picture-gallery, in the upper story of the palace, contains about 
700 paintings, many of them of considerable value. 1st Room. 79 The 
Castle of Heidelberg, by Schirmer ; 666. Sunset, by Leasing.— 2nd Room. 
(W.) unnumbered: Landscape, bv Cltr. Morgemtern; The treachery of Judas, 
by C. H. Hoffmann. — 3rd Room. Old German School: 136. The dying 
Mary, by Schoreel. (N.) 201. Portrait, by Holbein. (E.) 672. Madonna, by 
Mending. — 4th Room. Dutch pictures: 678. Portrait of the painter Erasmus 
■Quellyu, by Van D'jck; 419. Christ scourged, by Rembrandt. (W.) 284. 



172 Route 41. ZWINGENBERG. From Frankfurt 

Nymphs of Diana returning from the chase, by Rembrandt; the nymph with 
the red robe is a portrait of the painter's first, and the nymph with the 
hares of his second wife; 686. Portrait, by Van Dyck. — bth Room. 691, 
C92. Portraits by Van Dyck; 366. Portrait, by Rembrandt of his second 
wife. — 6th Room. (N.) 420. Portrait, by Van der Heist; 271. Woman 
combing a boy's hair, by Rembrandt; 415. Madonna, by Van Dyck. — 7th 
Room. French pictures of no great value. — 8th Room. (N.) S58. Sleeping 
Venus, by Titian. — 9th Room. 594. Carthusian monk, by Titian; 572. St. 
Michael, by Raphael; 573. Peter's denial, by Domenichino; 580. Portrait by 
Titian. (E.) 592. St. Franciscus, by Guercino ; 628. Sketches of the "Mar- 
riage at Cana" in the Louvre, by Paolo Veronese. (N.) St. John, by Ra- 
phael. — The adjoining room contains a cabinet of natural history, with a 
valuable collection of fossils and skeletons of antediluvian animals , among 
others that of a mastodon, found at Eppelsheim, in Rhenish Hessen. 

In the middle story; 1st Room. Roman antiquities. * Mosaic pave- 
ment of a Roman bath, dug up at Vilbel in 1849. — 2nd Room. Carved ivory 
and alabaster ornaments, coins, &c. — 3rd Room. Armour and weapons. — 
4th Room. Model of the Schloss. ancient costumes, Ac. — 5th Room. Drawings 
and engravings. 

"It is not saying too much to assert that masterpieces of art, and curi- 
osities of all countries and all ages are here to be met with." Goethe, 1814. 

To the N. of the Palace is the Herrenyarten, consisting of 
public grounds and walks. To the r. on entering it is the 
Theatre, and to the 1. the Exercierhaus, now a military maga- 
zine. Between these two buildings are erected statues of the 
Landgrave Philip the Generous (d. 1567) and his son George I. 
(d. 1590), the founder of the Grand-ducal family. In the 
Herrenyarten to the r. is a mound railed in and surrounded 
by shrubs, under which rest the remains of the Landgravine 
Henrietta Carolina (d. 1774), mother of the queen of Fred. 
William II. of Prussia; the unpretending urn erected on the 
spot by Frederick the Great bears the inscription: "Femina 
sexu, ingenio vir." 

To the E. of Darmstadt are beautiful and extensive woods and planta- 
tions. Picturesque walks (N. E.) to the shooting-box and park of Kranich- 
stein (3 M.); (S. E.) to the Ludwigseiche , or Ludwig's oak (4'/ s M.), which 
commands an extensive view of the Odenwald, Spessart, Vogelsberg, Taunus. 
and Melibocus; (S.) to the Ludwigshohe and Marienhohe (2 M.), and to 
* Frankenstein (7% M.) 

From Darmstadt to M aye nee direct by rail, in 1 hr. Fares 1 fl. 42 kr., 
1 fl., and 39 kr. Country flat and uninteresting. The Rhine is crossed above 
the influx of the Main by the handsome new bridge, completed in 1862. 

On the mountains to the 1. of the station Eberstadt stands 
the stately ruin of Frankenstein, and beyond Bickenbavh (p. 175), 
the zinc-covered tower of the Alsbacher Schloss. 

At the station of Zwingenberg (* Lowe, R. 36, B. 18 kr.) 

commences the picturesque Bergstrasse, leading to Heidelberg. 

The * Bergstrasse runs through orchards and pleasant villages along a 
range of hills, partly wooded and partly covered with vineyards, on which 
here and there are situated ruined castles. To the W. between the road 
and the Rhine, a distance of 10 — 12 M., is extended a wide and fertile plain. 
Though wanting in water, this district is one of the most beautiful in Ger- 
many, but the traveller will scarcely be able to appreciate it from the win- 
dows of a railway-carriage. The name of "Bergstrasse'' is given to the W. 
slopes of the Odenwald, and is not confined to the road (Strasse). One of 
the highest points is the 'Melibocus, or Malchen (1630 ft.) The ascent from 



to Heidelberg. AUERBACH. 41. Route. 173 

Zwingenberg is easy (1 hr.), and should be undertaken. Guide (unnecessary) 
24 kr., or for the whole day 1 fl. The excursion may also be made by car- 
riage (4 fl.); if the traveller desire, he may then drive on to the Felsberg 
(p. 175), and back by Reichenbach (p. 176) to Zwingenberg (6 fl.)- — P p - 
destrians may easily make the ascent without a guide by attending to the 
following directions: The road leads E. from the Lowe at Zwingenberg and 
ascends the hill, then to the r., following the water-conduit for about 3 min ; 
a good path then leads over the Luzieberg; in 25 min. more the carriage- 
road, furnished with direction-posts, is regained. Where the high wood ter- 
minates, a path leads to the 1., by a young beech-wood, to the tower (80 ft.) 
on the summit, erected in 1777 by Ludwig IX., Landgrave of Hesscn. 

The Melibocus consists entirely of granite. The view embraces the valley 
of the Rhine from Speyer to Mayence, the Vosges, and the Donnersberg; the 
Main as far as the Taunus and, Vogelsberg. A little to the W. of, and some 
20 ft. lower than the tower is the best point of view, which commands a 
prospect of the entire plain from Mannheim to Darmstadt. The keys of tower 
must be procured at the forester's (Heyl) at Zwingenberg; in fine weather he 
is generally on the spot (fee for 1 pers. 9 kr.. for a party 30 kr.). — From 
the Melibocus to the Auerbacher Schloss direct in 3 / 4 hr. 

The next station is Auerbach (* Krone, R. 48 kr., weekly 
3 — 4 fl., B. 20, D. 48 kr., a pleasant resting-place; Nack's 
restaurant at the mill in the middle of the village, and at the 
"Schloss'' in favourable weather; refreshments at the Fiirsten- 
lager), a picturesque village with a small castle and park in 
the vicinity, the property of the Grand-duke. This place 
is a favorite summer resort of families from the neighbouring 
towns, and even from the N. of Germany; good head-quarters 
for pedestrians who wish to explore the Bergstrasse and the 
W. part of the Odenwald (p. 175). 

The * Auerbacher Sehloss (2 M. from the Melibocus, same 
distance from Auerbach) is situated on an eminence (1024 ft.), 
and is said to have been founded by Charlemagne. It was 
afterwards the property of the monastery of Lorsch (see p. 174), 
and then of the Electorate of Mayence. In 1674 it was taken 
and blown up by Turenne, but the two towers stood till 1806, 
when one of them fell, and was rebuilt in 1852. In the 
castle-yard a number of old Hessian warriors held a festival 
in 1840 to commemorate the campaigns in which they had served 
together from 1792 to 1815, principally under their leader Prince 
Emil; this event is recorded by a stone tablet on the wall. 
The view is less extensive but more picturesque than that from 
the Melibocus. The custodian (usually on the spot) opens the 
tower-gate (fee 9 — 30 kr.). 

A broad road leads through a beech-wood from the castle to the Hoch- 
stddter Valley, by a mineral sprint: and ja mill, to the Neun Aussichten 
(9 views), the Champignon, and the Furstenlager (3%M.); thence to Schon- 
berg (1% M.), from which a delightful view may obtained from the castle- 
garden and church. From Schonberg through the valley of the same name 
to Bensheim (l'/ 2 M.) 

Bensheim (Sonne; Post), a busy little town in a picturesque 
situation, besieged in vain during eleven days in 1504 by the 
Landgrave of Hessen and the Dukes of Brunswick and Meck- 
lenburg, as an inscription on the gate-way records. 



174 Route 41. HEPPENHEIM. 

To the r. in the plain, on the Weschnitz, 3 M. distant, lies the 
market-town of Lorsch, with the ruins of a Monastery, founded by Charle- 
magne, to which in 78b he banished Tassilo, duke of Bavaria, who had 
been condemned to death as a traitor. The Church was erected about the 
year 1090. 

Near Heppenheim {*Halber Mond) on the I., S. of the 
road, is situated the Landberg, a hill surmounted by three 
trees, where the Counts of Starkenburg used to hold their 
tribunals. The church of Heppenheim was founded by Charle- 
magne, according to an inscription bearing the date of 805. 

The Starkenburg (l'/ 2 M. from Heppenheim), erected in 1064 by au 
abbot of Lorsch, captured by the Swedes and Spaniards in the 30 years' 
war, and besieged in vain by Turenne in 1645 and 1674, has only lately been 
quite abandoned. It gives the name to a province of Hessen. Fine view 
from the tower. 

Immediately after passing Heppenheim the train enters the 
dominions of Baden. At Hemsbach, the following station, is a 
country seat of a member of the Rothschild family. 

Before entering Weinheim (Pfalzer Hof, R. 48, B. 24 kr., 
Y 4 M. from the station; Carlsberg, in the market-place) the 
train crosses the Weschnitz. Weinheim with its handsome new 
church, is the most considerable and beautifully situated town 
on the Bergstrasse. Its towers and fosses, and the old build- 
ings, which once belonged to the Templar and Teutonic knights, 
bear testimony to its former importance. Hubberger, the best 
wine of the Bergstrasse, is produced near Weinheim. 

To the E. stands the old castle of Windeck, the property of the monas- 
tery of Lorsch in the 12th cent., afterwards of the Palatinate, commanding 
a remarkably beautiful view. Delightful walks through the valleys of Gorx- 
heim and Birkenau. At the entrance to the former village is erected a stone, 
in memory of the peasants of the district who were driven out of their val- 
leys and cruelly massacred by the French in 1799. 

At Gross-Sachsen, said to have been founded by Charle- 
magne, the line leaves the Bergstrasse, and turns S. E. to 
Ladenburg- (Adler), the Lupodunum of the Romans, the walls 
and towers of which, as well as its fine old Gothic church, 
give it an air of importance. The stone bridge which here 
crosses the Neckar was the scene of several skirmishes during 
the revolution of 1849; some of the cannon balls are still to 
be seen in the walls of the station-buildings. 

At stat. Friedrichsfeld (omnibus to Schwetzingen, see p. 29) 
the Mannheim train diverges to the r., while the Heidelberg 
line runs parallel to the Mannheim and Heidelberg Railway. 

Between Weinheim and Heidelberg the peculiar beauty of 
the Bergstrasse is seen to the best advantage , and this stage 
(12 M.) should, if possible, be performed on foot. The road 
leads through the villages of Gross-Sachsen (good red wine), 
Schriesheim with the Strahlenburg in the background, Hand- 
schuchsheim and Neuenheim (*Waldhorn), where Heidelberg 



MELIBOCUS. 42. Route. 175 

(R. 43) at the foot of the hill with its imposing castle, and 

the Konigsstuhl in the rear, first bursts on the view. On 
the 1. side of the road rises the precipitous Heiligenbery. 



42. The Odenwald. 

(Comp. Map p. 172.) 

Pedestrian tour of one day. From Bickenbach to the Felsberg in 
2 hrs., thence to Liudenfels in 3% hrs., and by carriage in 2 1 /, hrs. through 
the valley of the Weschnitz to Birkenau and Weinheim, or, if possible, from 
Birkenau to Weinheim on foot fiver the Wagenburg in l'/ 2 hr. 

Tour of three days. 1st day, as above as far as Linden/els; 2nd day, 
across the Dromm to Waldmichelbach in 3% hrs., thence by Ober- and 
Unter-Schonntattenwag to Hirschhom in 3 1 /, hrs. (or by Schonau to Neckar- 
steinach in 5 hrs.); 3d day, from Hirschhorn to Neckarsteinach in 2 hrs., 
and thence to Heidelberg in 2% hrs. 

Tour of four days. 1st day, as above to Liudenfels; 2nd day, by 
Gumpen to Reichelsheim in 1% hr. , by carriage through Gersprenz and 
Michelstadt in 3 hrs. (or on foot through Ostern and Mossau iu 3'/^ hrs.) to 
Erbac/i ; 3nd day, to Beerfelden in 2% hrs. (better by carriage thus far), then 
through the Gammelsbacher Thai to Eberbach; 4th day, to Hirschhom in 
2 hrs., to Neckarsteinach in 2 hrs., and thence to Heidelberg in 2 1 /, hrs. 

The Odenwald is the wooded mountain district which ex- 
tends between Darmstadt and Heidelberg, a distance of 40 M., 
and is 24 — 30 M. in breadth. Its valleys and finest points of 
view are well worth visiting, but are, as well as its inns, in- 
ferior to those of the Black Forest. 

The best known summit of the Odenwald is the Melibocus 
(see p. 172); the ascent is usually made from Bickenbach or 
Zwingenberg. 

Bickenbach (next station to Zwingenberg) is the best point 
for commencing a ramble in this district; thence E. (post- 
omnibus 3 times daily, 14 kr.) to (iy 2 M.) Jugenheim ^Rind- 
fuss), a picturesquely-situated village, in the middle of which 
a road through a gate to the r.' ascends through well kept 
grounds, past the ruins of a monastery, to the residence of 
Prince Alexander of Hessen, a general in the Austrian army; 
fine view from the terrace. The pedestrian should next ascend 
to the r. through the grounds, and, at the sign-post indicating 
the way to the Felsberg, turn to the 1. round the hill which 
commands a pretty glimpse of the chateau and the plain of the 
Rhine. A quarter of an hr. more conducts him to another 
sign-post, where the path turns to the 1. through shady plan- 
tations ; in another '/, hr. the path to the 1. must be ascended, 
which in about y 2 hr. leads to a sign-post. About 300 yds. 
farther a path diverges from the carriage road to the r., passes 
a fir- wood, and leads (in 20 min.) to the Forester's house 
on the *Felsberg (1578 ft.), where refreshments and tolerable 
accommodation for the night may be obtained. The view to 



170 /{mite 42. REICHENBACH. The Odenwald. 

the E. embraces a great part of the Odenwald, and extends 
to the Spessart and Aschaffenburg (much more extensive than 
from the Melibocus); to the W. and N. lie the plains of the 
Rhine and Main as far as the Donnersberg and Taunus, but 
they are partially hidden by the Melibocus and Frankenstein. 
A good road leads from the Felsberg to the Melibocus (4 M.) 
which cannot well be missed; the Auerbacher Schloss (p. 173), 
4 M. distant, may also be visited from the Felsberg. The road 
to it, termed the "newn Kriimme", is picturesque, and leads 
first through wood, then across some fields to the village of 
Balkhausen , then to the 1. through a wood which it finally 
skirts. 

Near the Forester's house (5 min.) lies the Altarstein, a 
nearly cubic block of syenite, and lower down, in a small 
gully, is seen a column (Riesensaule, 32 ft. long) of the same 
material, both of which must have been quarried on the spot, 
but when and by whom is unknown. The Felsenmeer (rocky 
sea), on the road to Reichenbach, and 5 min. walk from the 
"Riesensaule," consists of weathered and rounded blocks of 
syenite which lie scattered about in huge and confused masses 
on a sloping space, in breadth about 200, and in length about 
500 paces — an island of rocks surrounded by forest and ex- 
tending almost to the valley. This phenomenon is accounted 
for by the smaller and looser masses having been washed 
away by the rain and the action of the elements, the larger 
and more solid alone remaining. 

The path now descends a somewhat steep hill to Rei- 
chenbach (*Traube), a village on the Lavterbach, 4 M. to 
the N. E. of Bensheim (p. 173). [Travellers wishing to return 
from this point to the Bergstrasse should not omit to visit 
Schonberg (*Rettig) (beautiful view from the church), and the 
castle and grounds of Count Erbach - Schonberg.] 

The road here crosses the brook and leads up the valley 
on the way to Lindenfels; it should, however, again be left 
in about % hr. , and the path pursued to the r., past some 
old copper mines, to the Hohenstein, a group of quartzosc 
rocks commanding a very pleasing prospect of the valley and 
mountains. In 5 min. more the hill should be ascended to 
the 1., then past some houses of Unter- Reidelbach, and back 
to the above-mentioned main road, which is not again to be 
diverged from. The whole walk from Reichenbach to Lin- 
denfels traverses picturesque valley-scenery, but does not offer 
much variety. 

About 1% M. from the point where the traveller regains 
the high road, he passes through the small village of Kolm- 
bach, and about % M. farther reaches a point marked by 



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The Odenwald. LINDENFELS. 42. Route. 177 

benches and a group of trees, from which a fine view is ob- 
tained of the extensively wooded, but fertile mountain district; 
Lindenfels with its stately ruined castle stands out picturesque- 
ly in the foreground; beyond is the broad valley of the 
Weschnitz, thickly sprinkled with villages ; the back-ground is 
formed by a chain of mountains, above which rises the tower 
on the Konigsstuhl near Heidelberg. 

The road now leads through a beautiful beech-wood, in- 
terspersed with boulders of granite, to Lindenfels (*Har/e; 
Hess. Ho/) picturesquely situated on an eminence, and com- 
manded by the considerable ruins of the castle. The latter 
was formerly the property of the Palatinate, but dismantled 
by Turenne in 1674. Near it are black-lead mines. 

On the beautiful Waldberg,' to the E., is situated a small 
circular wooden temple, called the * Ludwigshohe , 1% M. 
distant from Lindenfels , which commands a fine view of the 
neighbourhood; and by ascending for another % hr., the pe- 
destrian may reach a point from which the Spessart is visible. 

From Lindenfels to Heppenheim (p. 174) on the road to Fiirth is 
a walk (at first with guide, 18 kr.) of 2 hrs.; the path leads by Eulsbach, 
Erlenbach, M ittershausen and Kirchhansen. 

From Lindenfels to Weinheim by carriage (4 rl.) through the valley 
of the Weschnitz in 2% hrs. Pedestrians should descend to the S. of Linden- 
fels; after 10 min. the path leads to the 1. through the wood; in 25 min. 
more, over a slight eminence, covered with fir-wood, and '/j M. farther Fiirth 
is reached (Luwe; good beer at ffess's, opp. to the inn), a small town about 
11 M. from Weinheim. The footpath (shorter than the road) leads by Fahr- 
bach in 1 hr. to Rimbach (*Nic. Geist), then by the road through Morlen- 
bach, Reissen, and Birkenau to Weinheim. 

Between Birkenau (Birkenauer Ho/) and Weinheim (2 M.) 
the road winds through the narrow and romantic valley of the 
Weschnitz , enclosed by granite rocks. But the path over the 
*Wagenberg (4M.) is far preferable. Near the W. end of Bir- 
kenau, on the 1. bank of the Weschnitz opposite to the pump, 
the path ascends; in about 25 min. it enters the corner of 
the wood and turns sharp off to the 1.; y 2 M. farther it 
leaves the broad road which leads into the valley of Gorx- 
heim , and ascends a steep hill to the r., and, after 200 — 300 
yards, to the r. again; then about 1 % M. along a tolerably 
level path through the wood, round the N. E. slope of the 
Wagenberg to the castle of Windeck (p. 174), and finally a 
descent of 3 / 4 M. to Weinheim. This walk commands a series 
of the most beautiful views, first of the entire Weschnitz Thai 
to Lindenfels, with the basaltic peak of Otzberg, looking like 
a ruined castle, in the background ; then, as the traveller pro- 
ceeds round the mountain, the broad valley of the Rhine, with 
Weinheim and Windeck in the foreground, and a great part 
of the Palatinate as far as the Donnersberg and the Haardt 
Baedeker's Rhine. \o 



178 Route 42. HIRSCHHORN. 

mountains, come gradually in sight. The Melibocns and Fels- 
berg at the commencement, and the Wagenberg at the end, 
are undoubtedly the finest points in the whole excursion. 



Travellers wishing- to spend several days in the Odenwald, 
may remain the first day in Lindenfels and ascend the Lud- 
wigshohe (see p. 177), and proceed the next morning on foot 
to Furth (3 M.). The footpath thence to the Dromm cannot 
well be missed (but it is safer to take a guide as far as the 
wood, y 2 hr.). After 20 min. the turn to the r. must be 
taken, and 5 min. farther a narrow footpath to the r., which 
for a short distance skirts the wood, crosses the brook, and 
then enters the wood and ascends; after 25 min. a large 
meadow in the wood is reached, which the path skirts; 
25 min. more brings the pedestrian to the Dromm (1780 ft.), 
one of the most elevated points of the Odenwald, commanding 
a good survey of the valley of the Weschnitz , and in the 
distance the plain of the Rhine. The house on the summit 
must then be passed and the ridge of the mountain followed 
(>/ 2 M. from the house, a fine view of the valley of the Rhine 
is obtained from some rocks among the bushes on the r.). 
Then a gradual descent to the little town of Waldmichelbach 
(*Gartner, near the Prot. church). 

From Waldmichelbach the traveller may take the high road 
to Ober-Schbnmattenwag, but here he should leave it, and walk 
through the rich pastural valley of the Lax by Unter-Schon- 
mattenwag , Corsika, and Langenthal to Hirschhorn. The path 
cannot be missed. Another path leads from Waldmichelbach 
by Siedelsbrunn and Heiligkreuzsteinach to Schbnau (12 M.), a 
small but ancient town which stands on the ruins of the once 
rich and celebrated monastery of the same name. It was 
founded in 1136, and in 1560 given by the Elector Palatine 
Frederick III. to some French refugees who built the village. 
From Schonau through the romantic valley of the Steinach to 
Neckarsteinach in 1 hr. 

From Waldmichelbach an interesting path leads by Siedels- 
brunn in 1 '/ 2 hr. to Oberabsteinach, and through the Lbhrbacher 
Thai in 1 % hr. to Birkenau (p. 177). 

Hirschhorn (* Berthold; Langbein) lies in a remarkably 
picturesque situation at the foot of the stately castle of the 
same name, once the property of the powerful family von 
Hirschhorn, by whom the Carmelite monastery at the foot of 
the rock was built: the chapel still stands, and contains many 
tombstones of members of the family. The view of the town 



NECKARSTEINACH. 42. Route. 179 

and castle from the road to Neckarsteinach is extremely 
beautiful. 

Neckarsteinach (* Harfe; see p. 186) is situated on the 
Neckar and commanded by four castles, the highest of which, 
the Mittelburg, has been restored in the old style. From 
Neckarsteinach by Neckargemiind to the Wolfsbrunnen and 
Heidelberg Castle, see p. 186. 

Those who may wish to penetrate still more deeply into 

the Odenwald, visit Erbach, and ascend the Katzenbuckel, should 

proceed on the second day from Lindenfels to Reichelsheim 

(4 M.), a prettily situated village, commanded by the Castle 

of Reichenberg, visible at a great distance. 

Half an hour's walk to the N. of Reichelsheim, in a wild and lonely 
wooded mountain district, lies the ruined castle of Rodenstein, popularly 
believed to be haunted by the wild huntsman and his comrades. 

From Reichelsheim the traveller is recommended to take 
a carriage to Gersprenz, Michelstadt (Hydropathic estab.), and 
Erbach, a drive of 3 hrs. (or on foot from Reichelsheim to 
Ostern. Obermossau, and Erbach, in 3y 2 . hrs.) Erbach {Burg 
Wildenstein; Krone) is situated in the Miimlingthal, about 
12 M. to the E. of Lindenfels. The castle of Count Erbach 
contains a considerable "collection of ancient armour, once worn 
by well-known historical characters, old fire-arms, relics, 
vases', &c. In the chapel may be seen the stone coffin in 
which the bones of Charlemagne, his wife Emma, and her 
sister Gisela once reposed. An ancient helmet, found on the 
battle-field of Cannae , is also an object of interest (fee 24 kr.) 

From Erbach to Beerfelden (*Breimer), a distance of 
7 y 2 M., and thence down the Gammelsbacher Thai to Eberbach 
(7 '/ 2 M.), the traveller had better proceed by carriage, as the 
wooded valley presents but little variety. From Eberbach (*Krone) 
the ascent of the Katzenbuckel (2094 ft.), the highest point 
of the Odenwald, is usually made. The watch-tower (keys 
at the forester's at Katzenbach ) commands a fine prospect of 
the valley of the Neckar, Baden, Wurttemberg as far as the 
Alb, and the Black Forest. 

The district between Eberbach and Hirschhorn (6 M.) is 
wild and romantic. The valley of the Neckar is narrow, and 
enclosed by steep, well-wooded mountains. From Hirschhorn 
by Neckarsteinach to Heidelberg see above. 

43. Heidelberg. 

Hotels. At the station: *H6tel Schrieder (Kuhne), K. from 1 fl., L. 
15, B. 36, D. 1 fl. 30, A. 24 kr. ; Victoria see p. 180. In the town, 1 M. 
from the station: *Prince Charles, and near it the *Adler (Eagle), in 
the Kornmarkt; *Russischer Hof (also Hotel garni); "Europaischer 
Hof {Schrieder) in the Anlage; *Badischer Hof, Hauptstrasse ; *Hol- 

12* 



180 Route 43. HEIDELBERG. 

landischer Hof, at the Neckar bridge. Charges in all these hotels nearly 
the same: R. 1 fl., L. 12, B. 30 kr., D. exc. W. 1 fl. 12, A. 24 kr. — Second- 
class inns: Bayrischer Hof, E. 48 kr., D. 1 fl., B. 24 kr., is at the same 
time a restaurant; *Da r mst ad ter Hof, both near the station. In the town: 
*Ritter and Prinz Max, Miiller's Victoria Hotel (Hotel garni) in the 
Anlage. 

CafSs. Wachter; Thiele; Krall, corner of the Hauptstr. and the 
Friedrichsstr.; good beer at the Bremeneck, in the Burgweg. 

Newspapers at the Museum in the Ludwigsplatz , opposite to the 
University. 

Swimming baths at the Neckar, at the Mannheimer- and Carls-Thor 
(12 kr.). River baths near Werle's Oil mill. 

Omnibus between the town and the station (or steamboat-wharf) 6 kr., 
with luggage 12 kr. 

Carriages (Stands in the Ludwigsplatz and Kommarkt): between the 
station and town for 1 — 2 pers. 12 kr. each, for 3— 4" pers. 9 kr. each, boxes 
6 kr. each. By time: '/, hr. for 1 — 2 pers. 18 kr. , for 3 — 4 pers. 24 kr. ; 
1 hr. 1 fl. or 1 fl. 12 kr. — To the Castle 2 fl.: Wolfsbrunnen, and back by 
the road 2 11. ; Wolfsbrunnen and Castle 3 fl. ; Castle and Molkencur 3% fl. ; 
Castle, Molkencur, and Wolfsbrunnen 4'/ 2 fl. ; Castle t Molkencur, Konigs- 
stuhl and Wolfsbrunnen , for 2 pers. 8'/ 2 fl., for more than 2 pers. 11 fl.; to 
Schwetzingen, for the whole day 5'/ 2 fl., half a day 3% fl. ; to Neckarsteinach, 
for the whole day 6, half day 4 fl. 

Donkeys to the Castle 24 kr., back 12 kr. ; to the Castle, Molkencur and 
back 1 fl. 12 kr. ; to the Wolfsbrunnen 1 fl., there and back 1 fl. 12 kr. ; to 
the Konigsstuhl 1% fl., there and back l 3 / 4 fl. ; to the Konigsstuhl and back 
by the Wolfsbrunnen 2 fl. 24 kr. ; for waiting 30 kr. per hour. Donkey- 
stands on the path leading from the Kommarkt to the Castle. 

Railways. To Bruchsal, Durlach, Carlsruhe, &c. from the Baden station, 
to Darmstadt and Frankfurt from the Main - Neckar station, adjoining the 
first-named. Railway to Wiirzburg opened as far as Mosbach. 

Telegraph. Office at the Railway station and in the Ludwig3platz, No. 10. 

Steamboats to Heilbronn (somewhat tedious) in 12 hrs. (down in 6 — 8 hrs.). 
By railway to Heilbronn or Stuttgart in 4'/ 4 hrs. 

English Church near the Badischer Hof. 

The traveller whose time is limited should proceed at once from the 
station to the Riesenstein , Molkencur, and Castle (l l / 2 hr.) according to the 
following directions: opposite to the station the "Pariser Weg" must be 
followed for about 240 paces, then the hill to the r. is ascended through the 
"Wolfsschluc/it" iu '/j hr. to the Rondel (crescent), then a new broad car- 
riage-road to the 1. leads (in 5 miu.) to the Kaniel (pulpit), which commands 
a magnificent prospect of the town and castle. The quarries are next reached, 
and, after avoiding a road to the 1. (which leads to the town), the traveller, 
by pursuing the road in a straight direction for about 1 M., will reach the 
Molkencur, and, 3 / 4 M. farther, the Castle. The descent should be made by 
the Burgweg, across the Kornmarkt, through the town past the theatre to 
the Anlagen, and thence to the station. A short street leads from the large 
church in the market-place to the bridge (p. 185), which also commands a 
delightful prospect. 

Few towns can vie with Heidelberg in the beauty of its 
environs and its richness in historical associations. The 
Count Palatine Otto of Wittelsbach (1228 — 53) transferred 
the seat of his government and family from Stahleck (p. 102), 
near Bacharach, to Heidelberg, which thus became the capital 
of the Palatinate, and continued for nearly 5 centuries to be 
the seat of the Electors, till Carl Philipp in 1720, on account 
of some differences with the Protestant portion of the com- 
munity, transferred the seat of government to Mannheim. 
Since 1802 Heidelberg has belonged to the Grand-duchy of 







'QKSSaqOpPdS 








39? 



Fill 

Willi. 1, 

* * »5 -f •? *» * 



HEIDELBERG. 43. Route. 181 

Baden. Its prosperity has of late years been considerably 
augmented by the completion of the railway, and the con- 
sequent increase in the influx of visitors. 

Heidelberg is the key of the mountainous valley of the 
Neckar, which below the town widens and is at length united 
with the Rhine, but the town itself is limited to the narrow 
confines between the river and the castle hill. It consists of 
one long street (1 '/, M.), extending from the Mannheimer to 
the Carls -Thor, and has a population of 16,288 ( % Rom. 
Cath.). On the N. side flows the river, and on the S., run- 
ning for some distance parallel with the town, is the "An- 
lage," a public walk, planted with trees, where of late years 
a number of handsome residences have been erected. The 
two monuments near the station record the names of the 
founders of this walk; in the immediate vicinity is the old 
Churchyard of St. Anne, in which the remains of many eminent 
men repose. 

Near the E. extremity of the Anlage, on the 1., is the 
Protestant Church of St. Peter, where Hieronymus of Prague, 
the companion of Huss, expounded his doctrines to the people 
in 1406. Farther on is the Jesuits' Church, and in the market- 
place the Church of the Holy Ghost, erected at the commence- 
ment of the 15th cent., under the Count Palatine Rupert; the 
choir contains the tombstone of King Rupert, and his queen 
Elizabeth, sister of Frederick of Zolleru, the first Elector 
of Brandenburg. Opposite to this church is the inn of the 
Ritter St. George, built in 1592, and interesting as being al- 
most the only house which remained intact in the devastation 
of 1693 (p. 182). 

The University (800 students), after that of Prague the 
oldest in Germany, the celebrated Ruperto- Carolina, cradle of 
the sciences in S. Germany, was founded in 1386 by the 
Elector Rupert I. For its present extent and arrangements, 
it is indebted to the learned Charles Frederick of Baden, who 
in 1802 provided it with eminent professors, as well as 
scientific collections and institutions. 

The greater number of the lectures are held in the Uni- 
versity buildings in the Ludwigsplatz , erected in 1693. The 
Library is a separate building, and contains 200,000 vols, and 
1800 MSS. It is open daily from 10 to 12, and on Wed. and Sat. 
also from 2 to 4 o'clock. The scientific collections, though valuble 
to the student, possess little interest for the passing traveller. 

The town itself contains little worthy of note, and the 
tourist should devote every spare hour to exploring the 
** Castle and its environs. It is situated on a wooded slope 
of the Konigsstuhl, 320 ft. above the Neckar, and probably 



182 Route 43. HEIDELBERG. Castle. 

owes its origin to Ludwig der Strenge (the Severe), son-in- 
law of Rudolph of Habsburg, about the close of the 13th cent. 
The Ruprechtsbau was erected by the Elector Rupert III., who 
in 1400 was elected by the council of electors at Rhense 
(p. 92) to be Roman emperor; this fact is indicated by the 
imperial eagle placed above the arms of the Palatinate on 
this part of the building. The Elector Frederick I., "the 
Victorious", the Frederick the Great of his age, enlarged the 
building. The Electors of the 16th and 17th centuries, espe- 
cially Otto Heinrich (1555—59), Frederick IV. (1583—1610), 
and Frederick V. (1610 — 21), king of Bohemia and husband 
of Elizabeth, daughter of James I. of England, made splendid 
additions to the edifice. It suffered much in the 30 years' 
war, but was restored by Carl Ludwig (1650 — 80). It was 
this prince, who, when hard pressed during the devastations 
of the Palatinate in 1673, wrote to Turenne, saying that such 
barbarities could not possibly be perpetrated by the command 
of the "most Christian king," and perhaps arose from some 
personal feelings against himself, which he should be most 
willing to satisfy by meeting the Marshal in single combat. 
The Marshal, however, declined the proffered challenge. In 
the Orleans war the French general Melac, contrary to the 
stipulation, caused the castle to be blown up in 1689. (Picture 
by Dietz in Carlsruhe). 

The town und its habitants, however, met with the most 
barbarous usage in 1693 at the hands of the French, to whom, 
owing to the treachery or cowardice of the commandant, the 
castle and town surrendered after little or no resistance. The 
massacre of the inhabitants, and destruction of the castle and 
habitations, immediately commenced. After the most savage 
and almost incredible barbarities, to which the greater por- 
tion of the peaceable inhabitants fell victims, the town was 
left a heap of smouldering ruins, and the castle entirely dis- 
mantled. 

After this feat of arms so tarnishing to his fame, the 
"most Christian king" Louis XIV. caused a medal to be 
struck, bearing the words: "Heidelberga deleta." The Castle 
was struck by lightning in 1764, and the scanty remnants left 
by the French burned to the ground. The walls alone re- 
mained, but so vast is their extent that to this day they 
form the most imposing and magnificent ruin in Germany. 
The towers, turrets, buttresses, balconies, the lofty gateways 
and fine old statues, the courts and grounds, render it the 
Alhambra of the Germans. Nor are the splendour of the 
structure and the beauty of its situation its sole attractions; 
its ivv-clad ruins are connected with innumerable historical 



still'' ■ 




,.- 



Castle. HEIDELBERG. 43. Route. 183 

associations of the deepest interest, and the striking contrast 
here presented between the eternal rejuvenescence of nature 
and the instability of the proudest monuments of human skill, 
has called forth many a poetic effusion. 

There are several footpaths which lead from the town to 
the Castle; the shortest is the Burgweg, leading from the 
Kornmarkt to the Great Balcony, an ascent of about 12 min. 
A carriage road leads from the Klingelthor, at the E. extrem- 
ity of the walk which commences at the station, to the Castle 
in 15 min. By this road the visitor is led first into the gar- 
den, and then to the 1. through the Elisabethen-P/orte, erected 
by the Elector Frederick V. in honour of his consort Eliza- 
beth of England, to the Stackgarten, the extreme W. point 
of the grounds, commanding an extensive view as far as 
the Haardt mountains. The "dicke Thurm" (thick tower) , at 
the W. corner, was once the festive Hall of Frederick V., 
and statues of him and his brother Ludwig V., are seen 
peering forth from ivy-clad niches. 

To the r. on entering the Schlosshof (castle yard) is a 
fountain with granite columns, which once adorned the Palace 
of Charlemagne at Ingelheim (p. 146). To the 1. is the 
Jtuprechtsbau , with the imperial eagle, and above the en- 
trance a wreath of five roses supported by two angels , one 
of whom is in the act of putting a pair of half- opened 
compasses into one of the roses — an allegory which has 
never been satisfactorily interpreted. The small hall contains 
a collection of old armour, bullets &c. , .found in the castle. 
Visitors who wish to gain an idea of the magnitude of the 
whole edifice, should explore the extensive, and partly sub- 
terraneous passages which connect this point with the "Thick 
Tower," and afterwards inspect the castle chapel and the 
cellar. (Fees for conducting visitors over the entire ruin, 
including the "Great Tun": for 1 pers. 24, for 2—3 pers. 36, 
for every additional pers. 12 kr.) 

The * Otto Heinrichsbau (1556) to the E. especially de- 
serves a careful inspection. The decorations in the front facing 
the court are admirably executed in the purest Italian "re- 
naissance" style, and are remarkable for the accuracy of their 
proportions; the designs are ascribed to Michel Angelo. Over 
the door is the bust of the Elector Otto Heinrich, who erected 
this part of the castle, as its name implies, and higher up in 
twelve niches are statues of mythological characters; over the 
windows are medallions of Roman emperors, and in the four 
lower niches are placed, somewhat incongruously, statues of 
Joshua, Samson, Hercules, and Mars. 

The Friedrichsbau (1601) seems by the superfluity of its 



184 Route 43. HEIDELBERG. Castle. 

decorations to strive to excel all the rest of the edifice in 
magnificence. The front is embellished by statues of 16 Elec- 
tors Palatine, from Otto of Wittelsbach (1184), to Frederick IV. 
(1607); above them to the 1. is a statue of Charlemagne. In 
the corner, to the 1., is the entrance to the cellar, which con- 
tains the celebrated Heidelberg Tun, constructed in 1751, 
capable of containing 49,000 gallons. Near it stands a gro- 
tesque wooden figure of Perkeo, court-jester of the Elector 
Charles Philip, probably placed there to commemorate some 
frolic of olden times, and a second large tun bears some 
amusing inscriptions. 

The * Graimberg Gallery in a suite of rooms on the first 
floor of the Friedrichsbau (admission 12 kr. ; for parties of 
6 and upwards 9 kr. each), contains a considerable collection 
of portraits of princes, chiefly of the Palatinate, documents, 
coins, a cork model of the castle, relics found in the tomb 
of the emperor Rupert in the church of the Holy Ghost, 
ornaments, ecclesiastical antiquities &c. The gallery, as a 
whole, possesses considerable value and historical interest, 
though many of the objects are in themselves insignificant. 

A vaulted passage leads through the Friedrichsbau to the 
* Great Balcony (1610), which commands a beautiful prospect 
of the Neckar to the N. Beneath the balcony is a long vaulted 
gateway leading to the steps which descend to the footpath 
to the town. 

The "gesprengte Thurm" (blown-up tower) at the E. ex- 
tremity of the castle, in the fosse to the r. of the bridge 
leading into the castle-yard, is of so massive a construction 
that, when the French attempted to blow it up in 1689, the 
only result of the explosion was, that an enormous portion be- 
came detached from the rest and fell bodily into the ditch, where 
it still remains. The Tower is 82 ft. in diameter, and 
the walls are 20 ft. thick; beneath it are long casemate 
passages. 

The present castle-garden was laid out in 1804, and 
abounds with the most delightful walks presenting new and 
ever-varying views. One of the finest points is the * Great 
Terrace to the N.E., erected in 1615, which commands a fine 
prospect of the Castle itself. On the path from the Castle to 
the terrace is a wine and coffee- garden, where a band ge- 
nerally plays on summer afternoons. 

To reach the Molkencur, the traveller must ascend the 
steps opposite to the "gesprengte Thurm", and then turn 
to the r. among ivy-clad walls; another flight of steps is then 
ascended which lead to the broad carriage road, a little below 
the Rondel. The Friesenweg, so called on account of an 



Molkencur. HEIDELBERG. 43. Route. 185 

• 
inscription on the rock in memory of the artist Ernst Fries 
of Heidelberg, to the 1. of the Rondel, then leads through an 
avenue of chesnuts past the so-called "Old Castle" on the 
Jettenbiihl, inhabited in the 12th cent, by Conrad of Hohen- 
staufen, the brother of Barbarossa, but completely destroyed 
by lightning in 1537, to the Molkencur (whey- cure), an inn 
situated 288 ft. above the Castle, and a very favorite resort. 
The view is similar to that from the Castle but more ex- 
tensive. 

The *K6nigsstuhl', also called the Kaiserstuhl in com- 
memoration of the visit of the emperor Francis in 1815, is 
851 ft. higher than the Castle, and 1752 ft. above the level 
of the sea. It is ascended by a very steep flight of steps 
from the road, about 1 M. from the Molkencur, but it is also 
accessible by a good carriage road in % hr. The watch- 
tower on the top, 89 ft. in height, commands a most exten- 
sive view of the Rhine, Neckar, Odenwald, Haardt mountains, 
Taunus, the Black Forest as far as the Mercuriusberg at Baden, 
and even the cathedral-spire of Strasburg. 

From the Molkencur a broad carriage-road leads to the 
W- round the Riesenstein (giant-stone), past some sandstone 
quarries, to the so-called *Kanzel (pulpit), 1 M. distant, and, 
a few hundred yards farther, to the * Rondel (crescent), from 
both of which, especially the latter, the most extensive prospect 
may be enjoyed. From the Rondel a path to the r. descends 
through the Wolfsschlucht to the station (1 M.). The pe- 
destrian may, if he pleases, continue his walk along the brow 
of the hill l'/ 4 M. farther to the Neuhof (*Inn), but the view 
remains the same. In this case the road back will bring him 
through the wood to the Cemetery (fine view from the front 
of the chapel), 3 / 4 M. from the" railway station. 

To the E. of the Castle a road leads to the Wolfsbrunnen 
(3 M.), once a favorite resort of Frederick V- and his bride 
(p. 182). According to an ancient tradition, the beautiful en- 
chantress Jetta was here killed by a wolf; hence the name. 
The five ponds fed by the spring contain trout, a dish of 
which may be had at the inn. The view from this point is 
far inferior to those in the more immediate vicinity of the town. 

The handsome Bridge over the Neckar was constructed 
by the Elector Carl Theodor in 1788, and is embellished with 
statues of the Electors and one of Minerva. In 1799 it was 
bravely and successfully defended by the Austrians against the 
attacks of the French. 

On the r. bank of the Neckar is the *Philosophenweg, 
a beautiful walk extending for 3 M. along the brow of 
the Heiligenberg, chiefly through vineyards , commanding 



186 Route 44. MANNHEIM. 

splendid views of the town, the castle, the valley, the plain 
of the Rhine with the cathedral of Speyer and the beautiful 
outlines of the S. Haardt mountains. This path is reached 
by taking the tirst street (Hirschgasse) which ascends the hill, 
about 3 / 4 M. beyond the bridge. The way back leads through 
Neuenheim (p. 174); or the walk may be taken in the opposite 
direction. At Neuenheim the river is crossed by a ferry (4 kr.); 
the swimming-bath is at the landing place on the 1. bank of 
the river, and not far from the station. 

Excursions (carriages and railways p. 180) may also be made to tfeckar- 
gemund, about 6 M. distant, situated on the 1. bank of the Neckar at the 
confluence of the Eluenz. Beyond it, on a wooded eminence to the r., rises 
the Castle of Dilsburg, in vain besieged by Tilly in the 30 years' war, and 
about the commencement of the present century employed as a state prison. 
The next place of note is the old town of Neckarsteinach (• Har/e) (p. 179), 
about 10 M. distant from Heidelberg. It was once the seat of the valiant 
race of the Steinachs, which became extinct in 1653. The four old castles 
still bear testimony to the power of these knights. The church contains 
numerous monuments of members of the family, several of whom bore the 
surname of Landschaden (land -devastation), perhaps on account of the nu- 
merous feuds in which they were engaged. In the Steinbach, which here 
unites with the Neckar, pearl-muscles of considerable value are occasionally 
found. 

Excursion to Speyer, Mannheim, and Schwetzingen, see RR. 44 and 18. 



44. Mannheim and Schwetzingen. 

Hotels. On the Rhine near the steamboat wharf: European Hotel 
(R. 1 fl., L. IS, B. 30, A. 24 kr.). In the town: *Pfalzer Hof (Hotel of 
the Palatinate) similar prices. "Deutscher Hof (German Hotel). — *KSnig 
von Portugal and Schwarzer Lowe for travellers of modest pretensions. 
Weisses Lamm, inn and beer-house, clean and moderate ; Goldene Gans. 

Restaurants. Stern near the theatre; Cafe Francais; Mohrenkopf. 
Rosen stock, the two latter generally possess good bills of fare at moderate 
charges. Drei Glocken, near the Strohmarkt, moderate and respectable 
beer-house. 

Railway Station in Mannheim for the Darmstadt, Frankfurt and 
Heidelberg trains, in Ludwigshafen for those to Mayence, Speyer, Neu- 
itadt, &c. 

Conveyances. Omnibus from the Mannheim station to that of Ludwigs- 
hafen without luggage 22 kr. , each box 6 kr. ; cab from station to station 
1—2 persons 45 kr., 3 pers. 51 kr., 4 pers. 1 fl. 8 kr. 

Steamboat. The wharf is 3 / 4 M. distant from the Ludwigshafen, and 
l'/ 2 M. from the Mannheim station. A straight road leads from the latter to 
the wharf past the theatre and the Jesuits' church to the Observatory, and 
then to the 1. through the Palace gardens. 

Porterage from station or steamboat to cab or omnibus 3 kr. for each 
package. 

English Church Service during the season. 

Mannheim was founded in 1606 by the Elector Frederick 
IV. of the Palatinate, but when still in its infancy was de- 
stroyed by the French in 1689. For its subsequent importance 
it was indebted to the Elector Charles Philip, who on account 
of ecclesiastical differences with the townspeople of Heidelberg 
transferred his residence to Mannheim in 1721. The siege 



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of 1795 occasioned considerable damage to the town; in 1799 
the fortifications were demolished. 

Mannheim has a population of 26,914 (% Prot.), and is 
the most regularly built town in Germany, being divided into 
100 square compartments like a chess-board. The streets 
have no names , but are designated as Square (Quadrat) A. 
B. C. &c, with the exception of the Planken, a street planted 
with trees , which extends from the Rhine to the Heidelberg 
gate. The extensive traffic in tobacco, madder, spelt, and fruit, 
which is here carried on, has rendered Mannheim, which is 
conveniently situated at the confluence of the Neckar and 
Rhine, the most important commercial town of the Upper Rhine. 
The harbour of the Rhine is connected with that of the Neckar 
and with the Baden station by means of rails laid down 
through the town. 

The spacious Schloss, erected in 1720 — 1729, and partially 
destroyed in 1795, contains (in the gateway, to the 1.) a number 
of Roman monuments, with remarkable inscriptions, statues, 
small Etrurian sarcophagi, &c; in the first floor of the same 
wing is a Picture-gallery , where a few Dutch pictures are to 
be seen, together with a considerable collection of engravings 
and casts of celebrated antiquities, and a cabinet of natural his- 
tory. The Grand-duchess Stephanie (d. 1860), adopted daughter 
of Napoleon I. and widow of the Grand -duke Charles (d. 
1818), formerly resided in the palace. Mannheim is also the 
chief residence of the nobility of the Palatinate. 

The Theatre, completely restored in 1854, ranks among 
the best in Southern Germany, and is admirably decorated. 
Schiller's first pieces, the "Robbers," "Fiesco," "Kabale und 
Liebe," were here represented under his own direction. — 
Schiller's Monument, in the "Schillerplatz", was erected in 
Nov. 1862 by voluntary contributions collected in Mannheim. 

Mannheim possesses several handsome modern churches 
and other edifices, but offers few objects of attraction to the 
passing traveller, who may far more advantageously employ 
his time at Speyer with its magnificent cathedral, in the beauti- 
ful environs of Heidelberg (see R. 43, railway in % hr.), or in 
the celebrated garden of Schwetzingen. 

Train from Mannheim to Friedrichsfeld , about halfway to Heidelberg, 
thence by carriage (one-horse there and back 1 fi. 45 kr.) or omnibus (in 
summer i times a day) to Schwetzingen {Erbprinz; Hirsch). The * Gardens, 
laid out by the Elector Charles Theodore in the middle of the 18th cent., 
cover an area of 112 acres of land, and contain handsome avenues in the old 
French style , as well as portions laid out in the fashion of an English park. 
The -whole may be seen in about 2 hrs. The objects most worthy of note 
are as follows, beginning on the 1. (services of a guide quite unnecessary) : 
Temple of Minerva, the Mosque (with fine view from the highest minaret, 
140 ft., fee 12 kr.), Temple of Mercury; view from the large pond (near the 
colossal statues of the "Rhine" and '"Danube") through an opening in the 



188 Boute 45. KREUZNACH. 

wood of the Haardt Mts. : Temple of Apo)lo, Bath-house (fee 12 kr. ), bird 
fountain, Roman aqueduct and orangery. 

The Schloss, or palace, built by the Elector Carl Ludwig about the middle 
of the 17th cent., contains nothing of interest. 

45. The Bavarian -Rhenish Palatinate. 

Donnersberg and Haardt. 

The following Plan of excursion comprises the entire mountainous district 
of the Rhenish Palatinate. Travellers whose time is limited should take the 
railway (p. 224) from Ludwigshafen to Speyer, where they may inspect the 
cathedral; thence iu 1 hr. to Neustadt in the centre of the Haardt. 

From this point a pleasant excursion may be made by taking the railway 
to Frankenstein ( 3 / 4 hr.), and then proceeding on foot through the Isenach- 
thal by the Hartenburg and monastery of Limburg (p. 191) to Durkheim 
(13'/ 2 M.). Or still better — from Neustadt with 1-horse carriage (1 fl.) to 
Frankenstein in 2% hrs.; inspect the villa, and then drive on to the 
Hartenburg in 2 hrs.; on foot to Limburg (3 M.), and l 1 /, M. farther to 
Durkheim. Those who are already acquainted with Speyer" may prefer to 
go direct from Ludwigshafen to Durkheim by omnibus, or 1-horse carriage 
(3'/ 2 fl.) in 2 hrs. 

At Durkheim the finest part of the vine-clad Haardt mountains begins, 
to explore which about 3 days are required. 1st day: from Durkheim to 
Neustadt, the Hambacher Schloss, and Edenkoben. 2nd day: along the brow 
of the hill to Eschbach, the Madenburg , over the mountain to Trifels, to 
Annweiler and Willgartswiesen. 3d day: Dahn and environs, through the 
Lauterthal to Hinter- Weidenthal and the Kaltebach , where the diligence 
which runs between Landau and Zweibriicken stops daily. From Zweibriicken 
a branch line joins the main line between Ludwigshafen and Saarbriicken at 
Homburg; thence iu 2 hrs. to Neustadt, in 3 hrs. to Ludwigshafen. 

The remaining part of this prosperous district, though less celebrated as 
a wine-country, is scarcely less beautiful. In order to appreciate it, the 
traveller is recommended to commence the tour from Kreuznach; on the 1st 
day by the Rheingrafensteiu, Ebernburg, through the Alsenzthal to Dielkirchen ; 
2nd day, over the Donnersberg to Grunstadt, and thence by carriage to Durk- 
heim; on the 3d, 4th and 5th days as above. 

The finest wines of the Palatinate are produced at Konigsbach, Rupperts- 
berg, Deidesheim, Forst, Wachenheim, Durkheim, Ungstein, and Callstadt; 
the red wine of the last uamed place resembles Burgundy. In good years 
the Palatinate yields upwards of 20 million gallons of wine. Pedestrians 
should observe that the footpaths through the vineyards are closed in Sept. 
and Oct. 

Maps and views of the Palatinate and of the cathedral of Speyer may 
be procured at Gottschick-Witter's, bookseller at Neustadt. 

Kreuznach, the Rheingrafenstein and Ebernburg are de- 
scribed in R. 29. The path to the Gans and Rheingrafenstein 
cannot well be missed. It leaves the high road at the Hotel 
zum Rheinstein, opposite to the bath-island, and ascends in 
1 hr. to the Rheingrafensteiner Hof, then through the grounds 
to the Gans, and in V 2 hr. more to the Rheingrafenstein; the 
latter part of the path is however somewhat difficult to find 
without a guide. From the Rheingrafenstein % hour's walk 
brings the pedestrian to the foot of the porphyry rock, op- 
posite to which lies the village of Minister am Stein (R. 29). 

The river Nahe is here the boundary between Prussia and 
Bavaria. On an eminence on the r. bank lies the Ebernburg 
(* Inn). The road now ascends the Alsenzthal in S. direction, 



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DIELKIRCHEN. 45. Route. 189 

passing Altenbumberg (with old castle on the heights, destroyed 
by the French in 1669) to Alsenz (Post) (7% M.). Farther 
on in the picturesque and populous valley, near Mannweiler, 
are the ruins of the castle of Randeck, situated on a wooded 
eminence. The next village is Koln. 

Dielkirchen (* Hoster), 6 M. from Alsenz, is a good halt- 
ing place for the night, the inn being good and moderate, 
unless the traveller should feel disposed to proceed to Dannen- 
fels, 10 M. farther. The road continues in the Alsenzthal for 
1 '/ 2 M. more, and as it approaches Rockenhausen (* Post), 
diverges to the 1. to Marienthal (3% M.). The footpath lead- 
ing from Dielkirchen to the Marienthal is not difficult to find 
and saves about 1 '/ 2 M. Guide from Dielkirchen over the 
Donnersberg to Dannenfels (36 — 48 kr.) not absolutely ne- 
cessary. 

Marienthal possesses a tine Gothic church of 1478, 
which has lately been restored in the old style; it contains 
several good monuments of the counts of Grafenstein. At the 
Bastenhaus, 3 j 4 M. from Marienthal, the pedestrian must 
leave the road and follow the track which ascends to the r., 
along the course of the Appelbach. Where the path divides 
that to the 1. must be taken which leads out of the wood. 
Although the flat summit of the Donnersberg now lies before 
the traveller, he must still bear to the 1., as the way to the 
top is somewhat circuitous. The inns at Marienthal and the 
Bastenhaus are tolerable. 

The *Donnersberg (2126 ft.), dedicated in ancient times 
to the god Thor, was called by the Romans Mons Jovis. 
The upper part of it consists principally of red porphyry. 
From a great distance the mountain may be easily recognized 
by its shape, being an extensive table-land, bounded by pre- 
cipitous slopes, and entirely clothed with luxuriant beech- 
wood. 

A large farmhouse, the Donnersberger Ho/, erected on the 
ruins of an old monastery, formerly occupied the summit, but 
it was removed in 1854 by the Bavarian government, and the 
site planted with wood. Ten minutes' walk from the spot 
where the building stood is the Hirtenfels, a shady seat among 
the rocks on the E. side of the table-land, commanding a most 
beautiful view of the course of the Rhine upwards nearly to 
Speyer, of the Haardt mountains to the S., and the Odenwald 
(Melibocus) and the Taunus (Feldberg, Altkonig) to the E. 
The view from the Konigsstuhl , a porphyry rock farther to 
the W., on which the Franconian kings and the counts of the 
Wormsgau are said to have held their tribunals, is less attrac- 
tive, and only extends over the wooded hills. 



190 Route 45. DVRKHEIM. Rhenish- Palatinate. 

The path which descends on the E. side is shaded by beau- 
tiful beech, ash, and maple trees, and leads in about % hr. 
to the village of Dannenfels (* G umbel), a romantic spot in a 
grove of remarkably fine chesnut trees. The road, now des- 
titute of shade, leads across an undulating plain to Benn- 
hausen (2% M.), Weitersweiler (1 '/, M.), and Dreysen (1% M.), 
where the " Kaiserstrasse," constructed by Napoleon, is crossed. 
Grdllheim (Hirsch), l 3 / 4 M. farther, is a small town of con- 
siderable antiquity, at the entrance of which is situated a hand- 
some new chapel, designed by Voit of Munich ; near it is an 
ancient elm, under which stands the Konigskreuz , a crucifix 
much injured by the French republicans in 1794. On the r. 
side is the inscription: 

"Anno milleno trecentis bis minus annis 
In Julio mense rex Adolphus cadit ense" 
to which is added by way of postscript, that the monument 
was renewed by Count Ludwig of Nassau in 1611. The old 
inscription on the E. side is almost illegible. 

Under this tree, on July 2nd, 1298, the emperor Adolph 
of Nassau (p. 201) expired amid the noise and turmoil of 
battle, pierced by the sword of his antagonist Albert of 
Austria. The contest, which had commenced at the Hasebiihl, 
1Y 2 M. to the S., was terminated on this spot by the death 
of the emperor. The cross and the wall into which it is 
built, were shortly afterwards erected by a member of the 
imperial family. 

Durkheim is about 15 M. distant from Gollheim by the 
road through Griinstadt, and 12 M. by the footpath by Eisen- 
berg and Leiningen. The intervening district is undulating 
and fertile but uninteresting. The traveller who starts from 
Dielkirchen early in the morning, crossing the Donnersberg, 
and reaching Griinstadt on foot (as no carriages are to be 
had at Gollheim), must either pass the night there, and pro- 
ceed by omnibus on the following morning, or take a carriage 
the same evening to Durkheim (one-horse 2 fl.) 

Griinstadt (Jacobslust; diligence 24 kr., in the morning, 
and omnibus to Durkheim; 1-horse carriage 2 fl.) was till the 
time of the first French revolution the residence of the counts 
of Leiningen. Their castles of Alt- and Neu -Leiningen, the 
ruins of which are seen on a hill at some distance, were 
destroyed in 1690. The Obere and Untere Hof, the residences 
of the counts in Griinstadt, are now employed for industrial 
and educational purposes. The road, which lies very high, 
next traverses a succession of extensive vineyards. Herxkeim, 
Callstadt, and Ungstein are noted for their wines. 

Durkheim (* Hotel Reitz, at the E. side of the town, R. 



Rhenish-Palatinate. LIMBURG. 45. Route. 191 

1 fl., B. 20 kr., D. 1 fl. ; * Vier Jahreszeiten) f with a pop. of 
7000, was almost entirely rebuilt after the destruction of the 
castle of the counts of Leiningen by the Elector Palatine 
Frederick in 1471, and again after the French devastation of 
1689. During the subsequent century it was the prosperous 
and animated residence of the princes of Leiningen -Harten- 
burg, till their castle was burned down by the French in 1794. 
Its site is now occupied by the Town-hall. Durkheim is one 
of the most important places in the Palatinate, and is beauti- 
fully situated amidst the vineyards of the Haardt mountains. 
The grape-cure and the neighbouring saline baths of Philipps- 
halle attract numerous visitors in autumn. Ludwigshafen 
(p, 224) is 12 M. distant, Neustadt 9 M., Griinstadt 7'/ 2 M., 
Kaiserslautern (p. 196) 21 M. Omnibuses run daily in all 
directions ; to Neustadt five times a day in 2 hrs. , fare 
3o kr. One-horse carriage to Neustadt 3 fl. ; diligence twice 
daily, 24 kr. 

On a precipitous height at the entrance of the Isenachthal, 
l l / 2 M. to the W. of Durkheim, are situated the stately ruins 
of the ancient Benedictine monastery of *liimburg, a pala- 
tial building, ornamented with a handsome piazza, belonging 
to the 11th cent. It is one of the principal objects of attrac- 
tion in the environs of Durkheim , and is frequently visited 
from Mannheim. It was once the castle of the Salic count 
Conrad the Elder, who was elected king of Germany in 1024 
as Conrad II. His eldest son Conrad having lost his life 
while hunting, the king resolved to convert his castle into a 
place of worship, an act of devotion which he believed would 
be favourable to the repose of his son's soul. He accordingly 
laid the foundation-stone of the church in presence of his 
Queen Gisela, July 12th, 1030, at 4 o'clock in the morning, 
as the old chronicles tell us, and," at a later hour on the same 
day, the foundation-stone of the cathedral of Speyer. Twelve 
years later the edifice was ■ completed and placed in the 
hands of the Benedictines. The abbots chose the Hartenburg 
counts of Leiningen for their protectors, but subsequent quar- 
rels induced Count Emich VIII. to take possession of and 
destroy the abbey in 1504. It was partially restored in 
1515 — 1554, but was finally secularized by the Elector Pala- 
tine Frederick III. in 1574, and since then has gradually 
fallen to decay. 

The ruin now belongs to the town of Durkheim, and is 
surrounded by public walks and grounds (refreshments to be 
procured at the top). The S. W. tower, which belongs to the 
13th and 14th centuries, commands a fine view; a portion of 
the cloisters of the same date and the vaults on the E. side 



192 Route 45. DEIDESHEIM. Rhenish-Palatinate. 

are still well preserved. In three different directions delight- 
ful prospects are- obtained, especially that to the E. over the 
vast Palatinate, extending like a garden beyond the mountains 
of the Odenwald. To the N. W. the view is bounded by the 
red ruins of the Hartenburg (* Hirsch), a castle founded by 
the counts of Leiningen about the year 1200, completed in 
1510 and destroyed in 1794. Its extensive vaults and huge 
dismantled towers resemble those of the castle of Heidelberg. 
A large grass -plat (gymnastic ground) on the E. side of the 
castle, surrounded with handsome lime-trees, commands a fine 
view of the valley. 

To the N. E. of Limburg is situated the Kastanienberg, on 
the wooded slopes of which a part of the Heidenmauer may 
be seen; above it rises the Teufelsstein, a mass of rock, 12 ft. 
in height, which possibly once served as an altar. The Heiden- 
mauer (heathens' wall) is a stone wall, 8 — 12 ft. in height, 
constructed of loose stones heaped together, and enclosing a 
space on the summit of the Kastanienberg of 60 — 100 ft. in 
diameter. The novelist Cooper derived the materials for his 
tale "The Heidenmauer" from this locality. The wall, like 
that on the Altkonig (p. 169), is incontestibly of ancient 
Germanic origin. The Peterskopf (1530 ft.), 2% M. to the 
N. W. of the Teufelsstein, commands an extensive and beau- 
tiful view. 

On the verge of the W. mountain-basin, a path leads by 
the village of Seebach (1% M.), with an ancient convent 
and well preserved church of the 12th cent., through vineyards 
(closed in Sept. and Oct.) to Wachenheim (Krone), 2'/ 4 M. 
farther. By the high road from Durkheim to Wachenheim the 
distance is not above 1 y 2 M. 

On the W. side of Wachenheim lie the ruins of the Wachten- 
or Geiersburg, once the property of the Salic dukes, afterwards 
of the Counts Palatine, destroyed in 1689. On the S. side 
are situated handsome villas and well-kept grounds, belonging 
to the wealthy wine - merchants of the district. The next 
village on the road is Forst ( 3 / 4 M.), and 1% M. farther 
Deidesheim (* Bairischer Ho/), both celebrated for their 
wine; the rich wine-merchants constitute the sole aristocracy 
of the country. 

Pedestrians should leave the high road a little to the S. 
of Deidesheim, and turn to the r. through vineyards, skirting 
the brow of the hill, to Konigsbach (2 M.), and, % M. beyond 
it, Gimmeldingen; about 2 M. farther the castle of Winzingen 
is reached, the ruins of which are covered with ivy, and sur- 
rounded by private pleasure-grounds (not open to the public). 
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Rhenish- Palatinate. MADENBURG. 45. Route. 193 

Haardt, near the church, which are always accessible to 
visitors. From the highest part of the grounds near the 
Hermitage a line view is obtained over the entire plain of 
the Rhine; Speyer, Mannheim, and even the red sandstone 
arches of the castle of Heidelberg may be distinguished. At 
the foot of the hill lies Neustadt, 1 y 2 M. distant. Neu- 
stadt, Maxburg, Edenkoben, Landau, see R. 55. The Maxburg 
lies 3 M. to the S. W- of Neustadt. From the Maxburg a 
steep path leads to Mittel - Hambach at the foot of the hill, 
from which the road leads through the plain to Edenkoben 
(3 M.). 

The pedestrian should now proceed along the slopes of 
the wooded and vine-clad mountains to the large and wealthy 
village of Rhodt (iy 2 M.), on an eminence near which are 
situated the ruins of Rietburg or Rippburg. At the foot of 
the hill is the Ludwigshohe, a handsome villa, erected by king 
Ludwig I. of Bavaria, commanding a noble prospect, but the 
interior is destitute of artistic decoration. About 6 M. to the 
W. is situated the "Schanzel," on the Steigerkopf (1919 ft.), an 
important military point, bravely and successfully defended 
against the Fi-ench by the Prussian general von Pfau, to whose 
memory a monument has been erected on the spot. 

The road next leads through the villages of Weiher (1 % 
M.) and Burweiler (l 1 /, M.); above the latter lies the pictu- 
resque, white Anna-Capelle; 3 / 4 M. farther is Gleisweiler 
(1000 ft.), sheltered from the N. and W. winds, at the foot 
of the Teufelsberg (2500 ft.) ; it possesses an extensive Hydro- 
pathic Estab., containing likewise grape, whey, and (strange 
to English ears) cowhouse-air cures (also an hotel); weekly 
charges, incl. medical attendance, 17% — 28 fl.; pleasant ex- 
cursion to Scharfeneck, a ruin 4V 2 M. to the S.W. — Frank- 
weiler (Schwan) (iy 2 M.) and Siebeldingen (iy 2 M.) are 
the next villages. The Queich (p. 223) is now crossed. The 
mountains on the r. bank of the Queich are considered to 
belong to the Vosges, of which the Haardt constitutes the N. 
spurs. 

After passing Ilbesheim (2y 4 M.), with the ruined castle of 
Neucastel, the road leads to Eschbach (Engel), a village at 
the foot of the Madenburg (to visit which the traveller should 
engage the services of a guide), and thence to Trifels. 

The * Madenburg, 1% M. to the S.W. of Eschbach, is 
the grandest and most extensive ruin in the Rhenish Palatinate. 
The castle formerly belonged to the counts of Leiningen, 
afterwards to the archbishopric of Speyer, and was burned 
down by the French general Montclar in 1680. It commands 
a noble prospect — the finest in the whole Palatinate — com- 
Baedeker's Rhine. 13 



194 Route 45. ANNWEILER. 

prising the plain of the Rhine from Strasburg to the Meli- 
bocus, and in the distance the heights of the Odenwald and 
Black Forest. The cathedral spire of Strasburg, the towers 
of Carlsruhe, Speyer, Mannheim, and Worms, are all visible 
to the naked eye. But what lends a peculiar charm to the 
scene is the view of the adjacent chain of the Vosges, with 
its numerous volcanic and forest-clad peaks, from many of 
which bare masses of variegated sandstone rise in grotesque 
forms, often resembling old ruined castles. 

A walk of 4 '/ 2 M. in a N.W. direction along the high 
mountain slopes, through fragrant pine, fir and beech woods, 
will now bring the pedestrian to the ruins of the Custle of 
*Trifels (1422 ft.), where Richard Coeur de Lion was con- 
fined for more than a year by the Emperor Henry VI., until 
his liberation was effected by the instrumentality of the faith- 
ful Blondel. Trifels was not unfrequently occupied by the 
German emperors ; its walls protected the unhappy Henry IV., 
when he was excommunicated by the Pope in 1076, deserted 
by his nobles and pursued by the unnatural hostility of his 
own son. The castle also served as a prison for Adalbert, 
archbishop of Mayence, who was closely confined here by 
Henry V., but released by the citizens of Mayence, as the 
inscription on the brass gates of the Cathedral records. Here 
too were frequently kept the imperial insignia and treasures. 
After the 30 Years' war the castle fell gradually into decay, 
so that at the present day nothing is left but the tower (30 
ft.) and fragments of the walls. The view resembles that 
from the Madenburg, but is less extensive. On a mountain 
of the same height as that on which Trifels stands, rises the 
Mih>:, a square tower (70 ft.), the ascent to which is made 
in 1 hr. from Annweiler, a village at the foot of the hill on 
the N.W. side. — A still finer prospect is obtained from the 
tower on the Rehberg, 3 M. distant from Annweiler. 

Annweiler (Trifels; Rother Ochse; Post; good beer at the 
Bairischer Hof) is a small town, possessing a handsome modern 
Town-hall, designed by Professor Voit of Munich, but contains 
no objects of interest to the traveller (Omnibus twice daily 
to Landau, p. 223). From this point the road ascends the 
beautiful * Annweiler Thai, a narrow dale enclosed by wooded 
slopes and mountain peaks from which grotesque masses of 
variegated sandstone project, giving a most picturesque ap- 
pearance to the valley. 

The finest portion of the valley is comprised between 
Annweiler and Willgartswiesen (*Lamm), a distance of 
M. The grandest and most remarkable broken masses of 
coloured sandstone, rising from the woods and bushes, are 



BERGZABERN. 45. Route. 195 

those in the vicinity of Dahn (Pfalz), which, with the assistance 
of a guide, may be reached in 2 hrs. from Willgartswiesen. 
Before entering the village the extensive ruins of the old castle 
of Dahn are seen situated on a wooded sandstone rock, which, 
as well as the castle itself, is so overgrown with underwood 
that it is difficult to distinguish the one from the other. The 
steps and passages are partly cut out of the solid rock. 
The highest point affords a good survey of the surrounding 
mountains, and is worth a visit, as the ascent does not occupy 
more than 20 min. 

In the immediate vicinity of Dahn is the Jungfernsprung 
(virgin's leap), a rock of considerable height, overhanging the 
road to Kaltebach, with which various traditions are connected. 
About 3 3 / 4 M. farther in the valley of the Lauter, where similar 
rocky formations are frequently met with, lies Kaltebach, a 
post-station on the high road between Landau and Zweibriicken. 
Beyond this point the country offers few objects of attraction 
to the traveller. He may now return to the Rhine by the 
Zweibriicken diligence or by the omnibus. 

Another circuit may be made by again turning E. from 
Dahn, following the high road by Busenberg, Erlenbach with the 
castle of Barbelstein, and Birfcenhordt, to Bergzabern (Huber), 
a small old-fashioned town, 12 M. from Dahn, from which an 
omnibus runs to the railway stat. Winden, 4'/ 2 M. distant. 

Instead of descending from the hill at Gleisweiler, the traveller 
may, if he prefer it, proceed along the heights, which offer a 
succession of fine views,, to Albersweiler and Annweiler (12 M.); 
here he may take a carriage to Dahn, return in the evening 
to Annweiler, and proceed the next day to Trifels, Maden- 
burg and the railway stat. Landau. 

46. From Mannheim to Saarbrucken. 
Ludwigshafen-Bexbach and Prussian Saarbrucken line. 

To Neustadt in 1, Kaiserslautern in 2, Horaburg in 3, and Saarbrucken 
in 4 hrs. Fares 6 fl. 7, 3 fl. 48, and 2 fl. 35 kr. The station at Ludwigs- 
hafen, opposite to Mannheim,, is 3 / 4 M. distant from the Rhine bridge, 
and 2'/ 4 M. from the Mannheim station. Carriage from one station to the 
other, 1—2 pers. 45 kr., 3 pers. 1 fl., 4 pers. 1 fl. 12 kr.; omnibus 22 kr., 
to Mannheim 16 kr. 

During 1 hr. the train traverses fields of corn and tobacco. 
Stations Mutterstadt, Schifferstadt, junction of the branch line 
to Speyer (p. 200), which may be reached in 15 min. ; Bohl, 
from which a view of the distant Donnersberg may be 
obtained; Hassloch, a large, flourishing village with 5000 in- 
habitants. As the Haardt mountains are approached, the Max- 
burg (p. 223), on an eminence to the 1., comes in view, to 

13* 



196 Route 46. KAISERSLAUTERN. From Mannheim 

the r. the ruin of Winzingen, and beyond it, farther to 
the r., the extensive vineyards of Konigsbach, Ruppertsberg, 
Musbaeh, and on the mountain-side the long village of Haardt 
(p. 193). 

At Neustadt is the junction of the Maximilian, Ludwig, 
and Bexbach lines, see p. 224. The latter now enters the 
mountain district of Westrich. For an hour the train winds 
through the narrow, well-wooded, and picturesque valley of 
the Speyerbach, the variegated sandstone rocks of which are 
penetrated by 12 tunnel's. Beyond Neustadt, on an eminence 
to the r., are situated the red ruins of Wolfsburg, below 
which stands a castellated cloth-factory. The next station i.s 
St. Lambrecht-Grevenhausen (* Weber), the numerous cloth- 
factories of which owe their origin to French emigrants. On 
a neighbouring height are the ruins of Neidenfets. At the 
following stat. Frankenstein (* Krone; *Hirsch), the valley is 
remarkably wild and picturesque; to the r. is the rock called 
the Teufelsleiter (devil's ladder). In a secluded valley diverging 
to the r. lies the ruin of Diemerstein, now converted into private 
pleasure-grounds. (From Frankenstein to Diirkheim see p. 188.) 
The station of Hochspeyer, the highest on the line, lies nearly 
100 ft. higher than Neustadt. The last tunnel is about 
1400 yds. in length. 

Kaiserslautern (*Schwari) is one of the most important 
places in the Palatinate, and is situated in the hilly tract of 
Westrich. It was ■once a residence of the Emperor Frederick 
Barbarossa, who erected a magnificent palace here in 1153, 
the site of which is now occupied by a house of correction. 
His memory is still greatly revered in Kaiserslautern, as he 
presented a wood to the town, which produces an annual 
revenue of 30,000 fl. The Protestant church also owes its 
foundation the same monarch. The churchyard contains a 
monument to the memory of soldiers of Napoleon who were 
natives of the place. Here the Prussian troops under the Duke 
of Brunswick, after their return from Champagne, repulsed 
the French under Pichegru and Hoche in Nov., 1793. [Diligence 
to Kreuznach through the Alsenzthal (p. 189) in 8 hrs.] 

The tract of country between Kaiserslautern and Homburg 
is remarkably flat. The line (together with the Kaiserstrasse, 
p. 146) skirts the turf-moor and the foot of the hills. 

Landstuhl (Engel; Krone) was once the seat of the 
Sickingen family, whose strong castle, with its massive walls, 
24 ft. in thickness, now lies in ruins above the town. Franz 
von Sickingen was besieged in this stronghold by the electors 
of the Palatinate and of Treves, and lost his life by the 
falling of a beam. His bones lie in a vault under the church. 



to Saarbrucken. NEUNKIRCHEN. 46. Route. 197 

The monument erected to his memory was* destroyed by the 
French, but portions of it are still to be seen at the church. 
The large Rom. Cath. Orphan Asylum is a modern building. 

The next station of importance is Homburg (Carlsberg; 
Post), among the buildings of which the handsome Rom. Cath. 
church is a conspicuous object. The castle of Carlsberg, 
1 y 2 M. to the E. of the town, was built by Duke Charles II. of 
the Palatinate in 1780, and destroyed by the French in 1793. 

Branch line (23 min.; fares 30, 18, 12 kr.) to Zweibrucken {Pfalzer 
Hof; Zweibrucker Hof; Lamm), formerly the principal residence of the 
Dukes of the Zweibriicken-Palatinate, and known in the literary world as 
the place where the Editiones Bipontirue of Latin and Greek authors were 
published. When Charles X. (Gustavus) of the house of Zweibriicken ascended 
the Swedish throne, the Duchy became subject to Sweden, which it continued 
to be till the death of Charles XII. in 1719. Stanislaus Lesczinsky, the 
fugitive king of Poland, resided here for some time, and to him belonged 
the neighbouring grounds of Tschiflik, on the road to Pirmasenz, now quite 
fallen to decay. 

Beyond Bexbach the line enters a rich mining and coal- 
district in the Prussian dominions. The foundry of the brothers 
Stumm at Neunkirchen (Jochum, near the bridge) employs 
about 800 hands, and yields 5000 tons of iron-wares annually. 
At Neunkirchen is the junction of the Rhein-Nahe and Saar- 
brucken lines. 

Beyond Neunkirchen the train passes through the Bildstock 
tunnel (500 yds.). The numerous cuttings which have been 
made in this vicinity, expose to view the strata of coal, with 
intervening layers of slate and sandstone, containing many 
remarkable fossils (sigillaria), which are rarely met with in 
such abundance. In many of the cuttings from 40 to 50 fossil 
trunks of trees of various diameters have been found. Some 
of the coal-mines are situated on the main line, others are 
connected with it by branch railways. They all belong to the 
Prussian government, at whose expense they are worked. 
The number of hands employed is about 13,000, and the yield 
upwards of 2 million tons of coals annually, worth 800,000/. 
These mines form the entire source of the industry of the 
district. Glass-houses, sal-ammoniac, Prussian-blue, and other 
manufactories abound. 

Between the stations of Sulzbach and Duttweiler, in the wood 'AM. to 
the 1. of the line, is situated the "brennende Berg" or burning mountain, 
a coal-bed which ignited spontaneously about 160 years ago. A slow com- 
bustion is still taking place, and the whole bed. 400 by 40 yds., is gradually 
sinking. Smoke may be seen, especially after rain, issuing from the fissures, 
in which eggs are sometimes cooked by visitors. 

Saarbrucken (*Zix) on the Saar, which here becomes 

navigable, is a Prussian town on the French frontier, connected 

by a bridge with the suburb of St. Johann. The palace was 

up to 1793 occupied by the princes of Nassau-Saarbriicken ; 

the palace-church contains monuments of the family. 



198 Route 47. WORMS. 

At Arnual in the immediate neighbourhood is a * Church 
built in the best Gothic style, containing a remarkably fine font, 
pulpit, and interesting old monuments of the above mentioned 
princely family, whose vaults were formerly at Arnual. 

From Saarbriicken to Metz by railway in 2%, to Paris 
in 12 hrs. 

47. Worms. 

Worms (* Alter Kaiser, or Old Emperor, near the cathedral, 
R. 42, A. 18 kr.; Rhenish Hotel, at the steamboat wharf, % M. 
from the town; Liebfrauenberg), one of the most ancient towns 
in Germany, is situated 3 / 4 M. from the Rhine to. which its 
walls formerly extended, and is rendered worthy of a visit 
by its Cathedral, the baptistery of which contains some good 
statues. The Burgundian conquerors of the Rhineland (431), 
the Franconian kings, and afterwards Charlemagne and his 
successors, frequently resided at Worms. Here the war against 
the Saxons was brought to a close in 772; here the May 
assembly was often held, and the great contest concerning the 
investiture of the bishops with ring and staff was here termin- 
ated by the Concordat between the emperor Henry V. and 
Pope Calixtus II. Many other historical events of interest 
are also connected with this venerable city. 

As early as 1255, Worms belonged to the Confederation 
of the Rhenish towns, and in the time of Frederick Barbarossa 
contained a pop. of 70,000 souls; at the commencement of the 
30 Years' war this number was reduced to 40,000, and at the 
present period to 10,726 (% Prot.). All the suburbs were 
levelled in 1632 by order of the Swedish Colonel Haubold, 
and in 1689 the town suffered the most cruel devastation at 
the hands of Melac and the young Due de Crequi. A pro- 
clamation had been issued that on a certain day the whole 
town, with the exception of the cathedral, should be committed 
to the flames. The dismayed inhabitants accordingly sought 
an asylum in the sacred edifice with their most valuable 
property, which thus became an easy prey to the enemy. On 
May 31st, 1689, the town was set on fire, and, with the 
exception of the cathedral and synagogue, soon became one 
smouldering heap of ruins. Traces of the fire may still be 
observed on the cathedral walls. 

The *Dom, or Cathedral, was consecrated in 1016 in presence 
of the emperor Henry II., but underwent extensive alterations 
towards the 'close of the 12th cent. The whole structure, 
with its four slender towers, two cupolas and choir, is, more 
particularly in its exterior, one of the finest Romanesque 



WORMS. 47. Route. 199 

churches in existence. Quaint figures of animals and masks 
are visible upon the towers, of which the N.W. was erected 
by Bishop Reinhardt in 1472, to replace the old one, which 
had fallen in. To the same date belongs the S. pointed arched 
*Portal, in the pediment of which may be seen the figure of 
a woman adorned with a mural crown and mounted on a 
animal, whose four different heads (angel, lion, ox, and eagle) 
are symbolical of the four Evangelists. The whole is evidently 
emblematical of the victorious Church, and has no reference, 
as some suppose, to the frightful execution of the tyrannical 
Brunhilde, consort of the Austrasian king Siegbert, which 
took place here in 613, under the direction of Clotaire II. 
of Soissons. 

The interior of the cathedral is destitute of ornament, but 
the very ancient Sculpture, representing Daniel in the lions' 
den, in the first S. chapel on the r., together with the Tombstone 
of the three Frunconian princesses, belonging to the 13th cent., 
and removed from the Nunnery to its present position in the 
N. aisle, may afford some interest to the visitor. 

The Baptistery, to the 1. of the S. Portal, contains some 
large *Sculptures, admirably executed, most perfect in detail, 
and in excellent preservation. They formerly belonged to the 
cloisters constructed in the 15th cent., but on the demolition 
of the latter in 1813, they where removed to their present 
position ; they represent the Annunciation, Descent from the 
Gross, Resurrection, Nativity and Genealogy of Christ. Beyond 
them is the Tombstone of the knight Eberhard von Heppen- 
heiru, a well-executed figure in armour kneeling before a 
crucifix. The font formerly belonged to the ancient chapel 
of St. John, which was taken down in 1807. The paintings 
in the old Byzantine style of the two patron saints of the 
Church, St. Peter und St. Paul, and of other saints, alone escaped 
the French conflagration. The objects in this chapel deserve 
the minutest examination, and may be seen on application to 
the sexton (fee 18 kr.) who lives in the square, a few hundred 
yards from the S. portal of the church. 

It may perhaps interest those who are versed in German 
legendary lore to know that the open space in front of the 
cathedral was the scene of the quarrel between Brunhilde 
and Chrimhilde, as recorded by the Nibelungenlied in the 
14th Adventure. 

The handsome sub-structure of red sandstone on the N. 
side of the cathedral was formerly the episcopal residence, 
rebuilt in 1727, after having been destroyed by the French in 
1689, and again despoiled by the republicans in 1794. It was 
here that the diet of April, 1521, was held, in which Luther 



200 Route 47. WORMS. 

defended his doctrines in presence of Charles V., six electors, 
and a numerous assembly. Here too a last and ineffectual 
attempt at a reconciliation between the Protestants and the 
Rom. Catholics was made by order of the emperor Ferdinand, 
the Protestant cause being defended by Melancthon and the 
Rom. Catholic by the Dean Jacob von Eltz. 

The Synagogue near the Mainzer Thor is an object of 
interest to antiquarians , though externally of unimposing 
appearance. The Jewish community of Worms is one of the 
oldest in Germany, and is said to have existed as early as 
588 B. C, at the time of the first destruction of the Temple 
by the Babylonians. 

Heil's Garden is worth a visit on account of the magnificent 
palms and rare plants which the hot-houses contain. 

In the Mainzer suburb, destroyed by the Swedes and the 
French, the "Liebfrauenkirche, or Church of our Lady, 
3 / 4 M. from the cathedral, alone escaped. The broad path 
to the r. which leads to it, diverges from the high-road 
about 100 yards from the Mainzer Thor, and passes the old 
churchyard, bounded on the S. by fragmeEts of walls connected 
with the old church. The church was erected at the close of 
the 15th cent, to replace an older edifice which occupied the 
same site ; the key-stone of the vaulted roof bears the arms 
of the different corporations of Worms who caused it to be 
built. The only object of interest which the interior contains 
is a curious old piece of painted sculpture in the N. aisle. 
The Portal is decorated with well-executed statues, representing 
the wise and foolish virgins, the death of the Virgin and her 
coronation by the Saviour. Service on Saturdays and those 
days which are dedicated to the Virgin. 

The well-known second-class wine called Liebfrauenmilch is 
yielded by vineyards in the immediate vicinity of the church. 
Near the old watch-tower Luginsland, and at the Catetloch on 
the S. side of the town, a wine scarcely inferior to the above 
is produced. 

In former times the Rhine flowed round a meadow known 
to this day by the name of the Rosengarten, on the r. bank 
of the river, opposite to Worms. With it are connected many 
ancient German traditions, preserved in the poetry of Siegfried 
and the Nibelungen, to appreciate which, however, a thorough 
acquaintance with the old German language and literature is 
requisite. 

48. Speyer. 

Speyer ( * Wittehbacher Hqf; Rheinischer Hoi; *Bregenzer'f 
Restaurant near the cathedral), the principal town of the 



SPEYER. 48. Route. 201 

Bavarian Palatinate, seat of Government and'a bishopric, "city 
of the dead emperors," has a pop. of 11,000 (% Prot). It 
was known to the Romans as Noviomagus, Neomagus, Nemetce, 
or Augusta Nemetum, and as, by the partition of Verdun (843), 
it became with Worms and Mayence a portion of Germany, 
it has frequently been the residence of German monarchs. It 
especially rose to importance under the Salic kings, who 
resided at their palace of Limburg nearDurkheim (p. 191), 18 M. 
from Speyer. 

The **Cathedral (opeji till 11 a.m., and from 2 to 6 p.m.) 
was founded in 1030 by Conrad II. as a burial place for him- 
self and his successors, and completed by his son Henry III., 
and grandson Henry IV. (1061), all of whom found their last 
resting-place within its precincts. The remains of Henry IV., 
however, who had been excommunicated by Pope Gregory, 
were not conveyed here till 5 years after his death, during 
which period his body remained unburied in the Chapel of 
St. Afra, on the N. side of the cathedral, which he himself 
had erected. His son Henry V., the last of the Salic imperial 
family, is also interred in the cathedral, as well as Philip 
of Swabia, Rudolph of Habsburg , Adolph of Nassau, and 
Albert I. of Austria, by whose' hand Adolph fell at Gollheim 
(p. 190). After the mufder of Albert I., the Emperor Henry VII. 
caused the remains of the two rival monarchs to be deposited 
side by side in the same vault. Here too lie the remains of 
Gisela, the pious consort of Conrad II., Bertha, the queen of 
Henry IV., and Beatrice, the wife of Barbarossa, with her 
daughter Agnes. The cathedral was in 1146 the scene of the 
zealous and fiery preaching of St. Bernhard, whose fervency in 
the cause of the Cross induced Conrad III. to join the crusades. 

The cathedral suffered much by a great conflagration in 
1450, but was soon restored. On May 31st, 1689, the sacred 
edifice was laid waste by the fire and sword of the French 
soldiery, who in their eagerness for spoil did not even respect 
the resting-places of the dead. The tombs of the emperors 
were broken open and ransacked, the finest towers in the 
town were blown up, the inhabitants driven out, and the town 
itself, after having been filled with combustibles, committed 
to the flames and completely destroyed, whilst the most fright- 
ful atrocities were practised by the hirelings of the "most 
christian" Louis XIV. The demolition of the imperial monu- 
ments was again repeated in 1693 by the order of the French 
intendant Henz, and by a singular coincidence, exactly 100 years 
later, on the same anniversary, the despoliation of the tombs 
of the French kings at St. Denis was perpetrated under the 
direction of one Hentz, a representative of the people, and the 



202 Route 48. 



SPEYER. 



Cathedral. 



ashes of Louis XIV., the devastator of the Palatinate, were 
the first to suffer what appeared to be a righteous retribution 
In the following year (1794, Jan. 10th -20th) the cathedral 
was subjected to a new devastation. Everything of a combustible 
nature, crosses, altars, prayer-books & c . were burned in a heap 

-"" in front of the sacred edifice, 

while the republicans danced 
demoniacallyround the pile. 
The church was further de- 
secrated by being converted 
into a magazine, and was 
actually, at the close of the 
last century, on the ! point 
of being put up to public 
auction at a valuation of 
8000 fr., a degrading fate 
it was happily spared. Na- 
poleon ordered it in 1806 
to be rededicated to public 
worship, but in the absence 
of funds it still continued 
to be used as a store-house. 
In '1822 it was completely 
restored by the assistance 
of the king Maximilian, and 
again devoted to its sacred 
purposes. 

The crypt, under the 
transept and choir, is in all 
respects the same as it was 
in 1039; the choir, with 
the two E. towers, belongs 
probably to a date sub- 
sequent to 1068, while the 
upper parts of the church 
are believed to have been 
erected after a fire in 1159. 
The whole edifice is a grand 
and massive, but simple 
specimen of the Romanesque 
style. 

The Front of the cathedral was newly constructed from 
the designs of the eminent architect Hiibsch of Carlsruhe in 
1854—58, as well as the W. spire (225 ft.) and the Kaiser- 
Halle (Imperial Hall). The large circular window in front has 
a head of the Saviour crowned with thorns in the centre on 




Cathedral. SPEYER. 48. Route. 203 

a gold ground, and in the corners the emblematic figures of 
the four Evangelists, an angel (Matthew) , winged lion (Mark), 
ox (Luke), and eagle (John). Over the principal gate is the 
imperial double eagle, and over the side entrances the lion of 
the Palatinate. In the entrance (Imperial) hall under the 
W. towers, in niches of gold mosaic, were placed in 1858 
statues of the emperors interred in the Kings' choir; on the 
r. Conrad II., Rudolph of Habsburg, Adolph of Nassau, and 
Albert of Austria; on the 1. Henry III., Henry IV. (in the 
robes of a penitent), Heijry V., and Philip of Swabia. The 
four reliefs are by Pilz: Conrad laying the foundation-stone of 
the cathedral; Rudolph and the priest with the host; Rudolph 
receiving the tidings of his election to the imperial throne; 
the same emperor taking the cross from the altar at his 
■coronation at Aix-la-Chapelle. Over the principal inner portal 
is represented the consecration of the church to the Virgin, on 
tthe I. St. Bernhard and St. Stephen, on the r. John the Baptist 
and the painter Schraudolph. 

The entire length of the Cathedral is 475 ft., and the 
■breadth of the body 130 ft.; the transept is 190 ft. in length, 
.and the body of the church 100 ft. high; externally the length 
is exactly 200 yds., and the breadth of the front 58 yds. In 
the interior from the entrance-choir to the kings' choir is 
:90 yds., the kings' choir 30, and the principal and foundation 
•choir 56 yds. long; the breadth of the nave is 60 and that 
of the chief choir about 87 yds. The central portion of the 
■edifice is double the height of the aisles. 

Two inscriptions in the church itself, over the W. side- 
•doors, are to the following effect : This house of God, destroyed 
J>y fire m 1689, was rebuilt in 1772 by the Archbishop Imperial. 
Count of Limburg-Styrum , despoiled in 1794, again restored in 
182'Q 'by Maximilian Joseph L, King of Bavafia. Maximilian II., 
King of Bavaria caused it to be embellished with paintings by 
Jdhann Schraudolph and adorned by Joseph Schwarzmann, completed 
■in 1853. 

In tihe kings' choir, on broad pedestals, stand two large 
stone *Statues; on the r. Rudolph of Habsburg, of Tyrolese 
marble by Schwanthaler, is represented in a sitting posture 
with a sword in his r. hand and a helmet at his feet, as the 
restorer of peace and order after the sad interregnum. The 
features bear a faithful resemblanee to a genuine tombstone 
of the emperor, which still exists in the vaults of the church. 
The statue on the 1., executed in sandstone by Ohmacht, re- 
presents the emperor Adolph in a kneeling position. 

On the r. and 1. sides of the passage to the principal choir 
two reliefs, formerly in the vaults, were built into the walls 



204 Route 48. SPEYER. 

in 1853; each contains full-figured likenesses of four emperors, 
partially gilt, and bearing old Latin inscriptions. 

The frescoes in the nave, finished in 1852, are 32 in 
number, and are among the finest specimens of modern 
German art. 

** Frescoes, executed by Jo/t. Schraudolpli, assisted by V. Schraudolph 
and others, since 1845; the decorations by Joseph Schwarzmann. Nave. 
N. wall: 1. Adam and Eve; 2. Abraham's promise; 3. David's vision; 4. The 
birth of the Virgin; 5. Her bethrothal; 6. Visited by the angel; 7. Adoration 
of the Magi; 8. The circumcision; 9. Mary finds Jesus in the Temple; 10. Jo- 
seph's death; 11. Jesus teaching; 12. The risen Saviour. S. wall: 1. Noah's 
thankotfering; 2. Moses at the bush; 3. Prophesying of Jeremias; 4. Mary's 
sacrifice; 5. The Angel's greeting; 6. The nativity of Christ; 7. Simeon's 
prophecy; 8. The flight to Egypt; 9. Jesus at Nazareth; 10. Marriage at 
Cana; 11. Crucifixion; 12. Descent of the Holy Ghost. On the vaulted 
cupola: the Lamb, Abel, Abraham, Melchisedech, the manna, Isaiah, Jere- 
miah, Ezekiel, Daniel, and the Evangelists. S. side-choir: Stoning of 
Stephen; above it Stephen before the council; to the I. the consecration of 
the deacons and beheading of the martyr Stephen; on the wall at the back: 
prayer of the same saint. N. side-choir: Vision of St. Bernhard; above 
it, arrival of St. Bernhard in Speyer; on the r., his prayer at the altar, and 
under it the presentation of the banner of the Cross; on the back part of 
the wall: Miraculous cure of a boy; Departure of the saints. Foundation 
choir: Mary and John; Death of Mary; Her interment, ascension and co- 
ronation. — The coloured sketches and cartoons are exhibited in a room above 
the S. baptistery (adtn. 12 kr.); entrance from the S. side-choir. On the 
exterior a gallery without balustrades extends round the whole cathedral and 
not only affords a fine view of the neighbourhood, but gives the visitor an 
opportunity of inspecting the frescoes in the nave and choir from above. 
The sexton (30 kr.) acts as guide. — The crypt, restored in 1857, under the 
choir, is in an architectural point of view well worth visiting. 

The ancient Churchyard of the cathedral is now converted 
into grounds planted with trees. On the S. side of the building 
is the Oelberg (Mt. of Olives), a curious mass of stone, with 
emblematical representations in sandstone, surrounded by five 
insulated Gothic pillars, the whole erected in 1441. It was 
originally a chapel in the ancient cloisters, of which no trace 
is now left, and represented the garden of Gethseraane and 
the capture of the Saviour. Near it under the trees is the 
Domnapf, or cathedral-bowl, a large vessel of sandstone, once 
marking the boundary between the episcopal and civic juris- 
diction. Every new bishop was obliged, after having vowed 
to respect the freedom of the town, to fill this vessel with 
wine, which was then emptied to his health by the towns- 
people. To the E. of the choir rises from among the trees 
the Heidenthurmchen (Heathens' Tower), the foundation of which 
is ascribed to the Romans. It belonged in all probability to 
the old town-wall built by Bishop Rudger in 1080. It contains 
the bones of some antediluvian animals and relics of the 
middle ages. In a N.E. direction from the cathedral is an 
open hall enclosed by railings called the Hall of Antiquities, in 
which Roman and other relics found in the Rhenish Palatinate 
are preserved. 



BRUCHSAL. -19. Route. 205 

The Cathedral is bounded on the E. by trie broad Maximi- 
lian road; on the W. by a fine old tower called the Altportel, 
the sole relic of the once free Imperial town; the imperial 
eagle which formerly adorned its summit has long since dis- 
appeared. 

The devastations of the French in Speyer have left few other 

relics of antiquity. A mouldering wall by the Protestant church 

is all that remains of the ancient imperial palace called the 

Retscher, where 29 diets were held, from one of which, under 

Charles V., emanated in l£29 the celebrated "Protest" from 

which the " Protestants " derive their appellation. The bishops, 

who like those of Cologne were not permitted to live in the 

town, resided up to the commencement of the 17th cent, in 

the Madenburg (p. 193), and afterwards in Bruchsal. 

From Speyer travellers may descend the Rhine in */ 4 hr. to Ketsch (Inn) 
by small boat (48 kr. and upwards according to the number of the party), 
whence a good footpath, traversing a pine-forest, leads to Sehwetzingen 
(p. 186) in y„ hr. 



49. From Heidelberg to Carlsruhe. 

Baden Railway. By express in l'/ 4 hr., by ordinary trains in 2 his. 
Fares by express 2 fl. 42 and 1 fl. 51 kr. ; by ordinary trains 2 fl. 12 kr., 
1 fl. 30 kr. and 1 fl. 

The line traverses the wide and fertile plain, bounded on the 
E. by a low range of hills, and intersects fields, meadows, and 
small plantations, and here and there passes villages peeping 
out from among innumerable fruit-trees. The train has scarcely 
left the station before the new cemetery-chapel, and behind it 
the slender tower of the Konigsstuhl come in sight. Langen- 
brucken (Ochs; Sonne), the third station, possesses sulphur baths, 
and near it, to the r. of the line, ia Kislan, formerly a hunting- 
castle of the archbishops of Speyer, now a penitentiary for 
women. Opposite to it, at some distance off, lies Mingolsheim, 
where in 1622 Count Ernst of Mansfeld, the ally of the Elector 
Frederick V., gained a victory over the Bavarians under 
Tilly. 

Bruchsal (*Badischer Hof, R.48, B.24, A. 18 kr.; Zdkringer 
Hof), formerly a residence of the archbishops of Speyer, now 
the seat of a court of justice held in the Schloss. The 
castellated building to the 1. of the line is a prison, capable 
of containing 408 criminals in separate cells. The church of 
St. Peter contains monuments of the last bishops of the place. 

At' Bruchsal is the junction of the Wurttemberg West-line 
and the Baden State-railway, which is connected by means of 
the former line with the Wurttemberg North-line (to Stuttgart 
in 2—3 hrs.). 



206 Route 50. CARLSRUHE. 

On the Michaelsberg, near Unter-Grombach, is situated the 
Michaelscapelle, and on an eminence near Weingarten the tower 
of the ruined castle of Schmalenstein. 

Durlach. (*Carlsburg, R. and B. 54 kr.), the ancient capital 
of the Duchy of Baden-Durlach, was, with the exception of 
5 houses, burned to the ground by the French in 1688. The 
lofty watch-tower of the Thurmberg, visible for many miles 
round, commands a magnificent view as far as Strasbourg. 
Here the line to Pforzheim diverges to the 1. 

The train now proceeds by the side of the straight high- 
road, planted with rows of poplars, past the old Benedictine 
monastery of Gottsau (on the r.), now an Artillery-barrack. The 
station of Carlsruhe deserves a moment's attention on account 
of the excellence of its design and arrangement. On the W. 
side stands a fine Statue of the state-minister Winter in the 
posture of an orator. 



50. Carlsruhe. 

Hotels. 'Erbprinz, in the Langestrasse, very attentive landlord, R. 
I fl., L. 18, B. 24, A. 24 kr. ; 'English Hotel, and 'Hotel Grosse, in 
the market-place, similar prices. — 'GoIdnerAdler, the second hotel to 
the 1. on entering the town by the Ettlinger Thor, moderate. Griiner 
Hof, to the E. of the station. 

Caf6-Restaurant. *Hoeck (Griiner Hof). Beck, Carl-Friedrichsstrasse ; 
beer at Kappler's, Neff's, etc. 

Carnages. One-horse, for 1—2 pers. for 1 / l hr. 12 kr. To the station to 
meet the early train (before 6) 1 tl. 

Telegraph Office in the Kreuzstrasse, No. 14. 

Military Music daily from 12 to 1 in the Schlossplatz. 

English Church Service in the Chapel of the Stiftung, near the Miihl- 
berg gate. 

Carlsruhe, the capital and residence of the court of the Grand- 
duchy of Baden, with a population of 27,000 (10,000 Rom. Cath., 
and 1000 Jews), is situated 3 M. from the Rhine, on the skirts 
of the Hardwald, and is indebted for its origin to some 
differences between the Margrave Carl Wilhelm and the towns- 
people of Durlach. He commenced in 1715 to lay out the 
grounds of the town round his hunting-castle, which soon gave 
place to the present palace. The plan of the town resembles 
a fan, the palace being the centre from which the streets 
radiate. Carlsruhe is a quiet, clean and well-built town, in 
which three distinct architectural styles may be observed. 
1st: that of the beginning of the last century, — the older French 
style; 2nd: imitations of the Greek and Roman styles; 3d: the 
modern Romanesque (circular) School, of which the talented 
architect Hubsch is a warm supporter. 

The Ettlinger Thor (PI. 45) near the station, adorned with 
half-relief sculptures, emblematical of the union of a part of 



Schloss. CARLSR1JHE. 50. Route. 207 

the Rhenish Palatinate with Baden, forms the' N. limit of the 
town. The objects of interest to the traveller are almost all 
comprised in the Carl-Friedrichssfrasse, which runs from the 
above-mentioned gate to the palace. They present thernselves 
in the following order: the Obelisk, with the arms of Baden 
and bust of the Grand-duke Carl (1811 — 1818), with inscription-, 
to the r. of the monument the Palace of the Margrave Wjlhelm; 
on the 1. side of the market-place the Town-hall (PI. 41), and 
on the r. side the Prot. Church (PI. 49), with its five Corinthian 
pillars, resembling a Greek temple; Statue of the, Grand-duke 
Ludwig (1818 — 1830); Pyramid in honour of the founder of 
Carlsruhe, the Margrave Carl (d. 1738); in front of the palace 
the *Bronze statue of the Grand-duke Charles Frederick (d. 1811), 
executed by Schwanthaler; at the corners of the pedestal are 
four female figures, personifying the four divisions of the Duchy, 
the whole well-designed, the statue itself being particularly 
well executed. 

The Schloss (PI. 1), or palace, erected in 1750, is built 
in the form of a semi-circle, and is surmounted by the Blei- 
thurm (140 ft), open on Frid. from 4 to 6 p.m., whence a 
good survey of the town and the Hardwald may be made. 
The dining-hall, ball-room, throne-room and other apartments 
are magnificently fitted up. The Court-library (PI. 3) occupies 
the E. wing; a Cabinet of Nat. History (open Wed. and Sat. 
10 — 12 and 3 — 5 o'clock) in the same part of the building, 
contains among other curiosities the remains of several ante- 
diluvian animals, and a valuable collection of shells. The 
well-appointed ducal stables are also on the same side. 

In the crescent to the W. of the Schloss is situated the 
Court-theatre, a handsome modern building, erected in 1847 — 
1853, to replace the former, whi,ch had been burned down. 
In the pediment to the r. are reliefs of Goethe, Schiller, and 
Lessing, and on the 1. of Mozart, Beethoven, and Gluck ; in 
the centre the Muse of dramatic Poetry. 

An arched passage in the W. wing of the Schloss leads 
to the Palace-garden, the grounds of which extend into the 
Hardwald. About 300 yds. to the N.W. of the Bleithurm, in 
the middle of a small alley, is a bust of the poet Hebel, with 
quotations from his poetry. To the 1. of the entrance of the 
garden are situated the extensive hot-houses fitted up as a 
Winter-garden, containing a palm-house, pond for the Victoria 
regia, orangery, green-houses, &c. The adjoining Botanical 
garden (PI. 9) is open daily (Sat. and Sun. excepted), before 12 
and after 2 o'clock ; adm. to the hot-houses on Mon. and Frid. 
only, 9— -12 and 3 — 5 o'clock; to procure admittance at other 
times application must be made to the committee. 



208 Route JO. CARLSRUHE. 

Adjacent to the botanical garden is the "Hall of Art 
(PI. 8), erected by Hubsch (1836—1845) in the modern Ro- 
manesque style. It contains collections of pictures, casts and 
antiquities, open to the public on Wed. and Sun. 11 — 12 and 
-> — 4 o'clock; at other times for a fee of 30 kr. Frommel's 
catalogue (42 kr.) gives a full description of everything 
contained in the Hall. The director is the eminent painter 
K. F. Lessing. 

The stair case is adorned by some fine frescoes by Sc/iwind. That on 
the wall at the back represents the consecration of the cathedral at Freiburg 
by Duke Conrad of Zahringen; the flag-bearer is a portrait of the Grand- 
duke Leopold, holding the crown-prince by the hand, the crowned female 
figures are the Grand duchess and the princesses. 

The collection of pictures is, on the whole, one of considerable value, 
especially those by modern German masters, but those of the older schools, 
among which are several attributed to Murillo, Rembrandt, Michel Angela, Ac, 
are of inferior worth. 

The Polytechnic School (PI. 62), an excellent educational 
intitution, possessing a considerable laboratory and attended 
by about 500 pupils, is situated near the Durlacher Thor at 
the E. end of the Langestrasse, and was erected by Hubsch. 
Over the entrance are two stone statues by Raufer, of Keppler, 
who represents the mathematical, and Erwin of Steinbach the 
architectural sciences. In the immediate vicinity of the Dur- 
lacher Thor, a little way back from the street, stands the 
Arsenal (PI. 65), bravely defended in the revolution of 1849 
by the townspeople against the insurgents. 

The Finanz-Ministerium (PI. 29), at the E. corner of the 

Schlossplatz, was also erected by Hubsch, as well as the 

Landesgestiit (national stud) near the station, the arrangements 

of which are worthy the notice of those who are interested 

in such establishments. 

The Cemetery of Carlsruhe deserves a visit on account of the taste and care 
displayed in the arrangement of the grounds, as well as from its tombstones 
and monuments. Among the latter may be mentioned the *Preussen- 
Denkmal, a handsome monumeut in memory of the Prussians who fell in 
the revolution of 1849, erected in 1851 from designs furnished by the late 
king Fred. William IV. himself. 

Railway from Carlsruhe to the Rhine, by Muhlburg to Maxau 
in y 2 hr.; fares 27, 18, 12 kr. 



51. From Carlsruhe to Baden. 

By the Baden Railway in 1—2 hrs. Fares 1 fl. 42 kr., 1 fl. 9 kr., 
or 48 kr. As the train approaches Rastadt a fine view of the Black Forest 
may be obtained from the E. side of the train. 

As the train leaves the station, the statue of the minister 
Winter (p. 206) is seen on the r., and beyond it Kessler's extensive 
engine manufactory. Farther on, at some distance to the r., 



RASTADT. 51. Route. 209 

lies the tillage of Bulach with its handsome •church with two 
spires , erected by Hiibsch. To the 1., on a well-wooded 
eminence, lies the industrial little town of Ettlingeu (Hirsch; 
Krone) with large velvet and paper manufactories. 

From stat. Muggensturm an omnibus (also diligence twice 
daily, 36 kr.) runs to Gernsbach (p. 214) in the Murgthal, the 
mountains enclosing which bound the view to the 1. The 
heights of the Black Forest now gradually come in sight, the 
most conspicuous of which is the Mercuriusberg with its 
tower. In the foreground are the ruins of the castle of Eber- 
steinburg (p. 215). As the train approaches Rastadt, the statue 
of Jupiter on the palace is seen high above the green ramparts 
of the town. 

Rastadt (*Post; Kreuz; *L6we; *Laterne; the two latter 
are second-class houses), with a pop. of 6000, was burned 
down by the French in 1689, but soon after rebuilt by the 
celebrated imperial general, the Margrave Ludwig of Baden, 
and continued to be the residence of the Margraves till the 
line became extinct. 

In 1840 Rastadt was destined to be a fortress of the Con- 
federation, and is garrisoned by Austrian, Baden and Prussian 
troops. 

The handsome Palace, completed by the Margravine Sibylla 

Augusta (p. 215), now employed as a barrack, the garden being 

converted into an exercising-ground, stands on an eminence 

and is surmounted by a gilded statue of Jupiter. It contains 

a collection of Turkish trophies, taken by the Margrave Ludwig 

Wilhelm, arms, caparisons &c, besides a number of family 

portraits. The tower commands an extensive view (castellan's 

fee 24 kr.). In one of the apartments the articles which formed 

the basis of the peace concluded at Baden in Switzerland 

between France and Austria, which terminated the war of 

succession, were signed by Prince Eugene of Savoy and Marshal 

Villars. A congress was also held here in 1797 — 1799, which, 

however, led to no result, and at its close the two French 

delegates were barbarously murdered in the adjacent wood near 

the Rheinauer Thor; the pepetrators of the outrage were never 

discovered. 

The fortress of Rastadt served in 1849 as a last place of refuge to the 
remnant of the Baden insurgents, about 6000 in number, among whom were 
adventurers of all nations. After a resistance of three weeks, they at last 
surrendered to the Prussian troops, July 23rd, 1849. Curiously enough, the 
revolution had also begun at Rastadt, on May 11th, iu the same year. 

The train now crosses the Murg. Farther on, between Rastadt 

and Oos, the hunting-seat Favorite may be seen in the midst 

of shrubberies. At Oos the Baden branch diverges from the 

main-line, and in 10 min. the latter place is reached. 

Baedeker's Rhine. 14 



210 

52. Baden and its Environs. 

Hotels. 'Victoria-Hotel, in the Leopoldsplatz. Ba den Ho tel (with 
baths), at the entrance to the town. *Engli s h H o t el, at the Promenaden- 
briicke. 'European Hotel, opposite to the pump-room. These four Hotels 
are of the 1st class; charges: R. V/„ fl. and upwards, L. 24, B. 42, D. inc. W. 
at 5 o'clock 1 fl. 48, A. 24 kr. Russischer Hof, "Zahringer Hof (with 
baths), Franzosischer Hof, Hotel Royal. Hirsch (with baths), 
Darmstadter Hof (with baths), charges somewhat more moderate than in 
the first mentioned. — *Stadt Baden, immediately on leaving the station 
R. 48 kr. to 1 fl. 12 kr., L. 18, B. 28, D. at 1 o'clock 1 fl. 12, at 5 o'clock 
1 fl. 36, A. 18 kr. — 'Stadt Strassburg, Hotel and Cafe, at the end of 
the new promenade, R. 1 fl., B. 24, D. exc. W. at 1 o'clock 1 fl., at 6 o'clock 
1 fl. 24 kr. — Eugel, at the Gemsbacher Thor, more moderate. Bar in 
the Lichtenthal (p. 212), l'/ 2 M. from the Conversationshaus, very moderate. — 
The best wines of the country are Affenthaler (red), Klingenberger and 
Markgrafler (white). 

Cafes. Cafe -Restaurant in the Conversationshaus. A la Fleur, 
near the Russ. Hof. Cafe de Hollande on the n°w Promenade, Ac. At 
the following beer may procured: Haug, and Gorger, at the station. 
Geist, at the Gemsbacher Thor. Krone. 

Telegraph-office at the station. 

Theatre. Performances in summer by a French company, in spring and 
autumn by that of the Carlsruhe theatre. 

Carriages. The following charges iuclude drivers' fees. Ebersteinschloss 5, 
or returning by Gernsbach 5'/ 2 , Ebersteinburg 4, Fremersberg 3, same by the 
Jagdhaus 4, Jagdhaus 3, Seelach 3, Geroldsau to the waterfall 4, Favorite 
3 1 /,, Gernsbach 4'/„, Rothen/els 4%, Yburg 5, to the old castle (allowing time 
to "inspect it) and back 4 fl. (Should any of the above excursions occupy more 
than 6 hrs. the charge is increased by one half). Ebersteinsc' loss, Gerns- 
bach, Rothen/els, Kuppenheim, Favorite 7 fl., Forbach 9 fl., same through 
the Murgthal 10 fl., Wildbad 18 fl., Rippoldsau 20 fl. — By time: '/ t hr. for 
1—2 pers. 24 kr., 3—4 pers. 30 kr..; '/ 2 hr. 36—45 kr.; '/ t hr. 48 kr.— 1 fl.; 
1 hr. 1 fl.— 1 fl. 15 kr. ; 2 hrs. 1 fl. 48 kr.-2 fl. 12 kr., &c. — Donkeys: 
i /. l day 1 fl. 12 kr., whole day 2 fl. Carriage and donkey-stands opposite to 
the English Hotel, at the end of the avenue leading to the Conversations- 
haus, opposite to the Baden Hotel, and in the Leopoldsplatz. Omnibus from 
the station into the town 12 kr. inc. luggage. 

English Church Service in the Spital Kirche. 

Baden has the reputation of being an expensive watering-place, and such it 
probably is to those who frequent the first-class hotels, attend the numerous 
Matinees musicales (adm. 5 — 20 fr.), and are led away by the seductive 
attractions of the gaming-tables; but all the charms and enjoyments of the 
place may be participated in without any very serious inroad being made 
upon the purse. The expenses of a single visitor need not exceed 100-120 fl. 
per month, for Baden affords, iu common with large towns, the opportunities 
of regulating the expenditure in accordance with the resources at command. 
A respectable private lodging in a good situation may be procured for 
6—10 fl. a week; breakfast in the lodging-houses costs 12—15 kr. ; dinner at 
a restaurant 42 kr. (e. g. at Frau Zerr's, Leopoldstrasse 154, at any hour 
after 12 o'clock, price as above; or at Frau Goringer's, in the new Pro- 
menade, or at Buhl's). A bath costs 12 — 36 kr. according to circumstances. 
The water may be drunk in both the pump-rooms without charge, other kinds 
of mineral water, with whey and goats' milk, are supplied in the new pump- 
room at fixed charges. 

The visitor who wishes to spent only one day at Baden should, after 
devoting an hour or so the Old castle, take the following drive: by Hauen- 
Eberstiin to the Faeorite, by Kuppenheim, Rothen/els (good hotel and bath- 
house, and seat of the Margrave Wilhelm), Gaggenau , Ottenau, Gernsbach 
through the Murgthal, the Ebersteinschloss, Lichtenthal, and back to Baden. 
This drive, comprising the most remarkable points in the environs of Baden, 
costs for a one-horse 6, for a two-horse carriage 8 ft., and requires about 
6 hrs. The visitor would thus have time enough to visit the "Morning-cure" 



Pump-room. BADEN. 52. Route. 211 

in the new Pump-room (6 — 8 a.m.) and see the "Corso" after 6 p.m. in the 
"Lichtenthaler Allee." The animated scene in front of the Conversationshaus 
does not commence till after 7. The drive may be shortened by 1 hr. by 
omitting the Rococo Favorite (p. 215). 

The pedestrian may walk from Baden to the castle of Eberstein and 
Germbach in 3 hrs., and then take the diligence (36 kr.), or the omnibus 
(30 kr.) which runs every morning and evening by Ottenau, Gaggenau, 
Jiotherifels, and Bisc/iweier, to the station at Muygensturm. 

Baden (generally called Baden-Baden, to distinguish it from 
the places of the same name near Vienna and in Switzerland) 
lies at the entrance of the Black Forest, among picturesque 
and well-wooded Mils in the delightful valley of the Oos or 
Oel-Bach. It vies with Heidelberg and Freiburg in the beauty 
of its situation, which is scarcely inferior to any in Upper 
Germany. The climate is mild and salubrious, and the efficacy 
of the waters was known even to the Romans, who called it 
Aurelia aqvensis. For six centuries it was the seat of the 
Margraves of Baden, among whom Hermann III. (d. 1190 in 
the Crusades) was the first who resided in the old castle. 
The new castle, immediately above the town, was erected by 
the Margrave Christoph in 1479, but both town and castle 
suffered so much in the 30 Years' war, and especially in the 
war of the Palatinate (1689), that the Margraves soon after 
transferred their residence to Eastadt. 

The town is not large (pop. 7000), but the influx of visitors 
is very great, amounting to upwards of 40,000 annually, and 
even in winter about 200 strangers reside here. The French 
language and manners predominate. 

The Ooshach separates the bathing from the town-population. 
The former confine themselves almost exclusively to the grounds 
which extend along the 1. bank of the stream, the Conversations- 
haus and the Pump-room being the central points of attraction. 
The * Pump-room ("Trhrkhalle") was erected in 1842, and 
decorated with 14 frescoes by Gotzenberger, representing tra- 
ditions of the Black Forest, but unfortunately somewhat faded. 
Admittance free. A few paces farther is the Conversations- 
haus, magnificently fitted up, and containing drawing-rooms, 
dining, concert and gaming-rooms. The latter are open from 
11 a.m. till 12 at night, and the fact that the lessee pays a rent 
of about 11,000/., and has besides to defray all the expenses 
of the establishment, will afford some idea of the extent to 
which play is indulged in. The shady alley which leads from 
the E. side of the Conversationshaus to the English Hotel is 
the bazaar of Baden, which, as well as the other walks in the 
vicinity, is the rendezvous of the gay world from 3 to 4, and 
during the open air concerts after 7 p.m. 

A handsome avenue, which commences near the Conver- 
sationshaus leads in a S.E. direction to the (1 ] / 2 M.) Convent 

14* 



212 Route 52. BADEN. Pfarrkirche. 

of Lichtenthal (Bar; Ludwigsbad ; Graff's brewery), founded 
in 1245 by Irmengard, grand-daughter of Henry the Lion, and 
widow of Hermann IV. of Baden, as is recorded by the picture 
in the choir of the church, where the beautiful tombstone 
of the foundress is also to be seen. At the side-altars are 
the richly decorated skeletons of the martyrs St. Pius and 
St. Benedictus. The convent has fortunately escaped the de- 
vastations of war and the ravages of time, and is still occupied 
by nuns, who pass their days in the strictest seclusion. The 
*Todtencapelle (mortuary chapel) which stands apart in front 
of the church, belongs to the 13th cent., and was formerly 
the church of the convent. It contains tombstones of the 
Margraves of Baden-Durlach, and altar-pieces by the old German 
master Hans Baldung, surnamed Griin. The Orphan Asylum, 
situated within the precincts of the convent, was founded by 
the wealthy and benevolent tailor Stulz, who was afterwards 
ennobled under the name of von Ortenberg. The Gunzen- 
buchthal, the second valley which diverges from the road in a 
S. direction, is a favourite haunt of mineralogists. 

The Theatre, erected in 1861, at the entrance of the 
Lichtenthal avenue, and adjoining the Conversationshaus, is 
magnificently fitted up. Near it is the Statue of the Grand- 
duke Leopold, in the Leopoldsplatz, also erected in 1861. 

Among the churches of Baden the only one worthy of 
note is the *Pfarrkirche, or Stiftskirche , belonging to the 
15th cent., "in sceculo VII. exstructa, in ecclesiam collegiatam 
erecta 1453, incendio vastata 1689, reparata 1753." The choir 
contains * monuments of the Rom. Cath. Margraves of Baden, 
commencing with Bernhard I. (d. 1431). 

The most interesting are those of Leopold Wilhelm (d. 1671 at Warasdin in 
Hungary), the celebrated general who fought against the Turks with Stahrem- 
berg and Montecucoli — a recumbent efh'gy on a sarcophagus supported by two 
Turks; Frederick, bishop of Utrecht (d. 1517), a knightly figure in armour; 
Ludmig Wilhelm (d. 1707 at Rastadt; see p. 209), the greatest general of his 
time, "who commanded in 26 campaigns without sustaining a single defeat, 
and was the companion of Vrince Eugene in the Turkish wars (executed by 
Pigal, the sculptor of the monument of Marshal Saxe at Strasburg, but 
overloaded with ornameuts aud devoid of good taste). 

The handsome new Protestant Church, is situated on 
the S.E. side of the town, on the r. bank of the Oos. 

The Old Churchyard, at the Gernsbacher Thor, with a 
statue of a Gravedigger on a lofty pedestal, contains several 
well-known names, among others those of the poet Ludwig 
Robert (born at Berlin 1778, d. 1832) and the French general 
Guilleminot (d. 1840). There is also a curious representation 
of the Mount of Olives, with Christ praying and the sleeping 
disciples. Above the entrance gateway is a relief (1482) of 



Schloss. BADEN. 52. Route. 213 

the head of the Saviour on a grave-cloth. The large new 
Cemetery also contains several handsome monuments. 

Behind the Pfarrkirche are the sources of the Hot Springs, 
thirteen in number, which issue from the rocks of the palace- 
terrace, called the Schneckengarten, and are conducted by 
means of pipes to the different bathing-establishments of the 
town. Their temperature ranges from 115° to 153° Fahr., and 
they yield upwards of 90 gallons per minute. The principal 
spring, called the Ursprung, is enclosed by ancient Roman 
masonry, and the handsome building erected over the spot 
in 1847 is fitted up for Vapour baths a la Russe. 

A part of the old Pump-room has been fitted up as a Hall 
of Antiquities (12 kr.), in which many Roman relics found 
in the neighbourhood are exhibited, among others a mile- 
stone bearing the name of Marcus Aurelius (Caracalla), stones 
dedicated to Neptune, Minerva, and Hercules, the original of 
the altar of Mercury on the Stauffenberg, and tombstones of 
Roman soldiers. 

The so-called Neue Schloss, situated on a hill above the 
town, was founded in 1479, enlarged in 1519, dismantled 
in 1689, and afterwards partially restored. It is now used as 
a summer-residence by the Grand-duke, but contains few objects 
of interest, with the exception of the subterranean vaults and 
rooms, furnished with iron and stone doors, sometimes called 
Roman baths, sometimes dungeons of the Vehmgericht (Secret 
Tribunal). There are unmistakeable traces of ancient baths, 
but whether they owe their origin to the Romans or not, is 
involved in uncertainty (fee 18 kr.). 

From the new castle a carriage-road ascends N. to the 
Old castle; about % M. from the former, at the thatched summer- 
house, a broad foot-path branches off to the r. through the 
fragrant fir-wood ; sign-posts are placed at intervals; ] / 2 M. farther, 
at the Sophienruhe, a clear spring of water, the path crosses 
the road. Another J / 4 hr. will bring the pedestrian to the castle. 

The Old Castle, probably founded in the 10th or 11th cent, 
was, till the erection of the new castle, the seat of the Margraves, 
and afterwards of several of the dowager Margravines, but 
since its destruction by the French in 1689 it has been a 
complete ruin. The chapel of St. Ulrich, to the 1. on entering, 
is now converted into an inn. The view from the top of the 
tower is one of singular beauty; in the distance lies the 
whole expanse of the valley of the Rhine from Worms to 
beyond Strasburg (the town itself is hidden), and in the fore- 
ground the lovely valley of Baden with its bright shining villas 
and rich-pasture land, presenting a striking contrast to the 
sombre hue of the fir-woods. 



214 Route 52. GERNSBACH. 

Near the old castle lie cleft masses of porphyry, resembling 
in one place the ruined walls of a castle, in another a gigantic 
tower, and in another a sea of rocks. At its base is a good 
broad path leading to the Teufehkanzel (devil's pulpit, see 
below), and another to the summit of these rocks. Sign-posts 
are placed in all directions. 

On a rocky eminence about 2 M. to the N.E. of the old 
castle are situated the ruins of the castle of Alt-Eberstein, 
of Roman origin, and once like the Yburg (p. 215) a Roman 
watch-tower. An old Rhenish tradition relates that the 
Emperor Otto I., being unable to take the castle by storm, 
induced the count to leave it by inviting him to a tournament 
and dance at Speyer, treacherously intending to attack the 
stronghold in his absence. The count being informed of this 
scheme by the emperor's daughter during the dance, immediately 
hurried back to his castle, the capture of which was prevented 
by his timely return. The tradition very properly ends with 
the marriage of the heroic count and the daughter of the 
emperor. A beautiful prospect, similar to that from the old 
castle, is obtained from this point; it comprises the richly 
cultivated lower Murgthal , with the flourishing villages of 
Kuppenheim, Bischweier, Rothenfels, Gaggenau and Ottenau. 

The road from the old castle to Gernsbach (6 M.) leads 
through the wood to the S. of the old castle, and passes the 
Teufehkanzel. About iy 4 M. from the castle a cross is reached; 
here the path leads in the direction of the village of Eberstein, 
and then descends to the r. ; about 1 M. farther the wood to 
the r. must be entered, and the Murgthal soon comes in view. 
In 25 min. more the Neuhaus is reached, below which a broad 
road descends to the r. to Staufenbery (1 J / 4 M.), then through 
the valley to Gernsbach (1% M.). From Baden to Gernsbach 
by the new carriage road by Lichtenthal and Oberbeuren i= 
a distance of 9 M. 

Gernsbach {* Stern, R. 30, B. 18 kr.; *L6we; *Pfeifer's 
pine-cone bath-etab. above the village, where the path to 
Schloss Eberstein diverges, pleasant quarters for a prolonged 
stay) on the Murg, a small commercial town, inhabited prin- 
cipally by wood-merchants. The new row of houses on the r. 
bank of the Murg, opposite to the bridge, was built to replace 
those burnt down by the insurgents in 1849. Drive to Rothen- 
fels and the Favorite, see p. 210, to Muggensturm (p. 210), to 
Forbach (p. 251) in the Murgthal (p. 250); one-horse carriage 
to Baden 2 fl., there and back 3%, two-horse 3 fl. Wildbad 
is about 8 M. distant from Gernsbach, carriage 6—10 fl.; 
diligence daily at 4 p.m.; fare 2 fl. 6 kr. 

A path follows the stream in a S. direction, passing the 



EBERSTEINSCHLOSS. 52. Route. 215 

KUngel Chapel, and leading to the * Ebersteinschloss (2 M.), 
a castle founded in the 13th cent., afterwards destroyed, and 
in 1798 restored by the Margrave Frederick, under the name 
of "Neu-Eberstein." It stands on a wooded eminence in a 
most delightful situation, high above the Murg. The view 
which it commands of the valley to Weissenbach and Hilpertsau, 
and in an opposite direction to Gernsbach , is magnificent, 
and comprises a large portion of the beautiful Murgthal. 
The interior contains a number of ancient relics, weapons, 
armour etc., and in one of the apartments a collection of 
pictures of the 16th cent. Refreshments may be had from 
the castellan. This point is generally visited from Baden 
{3 hrs. on foot, 2 hrs. by carriage) by the carriage -road 
passing Lichtenthal and Beuern, and leading through beautiful 
wood scenery. 

Half-way between Oos and Rastadt, to the E. from the 
railway near Kuppenheim (p. 210), and 6 M. to the N.W. of 
Baden, a large building is seen rising among the woods, the 
Favorite, a castle belonging to the Grand-duke, and erected 
in 1725 by the Margravine Sibylla, wife of the Margrave 
Ludwig Wilhelm. After the death of the latter, this remarkably 
talented and beautiful woman, after having for 19 years 
superintended the education of her sons, retired to this castle, 
where she spent the remainder of her life in acts of penance 
and devotion. In the Hermitage in the park are preserved 
some relics of this singular character. The castle served as 
a residence for the Prince, now king of Prussia, in 1849, 
during the transformation of Rastadt into a fortress of the 
Confederation. The steward who lives in the park shows the 
chateau (fee 24 ki\), and supplies visitors with refreshments. 

To the N.E. of Baden rise the Great and the Little Stauffen. 
The former (2240 ft.) is generally termed the Mercurius- 
berg, on account of the votive tablet to Mercury found on 
the top and now exhibited at Baden, bearing the inscription : 
IN H. D. D. DEO. MERCVR. ER. C. PRVSO. (in honorem 
domus divince Deo Mer curio C. Pruso erexif). The tower 
(136 steps) commands a magnificent * view (comp. panorama sold 
here for 24 kr.) of Strasburg, the town and environs of Heidel- 
berg, Baden and its environs, the Murgthal &c. Refreshments 
may be procured on the top. The road to the Mercuriusberg 
(2% hrs. from Baden) diverges at the Teufelskanzel to the r. 
from the Gernsbach road, and winds up to the summit. A good 
walker should return by the Schaafberg or the Steinbruch 
(quarry), although the path is somewhat fatiguing. 

In the opposite direction, 7 M. to the S.W. of Baden, lies 
the ancient Yburg, like Alt-Eberstein (p. 214) once a Roman 



216 Route 52. ALLERHEILIGEN. 

watch-tower and stronghold, and still in a good state of pre- 
servation. The massive ruins, surrounded by dark fir-wood, 
form a magnificent foreground to the picture of the broad 
valley of the Rhine beyond. A good-carriage road leads to 
the castle. From Geroldsau a footpath leads by Malschbach 
and the wooded ridge of the Iwerst to the Yburg in about 
1 Y 2 hr. Prom the latter to Steinbach (see below) 1 '/ 2 M. 

One of the finest excursions in the vicinity of Baden is 
to * Allerheiligen (see p. 254) by Achern. Carriages to be 
had at the Krone or Adler at Achern; charges for the whole 
excursion, 5 — 6 fl. ; if not farther than the Neuhaus (p. 254), 
4 fl. 30 kr. Travellers who desire to return from Allerheiligen 
to Achern (2 hrs. drive) by another road, should rejoin 
their conveyance near the waterfall , and drive in 1 y, hr. 
to Oppenau, then down the Renchthal in 2 hrs. to Lautenbach 
and Oberkirch (* Adler, good Klingenberger wine, which is 
produced here), and thence to the station of Appenweier or 
Renchen. A carriage from Achern for the complete tour costs 
7 — 10 fl. Carriages from Allerheiligen, see p. 254; Mummel- 
see and Hornisgrinde, see p. 251. 



53. From Baden to Strasburg. 

(Comp. Map R. 52.) 

By the Baden Railway in 2 — 3'/, hrs.; fares: by express 3 fl. 37 and 
2 fl. 34 kr., ordinary trains 3 fl. 14, 2 fl. 18 and 1 fl. 31 kr. Best views 
to the 1. 

At Oos is the junction of the Baden branch with the main 
line. To the 1. are seen the mountains of the Black Forest 
in picturesque groups, and farther on, the grey tower of Yburg 
(see above), situated on a flattened mountain peak. Near the 
second station of Steinbach, on a barren hill to the 1., stands a 
red sandstone monument, erected in memory of Erwin, architect 
of Strasburg cathedral, who was born at Steinbach, and died 
at Strasburg in 1318. In the neighbourhood the Affenthaler, 
one of the best red wines of Baden, is produced. 

Buhl (Rabe) possesses one of the most ancient churches in 
the whole country. On the mountains are seen the ruins of 
the castle of Windeck, once the seat of a powerful race which 
became extinct in 1572. Near Buhl are two unpretending and 
inexpensive watering-places, the Hubbad (2 M.), with mineral 
springs and hydropathic estab., and the Erlenbad (3 M. from 
Achern), a warm saline spring of 70° Fahr. The former lies 
to the N., and the latter to the S. of Windeck. 

The high mountain to the 1. of the station Ottersweier, with 
the pile of stones on its summit, is the Hornisgrinde (p. 251), 



m "SucuA 



T 



01 

Fork 





i \3Swf *.*^ ' '^*rtw» /4, '^^fe^S*%iKr%XJ > ^C 




I) 



:•■?-..■;■.■' r. Fi TK, jr:t , f;,-r 



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KEHL. 53. Route. 217 

the highest point (3612 ft.) of the lower part of the Black 
Forest. From the Erlenbad a new road leads to the summit 
by Sassbachwalden and the Brigittenschloss in 3 hrs. 

At Sassbach, 1% M. to the N. of Achern, the French 
marshal Turenne fell in an engagement he had just commenced 
with the imperial general Montecucoli, but which on his death 
was discontinued, the French army retreating across the Rhine. 
The spot is marked by a grey gran ; te obelisk, erected by the 
French in 1829, on which the marshal's victories are recorded. 
A French invalide has the charge of the monument, which is 
visible from the railway ; the ground on which it stands belongs 
to the French government. 

In the market-place of Achern (* Krone; Adler; carriage 
to Allerheiligen 7 — 8 fl. ; beer at Huber's) stands a handsome 
monument in memory of the Grand-duke Leopold (d. 1852). 
The town possesses also an admirably conducted Lunatic Asylum, 
capable of accommodating 400 patients. To the E. the view 
is bounded by the Hornisgrinde. Beyond Renchen the spire of 
Strasburg Cathedral becomes visible in the distance to the W. 

At Appenweier [whence a diligence (2 fl. 48 kr.) runs daily 
in summer into the Renchthal as far as Rippoldsau (p. 255) in 
6y 2 hrs.] the Strasburg railway diverges from the main line, 
passing the stations of Kork and Kehl, and traversing a district 
rendered marshy by the frequent inundations of the Kinzig 
which falls into the Rhine at Kehl. 

Kehl (*Post or IVeisses Lamm; Rehfuss, R. 1 fl. ; Salmen, 
at the station), formerly only a fortified " tete de pont" of 
Strasburg, possesses a handsome new Church, of red sandstone. 

At Kehl the junction line between the Baden and the French 
railways crosses the Rhine by means of an iron bridge, im- 
mediately below the bridge of boats. 

The bridge rests on four pillars, is furnished with a turning or swing- 
bridge on each bank, and terminates at either end in a cast-iron portal. 
The pillars on the French and German sides respectively record the names 
of the French emperor, the reigning Grand-duke, and the engineers and 
other officials entrusted with the construction of the bridge. 

The train now passes the Desaix-monument (1., see p. 222), 
skirts the cemetery (r.) and stops at a station near the S.E. 
gate {porte d'Austerlitz) of Strasburg. It next describes a wide 
circuit round the S. side of the town and near the village of 
Konigshofen joins the Bale -Strasburg line (comp. R. 56). 
The formalities of the "douane" are the same at the "porte 
d'Austerlitz" as at the principal station. 

54. Strasburg. 

Hotels. "Ville de Paris (PI. a) a handsome new building; R. from 2 fr., 
L. 1 fr., B. V/„ fr., D. exc. W. 3 fr., A. 1 fr. *Maison Rouge (PL b). 



218 Route 54. STRASBURG. Cathedral. 

Hotel d'.Vngleterre near the stat., well spoken of. Vignette (PI. e, 
Orandf-Rue 119); La Pomnie d'or (PI. f) in the Rue d'Or; Badischer 
Hot'. 

Cafes. "Cafe Cade in the Kleberplatz; "CafeAdam, or duBroglie; 
Cafe de l'Europe and Cafe de l'Univers both near the Kleberplatz; 
Cafe Hauswald, not far from the Railway station. 

Public Gardens. Jardin Lips and Jardin Kammerer, both outside 
the Porte des Juifs; music and other entertainments in the evening 2 or 
3 times a week. The Orangerie, a well-kept garden belonging to the town, 
situated in the Ruprechtsau, about 3 M. distant, affords an agreeable promenade. 

Cabs or Citadines 1—2 persons for '/, hrj 50 cent., '/, hr. 90 cent., from 
the Strasbourg station to the Rhine bridge 1 fr. 

Railway Station on the N.W. side of the town for the Paris, Bale, 
Mayence and Kehl lines; on the last-named line there is also a station at the 
Austerlitz Gate. 

Pates de foie gras at Henry's, Meissengasse, Doyen, Miinstergasse, or 
Hummel, Schlossergasse; prices from 5 to 40 fr. according to size. The 
geese's livers not iinfrequently attain a weight of 2 — 3 lbs. each. 

Travellers whose time is limited should ascend the tower of the 
Cathedral (see below), inspect the cathedral itself, and visit the Church of 
St. Thomas (p. 221). 

English Church Service in the Hotel de Paris. 

Gates closed at 11. 

Strasburg (Ger. Strassbury) , the Argenioratum of the Ro- 
mans, formerly capital of Lower Alsace and one of the most 
important towns on the Rhine, now the capital of the French 
Department of the Lower Rhine, lies on the ///, about 3 M. 
from the Rhine with which it is connected by a small and a 
large canal. On the 30th of Sept., 1681, in a time of peace, 
Strasburg was seized by Louis XIV., and France was con- 
firmed in the possession of the city by the peace of Ryswyk 
in 1697. Since then the fortifications have been greatly en- 
larged, so that it is now one of the strongest fortresses and 
the third largest arsenal in France. Garrison upwards of 
<3000; pop. 79,000, of whom nearly one half are Protestants. 

The Emperor Maximilian I., in writing of Strasbourg, de- 
scribes it as the strong bulwark of the holy Roman kingdom, 
and praises it highly for the good old German honesty, con- 
stancy and bravery of its inhabitants. The town has to this 
day a German air, and although it has been under French 
dominion for 170 years, the ancient language and customs 
of the townspeople still prevail. 

The * Cathedral (PI. 1) (always open except from 12 to 
2 o'clock) was first founded by Clovis in 510, but having 
been destroyed by lightning in 1007, the foundation of the 
present edifice was laid by Bishop Werner of Habsburg in 1015, 
and the interior completed in 1275. In 1277 the erection of 
the *Fa<;ade was commenced by Erwin of Steinbach and his 
daughter Sabina, to the latter of whom the church is indebted 
for the magnificent decorations of the * Portal. Above it in 
niches are the equestrian statues of Clovis, Dagobert, Rudolph 
of Habsburg, and (since 1823) Louis XIV. The sculptures 



Cathedral. STRASBURG. 54. Route. 219 

above the portal belong chiefly to the 13th and 14th centuries. 
The upper part of the spire was erected by Johann Hiiltz of 
Cologne at the commencement of the 15th cent, in the capricious 
and variegated modern Gothic style, and finally completed 
in 1439. The upper part of the S. tower is entirely wanting. 
Few cathedrals offer so good an opportunity for tracing the 
progress of the Gothic style from the time when it took its 
origin from the modern Romanesque style (choir, crypt and 
part of transept) to its highest and purest perfection (the body 
of the church completed in 1275, and the facade of 1277— 1339) ; 
and to its decline (the platform between the towers of 1365, 
and the top of the spire of 1439). 

The entire length of the edifice is 175 yds., and the breadth 
65 yds. ; the middle nave is 95 ft. in height and 42 ft. in 
breadth. Some of the stained-glass windows are admirably 
•executed; the Magi with the Virgin Mary in the north aisle are 
modern. The pillars and columns of the interior are elegant, 
and are embellished with statues, but on the whole the church 
is somewhat destitute of ornament. The font in the N. transept 
dates from 1453 and the * pulpit, richly decorated with sculpture, 
from 1486. The Chapel of St. John (to the 1. by the choir) 
contains a monument to Bishop Conrad of Lichtenberg, under 
■whose auspices the construction of the facade began. The 
Chapel of St. Mary (S. aisle) contains a sculpture representing 
the interment of the Virgin, executed in 1480. 

The celebrated astronomical * Clock, constructed by Schwilgue 

in 1838 — 1842 in the S. transept, is a highly curious and 

ingenious piece of workmanship. Some paintings and portions 

of the old clock have been used in the erection of the 

new. 

The globe beneath shows the course of the stars, behind it is a perpetual 
almanac, on the 1. a piece of mechanism exhibiting ecclesiastical reckoning 
of time, and on the r. the geocentric opposition and conjunction of the sun 
and moon; above it is a dial determining the intervening time, and still 
higher is shown the course of the moon through the heavens. The exterior 
of the clock attracts spectators at all times, but especially at noon. On the 
first gallery an angel strikes the quarters on a bell which he holds in his 
hand; higher up is a skeleton, representing time, which strikes the hour 
of 12, and round it are figures which strike the quarters and represent man's 
progress through the various stages of boyhood, youth, manhood and old 
age. Under the first gallery the symbolic deity of each day of the week steps 
out of a niche, Apollo on Sunday, Diana on Monday, and so on. \n the 
highest niche the 12 apostles move round a figure of the Saviour, bowing as 
they pass. On the highest pinnacle of the side-tower is perched a cock which 
flaps its wings, stretches its neck and crows, awakening the echoes of the 
remotest nooks of the cathedral. 

Two old inscriptions on a pillar near the clock com- 
memorate the zeal and piety of Johann Geiler of Kaisersberg 
(d. 1510), one of the most learned men and undaunted preachers 
of his time. 



220 Route 54. STRASBURG. Cathedral-Tower. 

On the Romanesque S. * Portal were erected, in 1840, statues 
of the great architect Erwin and his talented daughter Sabina. 
The sculpturing on this portal by the latter has been skilfully 
renovated and deserves the minutest inspection. Above the 
doors is represented the death, interment, resurrection and 
coronation of the Virgin, and on the middle pillar the Saviour 
and king Solomon. Beneath is Solomon's Judgment, and on 
the r. and 1. figures emblematical of Christianity and Judaism. 
There are also several statues by Sabina on pillars in the S. 
aisle next to the transept. 

On the N. side is the Chapel of St. Laurentius with its 
beautiful gateway of the 15th cent., adorned with restored 
sculptures of the martyrdom of the saints. 

The * Cathedral-Tower rises in front of the structure to 
such a height that the spectator almost feels dizzy as his 
eye attempts to reach so vast an altitude. Near the r. hand 
Portal, round the corner, is a door leading to a staircase of 
easy ascent. A few steps up, the custodian dwells, from whom 
a ticket ("15 cent.) must be procured. The visitor then ascends 
330 steps to the platform, 230 ft. above the street, which 
commands a fine view of the old-fashioned town with its 
planted ramparts and promenades. To the 1. is seen the Black 
Forest from Baden to the Blauen; on the W. and N. the entire 
chain of the Vosges, and on the S. the insulated Kaiserstuhl 
(p. 253), rising from the plain, and beyond it in the extreme 
distance rises the magnificent chain of the Jura. The services 
of the door-keeper are unnecessary in ascending to the plat- 
form, though a fee is generally expected. From the platform 
another staircase leads to the summit of the spire, the so-called 
"Lantern." The entrance to it is closed by an iron grating, 
which is not opened to the visitor without a special permission 
from the mayor. 

The ancient residence of the Bishops, opposite to the S. 
Portal of the Cathedral, with terrace facing the 111, was pur- 
chased by the town at the period of the Revolution and pre- 
sented in 1806 to Napoleon. From 1814—1848 it served as 
a royal residence, and in 1853 was presented to Napoleon III. 

From the cathedral the attention of the traveller is next 
directed to the Church of St. Thomas. His way leads across 
the Place Gutenberg, where a handsome bronze Statue was 
erected in 1840 to the memory of the great printer who con- 
ducted his first experiments in the newly-discovered art at 
Strasburg in 1436. The four bas-reliefs are emblematical of 
the power and blessing of the invention of printing in the 
four quarters of the globe, and comprise likenesses of many 
celebrated men. 



St. Thomas. STRASBURG. 54. Route. 221 

The * Church of St. Thomas (PL 10; the sacristan lives 
at the back of the choir) was founded in 1031; the choir, of 
plain Gothic construction, was commenced in 1270, and the 
main-body of the church with its five aisles was erected in 
the Gothic style in 1313 — 1330. It is now appropriated to 
the use of a Protestant congregation. The choir where the 
high-altar formerly stood contains a magnificent monument in 
marble, erected by Louis XV. to Marshal Saxe; it is the work 
of the sculptor Pigalle, and the result of twenty years' labour. 
The marshal is represented descending into the tomb held 
open to receive him by Death, while a beautiful female figure 
personifying France strives to detain him ; at the side Hercules 
is represented in a mournful attitude leaning upon his club; on 
the 1. side are the Austrian eagle, the Dutch lion and the 
English leopard, with broken flags beneath them, comme- 
morating the victories gained by the marshal over the three 
united powers in the Flemish wars. The whole is an allegory 
in accordance with the questionable taste of the age, but as 
a work of art it is masterly and original. 

The church also contains busts and monuments of celebrated 
professors of the University of Strasburg, among others of 
Schopflin, Koch and Oberlin, brother of the well-known pastor 
of that name. In a side-chapel may be seen two mummies, found 
in 1802, and said to be the bodies of a Count of Nassau-Saar- 
briicken and his daughter, who probably died in the 16th cent. 

The New Church (Temple neuf, PL 11) which belongs to 
the 16th cent., once the property of the Dominicans, now 
appropriated to the Protestant service, contains the tombstone 
of the celebrated Dominican Joh. Tauler (d. 1361) and some 
curious old frescoes of a death-dance, probably of the 14th 
or 15th cent. 

Near the New Church is the Town Library (PL 15) which 
possesses a rich collection of curious ancient works and do- 
cuments. In the entrance-hall some Roman and other antiquities 
are to be seen. 

The square called the Broglie, after a marshal of that name, 
is bounded on the N.E. by the Theatre (PL 37), completed 
in 1821, with a Portico adorned with statues of 6 of the Muses. 
Representations in French only, on Sund., Tues., Thurs. and Frid. 

Opposite to the theatre on the r. are the residences of the 
prefect of the town and the general of the troops garrisoned 
here. The Statue (PL 38) of the Marquis de Lezay-Marnesia, 
by Grass, was erected in 1857. Farther on is the Town-hall 
(PL 26, entrance from the Rue brulee) which contains a small 
collection of pictures open on Sund., Tues. and Thurs. from 
2 to 4; at other times on payment of a fee of 1 fr. 



222 Route J4. STRASBURG. Artillery Barracks. 

The Rue brulee, which runs in a S.E. direction parallel with 
the Broglie, has received its appellation from the circumstance 
of 2000 Jews, who refused to be baptized, having been burned, 
Feb. 14th, 1349, on the spot where the Hotel de la Prefecture 
now stands. 

The University, inaugurated in 1621, once numbered Goethe 
among its students; it was here that the great poet and scholar 
completed his law studies and took the degree of doctor in 1772. 
It is now converted into an Academy, and deserves a visit on 
account of its Museum, of natural history, a collection of more 
than ordinary value and interest. It is open to the public on 
Thurs. from 2 to 4, and on Sund. from 10 to 12; at other 
times adm. may be procured for a fee of 1 fr. 

On the Place d'Armes (Parade-Platz) is erected a bronze 
Statue to the memory of General Kleber, at the foot of which 
reclines an Egyptian sphynx, and on the sides are two reliefs. 
The Cafe Cade is on the N.YV. side of the Place, next to the 
Guard-house. 

The Kehl railway-station is about 4 M. distant from Stras- 
burg, and connected with it by a junction line lately completed. 
In the immediate vicinity of the Porte d'Austerlitz are the 
spacious Artillery Barracks (St. Nicholas) and near them 
the Arsenal de construction, one of the largest depots of am- 
munition in France. 

A few minutes after leaving the town by this gate the 
traveller passes the Cemetery and catches a glimpse of the green 
ramparts of the Citadel, constructed by Vauban in 1682 — 1684, 
which lies to the 1. of the road. On the other side of the 
bridge over a branch of trie Rhine stands a Monument erected 
by Napoleon to the memory of General Desaix, who fell in 
the battle of Marengo in 1800. 

Junction line to Kehl see p. 217; fares 1 fr., 70 and 50 c. 

55. From Strasburg to Mayence. 

Comp. Maps to the R.R. 52 and 45. 

By Railway iu 5 3 /,— S hrs. Fares to Weissenburg 6 fr. 55, 4 fr. 5 and 
2 fr. 65 c. ; from' Weissenburg to Mayence 6 fl. 27, 3 ft. 51 and 2 fl. 33 kr. 

Through-passengers by exp. train are exempt from the visit e of pass- 
ports and luggage. Travellers unacquainted with the r. bank of the Rhine 
should select the Baden line. 

At Wendenheim this line diverges from the Paris railway, 
and taking a N.E. direction, crosses the Zom at the Hordt 
station. The country is flat; on the r. in the distance are 
the mountains of the Black Forest from the Hornisgrinde 
(R. 63. a.) to below Baden. Station Bischiveiler, cloth factories, 
and in the neighbourhood hop-gardens. 



LANDAU. oo. Route. 223 

After passing Marienthal, where up to 1789 there was a 
convent, the town of Hagenau (Post; Blame; Wilder Mann) 
is reached. It was formerly a free town of the German empire, 
and part of the walls and fortifications, erected by Frederick 
Barbarossa in 1164, still exist. The lofty church of St. George 
belongs partly to the loth cent. The large building on the 
N. side is the prison. 

The train next traverses the Hagenauer Wald, and after 
passing some smaller stations arrives at Weissenburg (Ange), 
where the passengers by ordinary trains must change carriages. 
Here the Bavarian branch commences. 

At Weissenburg the line traverses the now fallen intrench- 
ments, called the Weissenburger Linien, constructed by Marshal 
Villars in 1705, during the Spanish war of Succession, and 
extending on the r. bank of the Lauter to Lauterburg near 
the Rhine. The Lauter and the Bavarian frontier are next 
crossed. 

The next station of importance is Landau (*Pfalzer Hof; 
Schwan), a fortress of the German Confederation, with a pop. 
of 7000 (V 2 Prot.), and a garrison of 4500 Bavarians. Landau 
has long been a fortified town; it was seven times besieged 
and captured in the 30 Years' war, seized in 1680 by Louis XIV., 
regularly fortified by Vauban in 1686, changed hands several 
times between 1702 and 1713, and was under the French 
dominion from the peace of Rastadt (1714) till 1814. Above 
the town-gates are suns (that over the French gate wears a 
pleasant expression, while that over the German has an angry 
look), above which may be read the vain inscription of 
Louis XIV., u Nec pluribus impar." An omnibus runs from the 
station to Gleisweiler (p. 193) in 1 hr., and twice daily to 
Annweiler (p. 194). 

The train next crosses the Queich, the ancient frontier 
between Alsace and the Palatinate, and the boundary between 
the Vosges and the Haardt Mountains. 

Edenkoben (*Schaaf, good, R. and B. 1 fl.), the next place 
of consequence, is a cheerful little town which boasts of a 
sulphur spring, a grape-cure establishment, and, in the back- 
ground, a royal villa, the Ludwig&hbhe (p. 193). On an eminence 
at the foot of the Kalmit (2097 ft.) are situated the ruins of 
the Kropsburg, formerly a nobleman's castle, now occupied by 
several poor families. 

On a hill to the 1. of the next stat. Maikammer lies the 
handsome and imposing castle of *Maxburg, property of the 
King of Bavaria. The ruins, out of which the new structure 
was erected, were of vast extent, and some Roman remains 
discovered on the spot lead to the supposition that one of the 



224 Route 55. NEUSTADT. From Strasburg 

Roman castra stativa was here stationed to command Upper 
Germany. The old castle Is said to have been built by the 
Emperor Henry II., but fell into the hands of the bishops of 
Speyer as early as 1100. In an insurrection of the peasantry 
in 1525 it was stormed and demolished by the insurgents, 
who, however, were subsequently compelled to rebuild it at 
their own expense. In 1552 it was burned by the Margrave 
Albert of Brandenburg, but for its complete destruction it 
was indebted, like most of the castles in the Palatinate, to 
the "most christian" king Louis XIV. 

Neustadt (*L6we, at the station, R. 54, B. 24, D. 48, 
A. 18 kr. ; *Schiff; * Krone) is the largest town in the Haardt. 
The handsome Gothic church, erected in the middle of the 
14th cent., the choir of which serves as a place of worship 
for the Rom. Catholics and the nave for the Protestants, contains 
several monuments of the Counts Palatine, the founders of 
the town. The gutters on the roof terminate in heads of apes, 
pigs, geese, &c, and are called by the inhabitants Hollenkinder 
(children of hell). The Rom. Cath. Church of St. Ludwig, a hand- 
some Gothic structure, was consecrated in 1862. From the 
*Schiesshaus, ] / 4 M. from the station , a fine prospect of the 
environs may be enjoyed. On the height, 1 M. to the N., 
are situated the ruins of Burg Winzingen (p. 192); iy 2 M. 
farther the Wolfsburg, commanding a pleasing prospect. An 
agreeable excursion of half a day may be made to Mittel-Ham- 
bach by carriage (1-horse 4 fl.), thence to the Maxburg on 
foot, and back ; from Mittel-Hambach to the villa of Ludwigs- 
hohe near Rhodt, to the watering-place Gleisweiler (p. 193), and 
back to Neustadt, 

Neustadt is the junction of the Maximilian, Ludwig and 
Bexbach (Saarbriicken) lines, and is a favorite resort of in- 
valids undergoing the grape-cure. 

The Ludwig-railway here turns E. and enters the great 
plain of the Rhine, where vineyards, tobacco and corn fields 
are extended before the traveller's eye. 

Ludwigshafen (*Deutsches Haus, R. 36 kr., B. 24 kr., 
D. inc. W. 1 fl.; Hotel Wolff; Railway refreshment-room; good 
beer at Pschorr's), formerly the tete-de-pont of the old fortress 
of Mannheim, scene of many a bloody contest during the 
revolution, and, as late as 1849, cannonaded from Mannheim 
by Baden insurgents, is a town of very recent construction, 
having been founded in 1843, but has already attained to 
considerable commercial importance. The wharf is one of the 
best on the Rhine, and is lined with long rows of warehouses 
and magazines connected with the railway by tram-ways. 
Mannheim on the opposite side of the river, see R. 44. 



to Mayence. OPPENHEIM. 55. Route. 225 

At the next stat. Oggersheim there is "an extensive plush 
manufactory, after which the train passes the flourishing little 
town of Frankenthal {Hotel Otto), founded by Calvinists from 
the Netherlands, driven out of their country by the Spaniards 
in. 1554, and who, on account of religious differences, emigrated 
from Frankfurt to this place in 1562. The town is connected 
by a canal (constructed 1777) with the Rhine, which is 3 M. 
distant. — Omnibus to Diirkheim (p. 190) in 2 '/ 2 hrs. 

Near "Worms (p. 198) the line crosses the Bavarian-Hessian 
frontier, and afterwards, passes close to the Cemetery, in which 
a tombstone surmounted by a helmet is a conspicuous object — 
one of the monuments erected in 1848 to veterans of Napoleon, 
which are so frequently met with in the churchyards of the 
larger towns on the 1. bank of the Rhine. 

In the distance to the 1. is situated Hernsheim, with the white castle of 
the Dalbergs, one of the oldest and most respected families in the time of 
the German Empire. The buildings, grounds and church of Hernsheim are 
worth a visit. In the latter many members of the above-mentioned family 
repose, among others the prince-primate Carl von Dalberg, once Grand-duke 
of Frankfurt (d. 1817), and Emmerich Joseph von Dalberg (d. 1833), the 
ambassador of Baden in Paris, created Duke by Napoleon for his services 
in furthering the emperor's alliance with Marie Louise. 

Guntersblum {Krone), a small town belonging to the Count 
of Leiningen, possesses a venerable church with helmeted towers, 
a large Town-hall, and on the N. side a palace and grounds of 
the Count. In the great plain between Guntersblum and Oppen- 
heiru the election of the Emperor Conrad II. took place in 1024. 

Near Oppenheim {Ritter), the ancient Bonconica, the line 
traverses vine-clad hills. The red church of St. Catherine on 
the hill is a striking object; near it is the gloomy-looking 
Castle of Landskron. This very ancient town became a portion 
of the Rhenish Confederation in the 12th cent.; in 1689 it was, 
with the exception of one house, burned to the ground by 
the French. The W. choir (1439) of * St. Catherine's Church 
was also destroyed; but the E. portion, which dates from the 
13th cent, was spared. It was restored in 1838 — 43, and is 
now a remarkably fine Gothic structure. A charnel-house on 
the N. side of the churchyard contains numerous bones of 
Spaniards and Swedes killed in the 30 Years' war. In many of 
the skulls the holes made by the bullets may be seen. The 
sexton (fee 12 kr.) lives up the stair on the 1. of the S. entrance. 

The Landskron, connected with the town by a wall, is all 
that remains of a once famous Imperial stronghold of that 
name. It was constructed by the Emperor Lothar, and restored 
by the Emperor Ruprecht, who died here in 1410. Subterranean 
passages connect it with the town. The top commands a 
good view of the plain of the Rhine, N.E. the Taunus, S.E. 
Melibocus and the mountains of the Bergstrasse. 
Baedeker's Rhine. 15 



226 Route 55. NIERSTEIN. 

The two modern towers which rise from among the ruins, 
the one serving as a clock-tower, the other erected by a 
private individual, have a curious effect. 

Nierstein (* Anker) is distinguished for the careful culture 
of its vineyards. The green vines planted on a red soil have 
a very picturesque effect. The wine yielded by them is 
reckoned among those of the Rhine, while that of Oppenheim 
belongs to the Palatinate wines. The chapel of the family von 
Herding is embellished with frescoes of some merit by Gotzen- 
berger. On the height to the 1. rises an ancient watch-tower. 

On a chain of low, productive, vine-clads hills to the 1. lie 
the villages of Nackenheim, Bodenheim, and Laubenheim, and 
near Mayence (see R. 35) the handsome village of Weissenau, 
which forms a part of the fortifications of that town. 



56. From Strasburg to Bale. 

Comp. Maps to RR. 52 and 02. 

Alsace Railway. By express in 3'/„, by ordinary trains in 5 — 6 hrs. ; 
fares: 15 fr. 80, 11 ir. 85, 7 fr. 80c. Railway or Paris time is 22 min. 
behind Bale and Strasburg time. Second-class carriages generally bad. 
View on the \V. side only. Refreshment -room on the line at Colinar not 
good. Return -tickets are now issued between Cologne and Colmar (valid for 
5 days), and between Cologne and Miihlhausen, Bale and the other Swiss 
stations (valid for one month). 

A peculiar kind of wine ("straw ?c//ze") is made in Alsace from the 
finest grapes which are kept in straw through the winter till March, when 
they are picked and pressed. The price varies from 5 to 10 fr. per bottle. 

The banks of the Rhine between Bonn and Bingen are 
scarcely richer in ruined castles than these eastern slopes of 
the Vosges. The railway is so far distant from the hills that 
the mere outlines only are visible; there are, however, se- 
veral fine points of view, especially between Schlettstadt and 
Colmar. 

The population of Alsace clearly betrays its German origin, 
and, though the French language gains ground in the larger 
towns and is the language of the upper classes, that of the 
country-people is still German, and to many of them French 
is totally unintelligible. Sermons and school -instruction are 
German, and will probably continue so for many years, though 
there are few children who do not possess some acquaintance 
■with the French tongue. 

Soon after Strasburg is left, the junction line to Kehl 
and the Baden railway diverges to the 1. at Konigshofen. After 
traversing a broad fertile plain which yields abundant crops of 
tobacco, and passing a succession of unimportant stations, the 
train approaches the mountains. 



SCHLETTSTADT. 56. Route. 227 

Schlettstadt (Book), once a free German town, was taken 
by the French and fortified by Vauban. Over the ramparts 
peeps the red-sandstone tower of the Miinster, founded by the 
Hohenstaufen in 1094. 

At the entrance of the Leberthal is situated the castle of 
Kinsheim; near stat. Orschweiler is another ruined castle, and 
on a detached peak of the Vosges, before stat. St.' Hippolyte 
(p. 232) is reached, rise the ruins of the Hohkonigsburg. 

Rappoltsweiler (called "Rappschwier" by the inhabitants), 
the French Ribeauville^ {Lamm), is a manufacturing town with 
8000 inhabitants, and lies 3 M. from the station at the en- 
trance of a beautiful valley and at the foot of vine-clad hills. 
High above the town on a rugged precipice is perched the 
castle of Hohen-Rappoltstein, with lofty tower; lower are the 
ruins of Niederburg, or St. Ulrich, celebrated for its tasteful 
architecture, and Girsberg, or u Der Stein", remarkable for the 
boldness of its situation. The castle of St. Ulrich well merits 
a visit on account of the fine views it affords. 

At the entrance of the valley of the Weiss, 4'/ 2 M. to the r. of the rail- 
way, lies the small town of Kaisersberg (* Krone), "with a castle of the same 
name, destroyed during the 30 Years' war. The town was founded in the 
first half of the 13th cent, by the emp. Frederick II. of the house of the 
Hohenstaufen, who were at the same time dukes of Swabia and Alsace. The 
Church belongs to the same period, and contains some ancient wood-carving, 
an Kntorubment and au altar-piece of some merit. 

Colmar (Trois Rois; Clef) was once a free German town 
and in 1474 so powerful that the inhabitants refused to open 
the gates to Charles the Bold, who, by a treaty with the 
Archduke of Austria, had become master of Alsace, the Sund- 
gau and the Breisgau, and was then on his way to the siege 
of Neuss (p. 39). It has now a pop. of 22,000 and is the 
capital of the Department of the Upper Rhine and seat of the 
Cour imperiale. The most considerable building is the Miinster, 
founded in 1360, but still incomplete. 

The environs of Colmar possess some historical interest; 
here Louis the Pious fell into the hands of his degenerate 
sons, who, after holding a deliberation at Colmar (then only 
a farm-house) , lured the army of Louis to the "red field," 
where the latter was defeated and taken by his son Lothaire 
to a monastery at Soissons. 

Omnibus to Breisach and Freiburg see p. 244. 

The castle of Hohenlandsberg , situated on a well-wooded 
height, the most extensive mountain -fortress of Alsace, was 
destroyed by the French in 1635. Near stat. Egisheim are 
seen three ruined castles of the 10th and 11th centuries, 
termed the " Three Exen," i. e. the castle of Hohen- or Dreien- 
Egisheim, with the towers of Dagsburg, Wahlenburg and Wek- 

15* 



228 Route 06. RUFFACH. 

mund, birthplace of Pope Leo IX., who was a count of Egis- 
heiui and Dagsburg. 

Ruffach (Ours), the Rubeacum of the Romans, is built 
round the castle of Isenburg, one of the oldest in Alsace and 
frequently the seat of the Merovingian kings of France. The 
Church of St. Arbogast belongs to the end of the 12th cent. 

To th'e r. are situated the industrial towns of Gebweiler 
and Sultz, overtopped by the Gebweiler Belchen (Ballon de 
Guebwiller, 4417 ft.), the highest peak of the Vosges, the 
summit of which commands a magnificent view. Beyond stat. 
Bolweiler the picturesque and rocky slopes of the Vosges 
gradually disappear. 

From Lutterbach a branch-line diverges to Thann (Lowe; Krone), a 
manufacturing town with 4C00 inhab., situated at the entrance ol the romantic 
valley of St. Amarin (p, 234). The * Church of St. Theobald (1445), with its 
bold open-work tower (1516), is a remarkably elegant Gothic structure. The 
most striking view of it is obtained from the Engelburg (demolished by 
Turenne in 1674), which commands the town and the mouth of the valley, 
and whose tower, overturned bodily, lies prostrate like a giant cask. The 
interior of the church contains some good carving , statues and fine stained- 
glass windows rescued from the ravages of the first French revolution. 

At Dornach the Thur, the boundary between Alsace and 
the Sundgau, is crossed, and near Muhlhausen the Rhine-Rhone 
Canal. 

muhlhausen (Ville de Paris; Lion Rouge; Gicogne) in 
the Sundgau, formerly a free town of the German Empire, 
from 1515 to 1798 in alliance with Switzerland, and since then 
belonging to France, is the most considerable manufacturing • 
town of the Upper Rhine, and has a population of 30,000, to 
which may be added about 7000 workmen who come daily 
from the neighbouring villages. The situation of Muhlhausen 
on the Rhine-Rhone Canal is very advantageous. Its ancient 
architectural remains have given place to manufactories, and 
the antiquarian will find but few objects of attraction in the 
town, with the exception perhaps of the Town- hall, erected 
in 1551 and restored in 1846, which contains some tolerable 
frescoes. Another relic of olden times is the picturesque 
house with projecting tower which adjoins the Town -hall. 
At the entrance to the town from the Railway station are 
the handsome new buildings and halls belonging to the 
"Societe commerciale", containing a scientific and industrial 
museum. At Muhlhausen a line diverges to the W. to Bel- 
ford, whence one branch goes direct to Paris, and another 
to Besancon, Dijon and Lyons. 

To the 1. the Blauen (p. 247) stands out conspicuously 
from the Black Forest. The train now skirts a succession of 
vine-clad hills, and passes stat. Rixheim. To the 1. of St. 
Louis, the seat of the French custom-house authorities, rises 



Vosges. ZABERN. 57. Route. 229 

the ancient fortress of Huningen, constructed by Vauban under 
Louis XIV. (1679), and demolished by the Austrians in 1815. 
The red open-work towers of the cathedral of Bale now come 
in sight. 

57. The Vosges. Northern part. 
From Strasburg to Saarburg. 

Paris Railway. To 3abern in 1 hr. ; fares 4, 3 and 2 fr. The 1st class 
carriages are scarcely equal in comfort to those of the 2nd class on the Baden 
line. Station and conveyances see p. 218. 

At Wendenheim, the first station, the line diverges from 
the 1. bank of the Rhine. After passing several unimportant 
places, the rocky heights and ruined castle of Hoh-Barr 
appear on the 1.; near them the slender tower of Geroldseck, 
and to the r. the ruin of Greifenstein. 

Zabern or Saverne (* Sonne), the Tabernce of the Romans, 
afterwards the capital of the Wasgau, is now a quiet little 
town with about 6400 inhabitants. Long before entering the 
town the stately Schloss is a conspicuous object. It was 
erected in 1667 by a bishop of Strasburg, afterwards inha- 
bited by the Cardinal de Rohan, also Bishop of Strasburg, 
the calumniator of Marie Antoinette in the well-known and 
mysterious affair of the necklace. By an imperial decree of 
1852 the building is now appropiated to the use of the wi- 
dows and daughters of members of the Legion of Honor. 
In front of this building stands an Obelisk erected in 1666, 
which records the distances (in German miles) from Saverne 
of upwards of 100 different towns. 

Near the station, on the road to the town, a pretty figure 
of u Hora" has been erected over a fountain, with a tablet 
on which the day of the month is daily inscribed by order 
of the police. The road to the hotel crosses the Rhine- 
Marne-Canal. According to an old historian, the town was 
in 1550 surrounded by a wall with "as many towers as 
there are weeks in the year", but these have long since 
disappeared, and the spot has nothing to recommend it as a 
halting-place. 

Above the town rises the tower of the old stronghold of 
Greifenstein, and near it is the Grotto of St. Veit, a chapel 
and hermitage constructed in a large cave of sandstone, and 
a favorite resort of pilgrims. On the other side of the moun- 
tain, situated on a wooded eminence, are the extensive ruins 
of the castle of * Hoh-Barr, which appears to form a portion 
of the variegated sandstone and conglomerate rocks on which 



230 Route 57. LUTZELBURG. Vosges. 

it stands. An inscription over the gate records that the castle 
was restored by Count Manderscheid-Blankenheim, Bishop of 
Strasburg, in 1583. As late as 1744, during the war of 
succession, the castle was still habitable, but it has sub- 
sequently completely fallen to decay, and is occupied by a 
forester, from whom refreshments may be procured. By means 
of a ladder the venturesome traveller may clamber to the top 
of huge and otherwise inaccessible rocks , which command a 
view of the plain of Strasburg as far as the Black Forest, 
and a part of the Vosges. 

The railway here traverses the chain of the Vosges at the 
narrowest part; near Saverne it penetrates into the narrow 
and picturesque valley of the Zorn, through which the high- 
road, the railway, the Marne-Canal and the brook itself run 
side by side. The train passes bridges, high embankments, 
viaducts and tunnels in rapid succession between Saverne 
and Saarburg. 

Lutzelburg (*Jespere near the station, good beer), the 
only station between Saverne and Saarburg, is the first 
Lothringian village in the Meurthe Department, and prettily 
situated. On the opposite side of the brook, on a projecting 
rock, rises the Liitzelstein , or Castle of Liltzelburg , fortified 
up to the beginning of the last century; beneath it is the 
railway tunnel. 

The line now leaves the valley of the Zorn. A handsome 
bridge spans the stream which descends from a valley on 
the 1., and a second arch crosses the Rhine-Marne-Ganal, 
which here passes over to the r. side of the valley, but soon 
rejoins the line at the remarkable tunnel of Ertzweiler {Arch- 
wilier), upwards of 1 '/ 2 M. in length, by means of which both 
the canal and the railway penetrate the mountain. At the E. 
extremity the line lies immediately under the canal, but at 
the W., it runs by the side of it. The vast fertile plains of 
Lothringia now lie stretched before the traveller. 

Saarburg (* Hotel du Sauvage) on the Saar, which here 
becomes navigable, is a small town enclosed with walls and 
gates (not to be confounded with Saarburg near Treves, in 
the Prussian dominions). It forms the boundary between the 
two languages, French being spoken in the upper part of the 
town and principally German in the lower. The names above 
the shops are chiefly German. The ancient fortifications 
were dismantled in 1552 by the Margrave Albert of Branden- 
denburg. The place would become one of the utmost im- 
portance in case of a war on the Rhine, and has in con- 
sequence been provided with extensive provision magazines. 
(Railway to Paris in 10 hrs.) 



Vosges. SAARBURG. 57. Route. 231 

The following excursion through the Vosges will well 
repay the pedestrian; it should not however be undertaken 
without a guide (Paul Zuber at Saverne can be recommended, 
fee 3 fr.). From Saverne an ascent of 3 / 4 hr. to Hoh-Barr 
(p. 229), then the descent through Hager to Haberacker (in 
% hr.), where refreshments may be obtained at the Forester's 
house. The ruin of Ochsenstein, above the latter, was till 1789 
the property of the Landgraves of Hessen-Darmstadt. 

The path now lies through forest, past some houses called 
<in der Haardt (3 M.) , to the Chapel auf der Hueb (1 y 2 ^L), 
then 1 y 2 M. down a steep declivity into a narrow grassy 
valley, after which the ascent again commences; in % hr. 
more a cross is reached, where the path to the 1. must be 
taken, which in about 20 min. conducts the traveller to the 
Dachsburg. The castle which formerly stood on this high 
and solitary rock, which commands a fine view, was destroyed 
by the French in 1675, and almost all traces of it have 
vanished, with the exception of the Chapel. In the wood 
may still be seen some remains of Roman fortifications, 
where as the spot is but rarely visited, Roman relics are still 
frequently found. 

At the foot of the rock lies the village of Dachsburg, 
called Dabo by the French. Belated travellers had better 
apply to the clergyman for a night's lodging, as the inns 
are bad. 

The road to Liitzelburg now leads past Schaefershof (3 M.), 
and at the Neumiihl (1 % M.) it enters the beautiful dale of 
the Zorn bounded by well-wooded mountains. In the middle 
of the valley are several mills (1% M.), the way to which is 
indicated by a cross, and which afford better accommodation 
than the wretched inns of Dachsburg. One mile farther the 
railway bridge already mentioned (p. 230) is reached, and 
2 M. beyond it Liitzelburg. The finest points of this ex- 
cursion are the Hoh-Barr, and the valley of the Zorn from 
Neumiihl to Liitzelburg. 

58. The Vosges. Southern part. 

Four days suffice for a hasty glance at the Vosges Mountains. This 
period may be most advantageously allotted as follows , the traveller taking 
the last train but one from Strasburg to St. Hippolyte , which is assumed 
as the starting point. 1st day: Hohkonigsburg , Markirch , Rappoltsweiler 
{24 M.). 2nd day : Along the vine-clad slopes to Kaisersberg (6 3 / 4 M.) ; pass 
afternoon in exploring the town and its environs; in the evening proceed to 
Orbey (6'/ 4 M.). 3d day: Lac blanc, Reisberg, Minster, Metzeral (21 3 / 4 M.). 
4th day: Over the Herrenberg to Wildenstein , through the beautiful valley 
of St. Amarin to the village of the same name (21 M.). On the following 
morning omnibus to Thann in 1 hr. These four days enable the pedestrian 



232 Route 58. ST. HIPPOLYTE. Vosges. 

to inspect the most beautiful points of these magnificent highlands, generally 
but too seldom visited. The unfrequency of the inroads made by travellers 
upon this district may constitute, in the eyes of some, not one of its least 
considerable charms. 

From Strasburg to St. Hippolyte in 1% hr. 

From the station of Benfeld an omnibus runs three times a day to Barr, 
whence the * Ottilienberg or Mont Ste-Odile (2466 ft.), mentioned by Goethe' 
in his biography, may be ascended in 2'/„ hrs. Guide unnecessary . as the 
path is furnished with direction-posts. 

St. Hippolyte (Krone), a small and old fashioned town, 
about 2% M. from the station, lies at the foot of the moun- 
tain crowned by the Hoh-K6nigsburg. Of the four roads 
leading from the S. W. gate of the town, that in the direction 
of the castle is the one to be selected; it leads at first 
through vineyards; % M. higher the traveller must turn to 
the 1.; after another mile the road passes a chestnut- wood, 
where the real ascent commences; in 10 min. the Lower 
Forester's House is reached; a steep ascent of another mile 
brings the pedestrian to the Upper Forester's House, where 
refreshments may be procured ; in 20 min. more the summit 
is reached. 

The *Hoh-K6nigsburg', which stands at a height of 
1700 ft. above the level of the sea, is, after the castle of 
Heidelberg, the largest German fortress of the middle ages. 
Its huge walls of red sandstone towering above the green 
of the chestnut-wood present a most picturesque appearance. 
Nothing certain is known of its origin, but it has evidently 
been the result of the labour of many centuries. The lions 
over the principal entrance are the arms of the House of 
Hohenstaufen. 

As early as the year 1462 the castle was partially destroyed 
by the Bishop of Strasburg and the Archduke of Austria, 
on account of depredations committed by the count; it was 
afterwards restored, but was burned by the Swedes in 1633. 
Since then this once magnificent pile has been a ruin, and 
with the surrounding woods and fields is now the property 
of a banker at Colmar. 

The footpath to the entrance leads round the castle to 
the r., and from it a correct idea of the extent of the ruin 
can best be formed. From the platform of the S. W. round 
tower (to which a footpath to the 1. leads) the most extensive 
prospect may be enjoyed; far beneath is the Leberthal; on 
the opposite hill-side the Frankenburg ; and the wide and 
populous plain of the Rhine is seen stretching on the E. to 
the mountains of the Black Forest and the Kaiserstuhl, and 
on the W. to the Vosges. In clear weather the snow -clad 
peaks of the Bernese Alps are sometimes visible; if seen very 



Vosges. MARKIRCH. 58. Route. 233 

distinctly, it is a sign of rainy weather.- Neither the road 
from St. Hippolyte to the Hoh-K6nigsburg, nor that from 
the castle to the Leberthal can well be missed; travellers 
wishing to return by the latter must take the path to the r., 
about Y 2 M. after passing the Upper Forester's house, which 
will bring them to the high road; 3 M. farther is the Leber- 
thal, an industrial, as well as picturesque and well -wooded 
valley watered by the Leber {Liepvre). An hour's walk up 
the valley then takes the traveller past Leherau {Liepvre) to 
Heilig-Kreuz or Ste. Groix-aux-mines (good beer at Schmidt's), 
both busy, animated villages; 2 M. farther Markirch, or Ste. 
Marie-aux- mines {Hotel da Commerce) , the principal town of 
the valley (pop. 12,000) is reached. 

From Markirch a good high-road leads across the Bludeu- 
bery or Bressoir (3840 ft.) to Rappoltsweiler, a distance of 
about 10 M. About V 2 M. from Markirch the traveller may 
effect a considerable saving by taking the old road, which 
diverges from the new at a house on the road-side to the 1., 
and leads by a row of cherry-trees and through a narrow 
lane, till it rejoins the high-road about 1Y 2 M. farther on. 
The view looking back on the Leberthal is picturesque, but 
on ascending it disappears. Near the top is a stone with 
coat of arms and date 1779, beyond which the road runs 
through the wood almost the whole way to Rappoltsweiler 
(see p. 227). The road from here to Kaisersberg (6 M.) leads 
through the vineyards on the hill-side to Hunaweier, 1 ] / 2 M. 
farther to Reichenweier or Riqueeihr {* Krone, excellent wine), 
and thence to Kaisersberg. 

From Kaisersberg the traveller next turns his steps W. 
to Hachimette, 4 l / 2 M. up the broad valley of the Weiss. Five 
min. after passing the last-named village, the path diverges 
to the 1. to Orbey (2 M.) {Croix d'Or, above the Church), a 
French mountain village, where the night may be passed. A 
coach runs every morning to Kaisersberg and Colmar (p. 227), 
returning in the evening. 

About 6 M. to the W. of Orbey , near the summit of the 
granite-ridge which forms the boundary between the Wasgau 
and Lothringia, are situated two mountain lakes, the *Lac 
blanc and the Lac noir. The former, which derives its name 
from the quartz at its bottom, is about 3 M. in circumference, 
and is enclosed on two sides by high and precipitous walls- 
of rock, and on a third by immense fragments of granite 
lying in a confused mass. The Lac noir, of about half the 
size , lies % M. farther to the S. It probably owes its ap- 
pellation to the blackish sand of its banks or to the dark fir- 
wood by which it is surrounded. Both lakes are drained by 



234 Route 5S. REISBERG. Vosges. 

the Weiss, which, united with the Fecht, falls into the 111 
below Colmar. The gullies in which the lakes are situated are 
frequently partially covered with snow the whole year round. 

On the W. side of the Lac blanc rises perpendicularly a 
huge wall of granite, the *Reisberg (3160 ft.), the summit 
of which may be reached from the lake in 3 / 4 hr. Here the 
traveller is rewarded by a most extensive and magnificent 
view; before him lie Lothringia and a great part of the 
Vosges, the Black Forest and the entire plain of the Rhine. 
Farther S. a portion of the Miinsterthal is visible, in the 
foreground the Lac noir, and in the distance the Alps. The 
way from Orbey is not difficult to find, but it is advisable to 
take a guide and a supply of provisions, as these desolate 
heights can boast of no inn. From the top of the Reisberg 
to Les-hautes-huttes is a distance of about 3 M. 

Travellers who do not care to visit the above-mentioned 
lakes and the Reisberg can walk direct from Orbey to Minister 
(12 M.). The path first ascends through beautiful well-watered 
meadows to Les-basses-huttes (3 M.); here it diverges to the 
r., by a house , across a small bridge towards a round hill ; 
3 / 4 M. farther the path again turns to the r. , ascends, then 
runs across a stony moss-covered field towards a cross, and 
finally leads to a house surrounded by fir wood (Les-hautes- 
huttes); a short way beyond this, another cross stands at the 
summit of the ridge, which is nearly half-way between Orbey 
and Minister. From this point a good view of the Reisberg, 
and the granite walls of the Lac blanc , which seem quite 
near, is obtained. 

The S. slope of the ridge , which the pedestrian now 
descends, is barren and stony, and forms a striking contrast 
to the N. side. Towards Sultzeren (good beer at Jackele's), 
however, the valley is more attractive; 3 / 4 M. farther is 
Stossweier, and about 2 M. beyond it Minister. The whole 
■walk well repays time and trouble. 

Munster (Storch; Krone) is a busy little town of some 
importance and very ancient origin, with a pop. of 4600. 
It owes its origin to the Benedictine abbey built here in 660 
by king Childerich. The beautiful and fertile valley in which 
the town is situated is watered by the Fecht, and its inhabitants 
are principally German protestants. 

A most interesting walk may be taken from Munster to 
Wildenstein in the valley of St. Amarin, a distance of 14 M. 
The way to the height which separates the valleys of the 
Fecht and the Thur cannot well be missed, nor from this 
point to Wildenstein is the road difficult to find; however, 



Vosges. WILDENSTEIN. 58. Route. 235 

it is safer to take a guide from Minister" (2% fr.) or at all 
events from Metzeral 

To Breitenbach and Metzeral the road is excellent, at the 
latter place there is a tolerable inn near the bridge, opposite 
to which the traveller must diverge to the r. and follow the 
valley of the Fecht for about 2 M., after which a bridge is 
crossed and a good road leads in about 10 min. to the Forest- 
house, where refreshments may be procured. 

Here the path quits the main road, and, branching off 
to the r. through the» Konigswald and across the Herren- 
berg, follows a sort of wooden causeway made to facilitate 
the process of dragging the timber down from the forest. 
After a two hours' ascent through the wood, the "Herren- 
berger Wasser" at the top is at last reached, near which there 
is a shepherd's hut; 1 M. beyond the latter is a second hut, 
at the commencement of the W. slope of the hill, and near 
it a good spring of fresh water. All trace of the path is now 
entirely lost, but by descending into the wood which must be 
traversed for some little distance to the right, the road will 
again be reached. From the summit to Wildenstein is about 
3 M. Path very rough. Pedestrians desirous of taking this 
excursion in the opposite direction should not fail to take a 
guide at least as far as the shepherd's hut. 

Wildenstein (* Sonne), a village prettily situated in the 
upper part of the St. Amarinthal (pop. German Rom. Cath.), 
the most beautiful valley of the Vosges. An hour's walk 
above the village, beyond the Wildenstein glass-house , the 
Thar is precipitated over a rock, 30 ft. in height, forming a 
waterfall termed the Bain des Payens or Heidenbad. 

In the forenoon an omnibus runs from Wildenstein to 
Wesserling in 1 hr., but the valley is so romantic that walking 
is far preferable. The road passes a small waterfall. In the 
middle of he valley a precipitous and well- wooded rock rises 
abruptly before the traveller; it derives its name of Schlossberg, 
(Castle-mountain) from the ruined Fortress of Wildenstein, which 
belonged in former time* to the Abbey of Murbach, but in 
the 30 Years' war was surrendered to a French general; in 
1634 it was betrayed to the Lothringian troops, and 10 years 
later it fell into the hands of General von Erlach, the com- 
mander of the troops of Weimar, by whom it was finally 
dismantled. 

From a considerable distance the zinc-covered spire of 
Kr'uth, situated about 3 M. from the castle, is a conspicuous 
object. About 1 '/ 2 M. farther lies the village of Oderen, pret- 
tily situated on an eminence in the valley. The chapel on 



236 Route. 58. WESSERLING. Vosges. 

the E. side of the village contains a number of curious 
votive tablets. 

The next village through which the road leads is Felle- 
ringen, and % M. beyond it is Wesserling, picturesquely 
situated on a hill. The latter is a place of recent origin, 
being a colony of cotton -spinners, and in this respect one 
of the most important places of the kind in France. The 
beautiful grounds and handsome residences of the manufacturers 
bear testimony to the productiveness of their labour. 

The road here joins the coach-road to Remivemont and 
Epinal. On the W. declivity of the mountain, which here 
separates the Wasgau from Lothringia, on the Col de Bussang, 
6 M. from Wesserling, is the source of the Moselle. 

From Wesserling an omnibus runs five times a day in 
1 '/, hr. to the railway station of Thann, passing St. Amarin 
(*Goldener Lowe), a celebrated resort of pilgrims, and the 
point from which the Gebweiler Belchen is generally ascended, 
but not without a guide; descent to Gebweiler on the other 
side. Thann see p. 228. 



59. From Baden (or Strasburg) to 
Freiburg. 

Comp. Map R. 62. 

Baden Railway. From Baden 2*/ 4 — i'/t livs. ; fares: express 5 fl. 27 
and 3 fl. 42 kr. , ordinary 4 fl. 36 kr., 3 fl. 6 kr. and 2 fl. — From Stras- 
bourg in 2 3 /j— 4'/ 2 hts.; tares: express 5 fl. 42 and 4 fl. 7 kr., ordinary trains 
5 fl.. 3 fl. 36 and 2 fl, 32 kr. Best views to the the 1. 

From Baden to Appenweier see p. 216. From Strasburg 
to Appenweier see p. 217. 

The main line continues to run parallel with , and at a 
short distance from the mountains. In the distance to the 1., 
on a rising ground, stands the Grand-ducal castle of Staufen- 
berg, founded in the 11th cent, by Otto of Hohenstaufen, 
Bishop of Strasburg, and still in a good state of preser- 
vation. 

Offenburg (*Fortuna, R. 48 kr., B. 24 kr., D. inc. W. 
at 12 y 2 o'clock 1 fl., Durbacher wine good; * Schvjarzer Adler) 
on the Kinzig, contains a statue, by the sculptor Friedrich, of 
Sir Francis Drake, u the introducer of the potato into Europe, 
1586." It was formerly an imperial town, and till the peace 
of Pressburg, seat of government of the district of Ortenau 
or Murdnau, which in ancient times belonged to the Duchy 
of Allemania or Swabia, while the Uffgau, in which Baden- 
Baden lies, was considered French -Rhenish territory. The 
Breisgau adjoins the Ortenau on the S. 



OFFENBURG. 59. Route. 237 

After crossing the Kinzig, the train passes within sight of 
the castle of Ortenberg, which lies on a hill to the 1. (see 
p. 257). Dinglingen is the nearest station for the town of 
Lahr {Post or Sonne; Krone), one of the most flourishing 
commercial places in the Duchy, situated in the Schutterthal, 
1 ! / 2 M. from the railway. 

On a high and precipitous peak, rising out of a distant 
mountain ravine, stand the ruins of the castle of Hohengerolds- 
eck, destroyed by the French marshal Crequi in 1697. By 
an act of the Rhenish Confederation, the domains belonging 
to the castle, though not comprising more than 45 sq. M., 
were recognised as a free state, and their possessor dignified 
with the title of Prince. By the Congress of Vienna in 1815, 
the Princes of Hohengeroldseck lost their independence and 
became subjects of Austria, and afterwards of Baden. 

Kippenheim, the birthplace of the rich tailor Stulz (p. 212), 
possesses a monument to his memory To the r. in the distance 
stretches the chain of the Vosges, among which the Hoh- 
kbnigsburg (p. 232) is a conspicuous object. 

The castle of Mahlberg, on an eminence above the small 
town of the same name, was, in remote times, one of the 
seats of the old Baden government; in the middle ages it 
belonged to the house of Hohenstaufen. The town was 
founded by Conrad III. about the middle of the 12th cent. 

Not far from stat. Orschweier, the village of Ettenheim lies 
at the entrance of the Munsterthal; its large old church is a 
conspicuous object. This village possesses a mournful interest 
as the spot where the unfortunate Due d'Enghien was seized 
on the night of March 14th, 1804. 

Near stat. Kenzingen the line twice crosses the Elz. Above 
Hecklingen, on a slight eminence, are seen the ruins of the 
castle of Lichtenegg, once the seat of the Counts of Tubingen. 

Near Riegel the Dreisam unites with the Elz. The entire 
plain at this point was, until lately, a marsh, but the water 
of the Dreisam is now drawn off by the Leopolds-Canal and 
emptied into the Rhine. The isolated mountain to the r. is 
the Kaiserstuhl (p. 243), raised by volcanic action, and con- 
sisting principally of basalt. Its S. and E. slopes are fertile 
and thickly populated. 

The line now traverses the plain between the Kaiserstuhl 
and the slopes of the Black Forest, and commands an exten- 
sive view of the chain of hills by which Freiburg is enclosed. 
The Schauinsland (p. 243), Belchen (p. 248) and Blauen (p. 247), 
which, next to the Feldberg (p. 259), are the highest points 
of the Black Forest, are visible in the distance, rising from 



238 Route 59. EMMENDINGEN. 

the mountain chain in the rear of the spire of the Miinster 
of Freiburg. 

At Emmendingen (Post), in the churchyard, Goethe's 
sister Cornelia (d. 1777) is interred. Beyond the town, on 
an eminence to the 1., are to be seen the extensive and still 
well-preserved ruins of Hochburg , dismantled by order of 
Louis XIV. in 1689. 

Between Emmendingen and Denzlingen, with its curious 
open-work tower, the train crosses the Elz. From this point 
a beautiful view is obtained of the valley of the Elz, opening 
to the N. E., at the entrance of which is situated the little 
town of Waldkirch (p. 257), with its slender white tower 
and ruined castle, at the N. W. base of the Hohen-Kandet 
(3886 ft.). 

Near Freiburg, on the 1., stands the old watch-tower of 
the now completely ruined castle of Zahringen, once the seat 
of a powerful race, which became extinct in 1218 by the 
death of Count Berthold V. (p. 240). The Counts of Hoch- 
berg, as well as the present Grand- duke of Baden, are de- 
scendants of the Dukes of Zahringen. 



60. Freiburg and its Environs. 

Cornp. Map R. 62. 

Hotels. *Zahringer Hof, opp. the station; *Hotel Fehrenbach 
(spacious apartments); Hotel Miiller, *Deutscher Hof. Of the second 
class: *Pfau, near the station, comfortable house. *Wilder Mann, not 
far from the Schwabenthor. Charges nearly the same in all: R. 48 kr. — 
1 fl., B. 24 kr., D. at 12% o'clock 1 fl.. A. 18 kr. — *Heil. Geist, opp. 
to the west-portal of the Miinster, li. 36, B. 20, D. 4S kr. — *R6m. Kaiser 
for those of moderate requirements. 

Cafts. *Kopf, where beer may be procured; Gramm, by the 
Schlossberg. 

Newspapers in the Museum, near the post-office; strangers introduced 
by a member. 

Swimming-baths at the foot of the Lorettoberg; bath 12 kr. 
Carriages: '/„ hr. for 1 pers. 12, 2 pers. 15, 3 pers. 18, 4 pers. 21 kr. ; 
'/ 4 hr. 24, 30, 36, 42 kr., and so on ; for a whole hour 48—66 kr. 

Telegraph-office at the railway station. 

Hbllenthal (p. 94). Diligence three times a day. Two-horse carriage 
to the Hollensteig and back in 6 hrs. for 7 fl. 

English Church Service in a room at the post office buildings. 

The traveller whose time is limited should follow the street to the r. 
leading from the station, through the town as far as the Schwabenthor, and 
then ascend the Schlossberg, which may be done in 20 min. On the way 
back he should visit the Miinster, Merchants' Hall (exterior only), traverse 
the broad Kaiserstrasse, and return to the station by the Deutscher Hof. 

Freiburg (in the Breisgau), situated about 12 M. distant 
from the Rhine, vies with its sister-towns Baden and Heidel- 
berg in the beauty of its situation, and the magnificence of 
its environs. The heights of the Black Forest, the picturesque 



FREIBURG. 60. Route. 23i> 

groups of mountains in the vicinity, the populous and fertile 
plain, bounded by the vine -clad Kaiserstuhl, and the lovely 
valley of the Dreisam, all combine to render the situation one 
of singular beauty. 

For nearly 300 years Freiburg was subject to the Imperial 
house of Habsburg; it suffered much in the 30 years' war; 
in 1677 it was taken by the French and fortified by Vauban, 
and was confirmed to them by the peace of Nymweg in 1678; 
by the peace of Ryswyk in 1697 it was given back to Austria^ 
was conquered by Villars in 1713, after an obstinate defence; 
again restored to Austria by the peace of Rastadt in 1714, 
besieged and taken by the French in 1745, and finally, after 
the destruction of the fortifications, once more made over to- 
Austria by the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. The whole of the 
Breisgau was an hereditary possession of the house of Austria,. 
Freiburg being the capital, but was annexed to Baden by the 
peace of Pressburg in 1806, and thus restored to the descend- 
ants of the house of Zahringen, to which it originally owed 
its foundation. 

Notwithstanding its antiquity it contains few buildings 
worthy of note, with the exception of the Minister and the 
Merchants' Hall, for which paucity it is indebted to its almost 
complete destruction in 1747 by the French under Marshal 
Coigny. 

All the streets of the town are supplied with streams of 
pure water from the Dreisam, which gives them an agreeable 
freshness in summer. The pop. is 17,000, 2000 of whom are 
Protestants, who have settled here within the last twenty years. 
Freiburg is still the seat of many old and wealthy families of 
the Austrian nobility. 

The jurisdiction of the archiepiscopal see extends over the 
whole of the Grand -duchy of Baden and the Hohenzollern 
principalities. The archbishop is also the head of the church 
of the Upper-Rhine, comprising the bishoprics of Rothenburg r 
Freiburg, Mainz, Fulda and Limburg. 

The University, founded in 1456 by the Archduke 
Albert IV., is frequented almost exclusively by subjects of 
Baden , and is one of the best Rom. Cath. institutions in 
Germany. The lectures are chiefly held in the New University^ 
formerly a Jesuits' college (in the street leading from the 
station to the Kaiserstrasse), and the medical lectures in the 
Old University, not far from the new. The latter contains a 
Zoological collection of considerable value (fee 18 kr.), and in 
the former is a remarkable Anatomical museum (men only 
admitted) , containing specimens interesting only to the pro- 
fessional visitor, but which by a strange inconsistency are 



240 Route 60. FREIBURG. Munster. 

explained by a female attendant. Entrance opp. to the mo- 
nument of Berthold Schwarz. 

In front of the old university stands the handsome statue 
of the Franciscan monk Berthold Schwarz, the inventor of gun- 
powder in 1340. Opposite to it is the Franciscan Church, with 
fine cloisters. 

The * Munster is almost the only perfect Gothic church 
in Germany, and is deservedly admired for the symmetry of 
its proportions and its tasteful decorations. The structure, 
which is of red sandstone, much darkened by age, was pro- 
bably commenced by Conrad of Zahringen in 1122; the tran- 
sept and the lower part of the side-towers, which are in the 
Romanesque style, appear to belong to the most ancient portion 
of the edifice. The body of the church, the W. side and the 
spire (385 ft.), the finest part of the whole building, date from 
1236. The tower is supported by a square foundation, and 
is of an octagonal form, terminating in a bold pyramid of the 
most exquisite fret-work masonry. Beneath it is the principal 
entrance or Portal, richly decorated with sculptures; on the 
r. side the 7 sleeping virgins, the 7 free arts, St. Margaretha 
and St. Catharina; on the 1. the 7 watchful virgins, and figures 
of saints. In front of the Portal are three columns, supporting 
very inferior statues of the Virgin, St. Alexander, and St. 
Lambert, the patron of the church. 

The designs of the older part of the edifice were taken 
from those of the Munster at Bale, while those for the more 
recent portions undoubtedly served as a model for the con- 
struction of the Strasburg Cathedral. The N. side of the 
aisle is less richly decorated than the S. side. Round the 
entire building are placed numerous statues of saints, pro- 
phets, and allegorical figures in niches. The beauty of the 
S. entrance is unfortunately marred by a portico erected in 
the 17th cent. 

The interior of the Munster (320 ft. long, 95 ft. broad, 
and 85 ft. high), produces a deep impression with its magni- 
ficent stained-glass windows belonging to different dates. The 
best time to visit it is from 8 to 9 a.m., and from 11 a.m. to 
7 p.m., as at these times there is no service. The services 
of the sacristan (18 kr.) had better be engaged, as several 
pictures &c. cannot be seen without his assistance. The most 
interesting objects are generally shown in the following order, 
beginning on the r. 

South Aisle. Good stained-glass windows of the 15th cent. The four 
Evangelists in stained glass, executed by Helmle in 1822. An old tombstone 
with haut-relief of Berthold V. of Zahringen, the last of his line (d. 1218). 
In the Holy Sepulchre Chapel the Saviour on a sarcophagus, with a small 



Minster. FREIBURG. 60. Route. 241 

aperture in the chest opened on Good Fridays to receive a portion of the 
host; under it the watchmen of the sepulchre asleep, valuable old sculptures. 
The eight small stained -glass representations of scenes from the Passion, 
designed by Diirer, and executed by Helinle, in 1826, are remarkable for the 
beauty of their colouring. The figures on the carved wood-work of the side- 
altars are old. That on the 1. with the adoration of the Magi , executed in 
1505, especially deserves inspection. 

Choir Chapels. The capitals of the pillars at the entrance are decor- 
ated with quaint figures of sirens, griffins, monks and women, — burlesques 
in the taste of the middle ages. The stained glass in these chapels is much 
damaged. — Altar-pieces: 1st chapel. * Winged picture, St. Augustin, Anto- 
nius and Rochus in the middle, and St. Sebastian and Christoph on the wings, 
by an unknown master. — 2nd chapel (University Chapel). The 'Nativity 
and the adoration of the Magf. Next to it a portrait of a priest, in Holbein's 
style, worthy of inspection. — At the back of the high-altar, a * winged 
picture by Hans Baldung, surnamed Grun (1516), representing the Crucifixion, 
to the 1. St. Hieranymus and John the Baptist, to the r. St. George and St. 
Laurentius. The chapel to the 1. behind the high-altar contains a Byzantine 
crucifix of the time of the Crusades, with silver-gilt figure of the Saviour. 

— Another chapel to the 1. contains a carved wooden * Adoration of the 15th 
tent., in a large Gothic frame-work. 

Choir. At the entrances to the r. and 1., haut-relief sculptures of the 
dukes Berthold III. and IV., of Conrad III. and Rudolph of Zahringen. On 
the wall a quaint monument of General de Rodt (d. 1743). — High -altar 
piece by Hans Baldung, painted in 1516, with coronation of the Virgin in 
the centre, and the twelve apostles at the 3ides; at the extreme sides the 
Annunciation, Visitation, Nativity, and Flight into Egypt. Episcopal chair 
richly carved. 

North Aisle. In the chapel of the Mount of Olives a stone relief of 
the Last Supper (1805), and four small *stained- glass windows with scenes 
from the Passion, designed by Diirer, and executed by the brothers Helmle. 

— Statue of the Archbishop Boll (d. 1836), by Friederich. — Monument to 
the Archbishop Demeter (d. 1842). Near the latter a sarcophagus containing 
bones of ancient Counts of Zahringen, transferred in 1829 from the abbey of 
Thennenbach (see below). — In the closed Chapel of St. Alexander may be 
seen the skeleton of the saint in a robe richly embroidered with gold, silver 
and jewels, presented by Pope Innocent X. in 1650. 

On the W. wall are circular stained-glass windows, those to the 1. new, 
and those to the r. old. The pulpit, executed by the sculptor Kempf in 
1561, is said to be hewn out of a solid block of stone. 

Tower. Entrance in the church to the r. by the portal; adm. by card 
6 kr., fee for the warder of the tower 12 kr., who also shows the mechanism 
of the clock by Schwilgue. The ascent is recommended, more for the sake 
of examining the beauty of the architecture than for the view, which is 
similar to that from the Schlossberg. 

Opposite to the S. portal of the Minister is the Merchants' 
Hall, erected in the 15th cent. The front rests on five pillars, 
forming a circular hall, above which is a balcony with two 
projecting towers, covered with coloured tiles and painted 
arms in relief; on the outer wall, small statues of the emperors 
of Austria &c. with inscriptions. The hall in the interior is 
now used for concerts, balls and other festivities. 

The Prot. Church, at the N. extremity of the Kaiser- 
strasse, in the Romanesque style, was erected in 1839, with 
the materials taken from the ruined abbey of Thennenbach. 
Nearly opposite to it are the barracks built by the Austrian 
government in 1776, and farther to the E. the Hall of Art 
Baedeker's Rhine. 16 



242 Route 60. FREIBURG. Sehlossberg. 

and Harmony, and the well-conducted National Asylum for 
the Blind. 

The old Gothic Fountain in the middle of the Kaiser- 
strasse, with its old and new statues of saints, knights and 
bishops in niches, is worthy of inspection. A second fountain 
farther S. in the same street has a monument of Berthold III., 
the founder of Freiburg (1120), and bears inscriptions recording 
the names of the various benefactors of the town. 

Near the St. Martinsthor is a figure painted on the wall, 
representing St. Martin dividing his cloak with a beggar. The 
inscription on the gateway commemorates the bravery dis- 
played by the townspeople against the French in 1796. 

On leaving the town by the Sch.wabenth.or, a broad foot- 
path to the 1. leads through vineyards to the * Sehlossberg 
(400 ft.), once strongly fortified with two castles, destroyed 
by the French in 1744, during the Bavarian war of succession. 
The ruins of these strongholds, with their huge, massive 
walls, rocky vaults, fosses &c, are now converted into plea- 
sure grounds. On the highest rock is an inscription recording 
the gratitude of the burghers of Freiburg to the Dukes of 
Zahringen , who founded the town, and to their descendant 
the Grand -duke Ludwig. The iron indicator, supposed to 
point to the different objects visible from the top , cannot be 
implicitly relied upon. The view is preferred by many to 
those from the castles of Baden and Heidelberg; to the E. 
lies the green and animated Kirchzarter Thai, irrigated by 
the Dreisam; in the background the entrance to the Hollen- 
thal; nearly due S. rises the Schau ins Land (see p. 243), 
to the r. of it the peak of the Belchen (p. 248), the second 
highest of the Black Forest; S. W. the Schonberg (2000 ft.), 
and in front of it the Chapel of Loietto (see below), to- 
the W. the blue chain of the Vosges, and the Rhine. From 
the plain rises the Kaiserstuhl (p. 243), sloping southwards 
into a richly cultivated plain bounded by the extensive 
range of the spurs of the Black Forest mountains. In the 
foreground lies Freiburg itself with its elegant open-work 
Miinster-tower. 

From the large crescent ("Kanonenplatz") a path through 
a gate leads to Schaichs Schlosschen, a restaurant where 
good beer may be procured. This is also the shortest way 
back to the town. 

The *Lorettocapelle, mentioned above, lies about 1 M. 
to the S. of the town, and deserves a visit for the sake of 
the view it affords of the lovely Gunthersthal, with its ancient 
monastery, which is not visible from the Sehlossberg. It was 
in this valley that the Imperial General Mercy successfully 



KAISERSTUHL. 60. Route. 243 

defended his entrenchments against the columns of Turenne 
in 1644. 

On market-days (Thurs. and Sat.) the peculiar costume of 
the peasantry of the Black Forest may be seen to advantage 
at Freiburg. 

Excursion to the Hollenthal, see p. 258. 

One of the principal heights of the Black Forest is the 
Schau ins Land, or Erzkasten (3930 ft.), which may best 
be visited as follows : by carriage (1-horse 3 fl.) to the Molz- 
Bauer, in the Kappelerr Thai, in 1 ] / 4 hr. ; thence on foot to 
the summit in 2 a /2 hrs.; down in 2y z hrs. to the Baths of 
Littenweiler, where dine, and in the afternoon back to Frei- 
burg (3 M.) on foot or by omnibus. 

Excursion from Freiburg. — Bad Littenweiler (charges moderate) 
lies not far from the Dreisam, at the entrance of the Kappeler Thai, and is 
visited for the sake of its powerful chalybeate waters, which are better 
adapted for baths than for drinking. Also a whey-cure establishment. 

From the baths S. into the Kappeler valley to Kappel (l'/ 2 M.), to 
Molzbauer (l'/ 2 M,), then a steep ascent; 2 11. farther the road leads to 
the r. by a cottage, and then in a straight direction for 1 M. to 4 cottages 
(refreshments); 3 / 4 M. beyond them the path makes a steep ascent, and 
2 M. more bring the pedestrian to the spot where landslips took place 
in 1849 and 1855. A little to the left the path ascends the hill, passing 
a spring of delicious water, and reaching the ridge of the mountain in 
about 20 min.; a walk of 10 rnin, more to the r. brings the pedestrian 
to the cross at the top, which commands a magnificent view. About 
2 L M. to the S. is a group of houses called an der Halde, the highest 
of which to the r. is the Mossle, a good, clean country inn. The 
Feldberg (p. 259) is 7 M. to the E. of this point; the Belchen the same 
distance. 

Beautiful walks from Freiburg to the Schonberg (4'/ 2 M. to the S. W., 
through the Giinthersthal, p. 242) , to the Kybfelsen (5 M. to the S. E. ; at 
the entrance to the wood before reaching the Giinthersthal, the road to the 
1. must be taken, see sign-post), back by the Giinthersthal and Lorettoberg. 
Longer walks may be taken to the Rosskopf (2290) ft.) N. E., and thence to 
the Jdgerhdusle, or the castle of Zdhringen (p. 74). 

An excursion to the Kaiserstuhl may be best made as 
follows: by carriage (1-horse 3 fl.) in 2 hrs. to Oberschaff- 
hausen, at the foot of the Kaiserstuhl; with guide in 1 hr. 
to the Neun Linden (1763 ft.), the summit of the hill, com- 
manding a most beautiful view of the Blaek Forest and the 
Vosges; then without guide in 1 hr. to Bickensohl (good wine 
at the "Stubenwirth"), and by Achkarren in 1 ] / 2 hr. to Breisach, 
whence the diligence runs twice a day in 3 hrs. to Freiburg 
(1 fl.), or in the same time to Colmar (2 fr.). 

The high road from Freiburg to Breisach traverses the 
Mooswald, a boggy, wooded district between St. Georgen and 
Thiengen, and then leads S. round fertile slopes, raised 
by volcanic action , past Munzingen and the St. Apollonius- 
Capelle. At Ober - Rim&ingen is the chateau of Baron Fal- 
kenstein. 

16* 



244 Route 61. BREISACH. 

Breisach, or Alt-Breisach (Post), the Mom hrmaeus of 
the Romans, is situated at the S.W. extremity of the Kaiser- 
stuh], and is visible from a considerable distance. As late as 
the 10th cent. , the Rhine is said to have flowed round the 
town, which was in early times a fortification of great im- 
portance, and was regarded as the key of Germany. From 
1331 it belonged to Austria, in 1638 it was taken, after a 
dreadful siege, by the Swedes under Bernhard of Weimar, 
and was after his death garrisoned by the French ; in 1700 
it again came into the possession of Austria; in 1703 it was 
taken by Tallard and Vauban, and in 1714 restored to the 
Austrians. In 1740 a change in the course of the Rhine 
proved so detrimental to the fortifications , that they were 
afterwards abandoned and partly demolished by the Austrians, 
and in 1793 completely destroyed by the French. At a later 
date they were again partially restored, but were again levelled 
by the government of Baden. There is an old saying with 
regard to Breisach : 

Limes eram Gallis, nunc pons et janua fio; 
Si pergunt, Gallis nullibi limes erit! 

The town, now of no importance, is situated on a rock 
rising precipitously several hundred feet above the Rhine, and 
surmounted by the Gothic Miinster of * St. Stephen, erected 
at the close of the 13th cent. The interior contains a fine 
old rood-loft belonging to the same date, and an altar-piece 
of carved wood, representing the coronation of the Virgin, ex- 
ecuted in 1597. The communication with the opposite side 
of the Rhine is maintained by means of a flying-bridge. The 
high-road to Colmar (omnibus twice a day in 3 hrs.) leads 
past Fort Mortier and Neu-Breisach (Hotel de France), strongly 
fortified in 1700 by Vauban. 

Colmar, see p. 227. 



61. From Freiburg to Bale. 

(Comp. Map R. 62.) 

By the Baden Railway in l'/ 2 — 2'/a hrs. Fares: express 3 fl. 5, and 
2 fl. 6 kr. ; ordinary trains 2 fl. 33, 1 fl. 45, and 1 fl. 6 kr. - 

The course of the railway is within a short distance of 
the W. spurs and vine- clad slopes of the Black Forest. To 
the r. are the S. slopes of the Kaiserstuhl (p. 243). Beyond 
Schallstadt the castle of Staufenburg (p. 249) is visible in the 
distance to the 1., situated on an eminence at the entrance of 
the Miinsterthal, which is terminated by the Belchen (p. 248). 
Stat. Krotzingen (* Post), The little town of Heitersheim, once 



MULLHEIM. 62. Route. 245 

the seat of the Master of the Order of St. John of Malta in 
Germany, lies 1 1 / 2 M. from the station. 

Mullheim (*Kittler, R. 42 kr., B. 20 kr., at the station; 
Engel, Krone in the town), celebrated for the Markgrafler 
wine which is here produced, especially from the vineyards 
near Auggen, and on the slopes of the hills as far as Grenz- 
ach, above Bale. Omnibus to Badenweiler (see below) on the 
arrival of every train, in 3 / 4 hr. , fare 36 kr. Travellers 
who arrive late in the evening are recommended to pass the 
night at Mullheim, as the hotels at Badenweiler are occasion- 
ally full. 

To the W. of Mullheim, l'/j M. from the station, lies Neuenburg, on the 
Rhine, besieged in 1633 — 34 by Bernbard von Weimar, who here ended his 
heroic career, not without suspicion of poison. 

At Schliengen (* Krone) the line approaches the Khine, 
which is here divided into several arms by fertile islands. 
Near the stat. Kleinkembs it runs close to the river, and 
penetrates the u Isteiner Klotz," a limestone cliff immediately 
overhanging the water. The short distance between Bellingen 
and Efringen is remarkable for the windings of the line, 
which here runs along an embankment high above the Rhine. 
At Eimeldingen (825 ft.) the train crosses the Kander (p. 247), 
beyond which a splendid view is suddenly disclosed of the 
course of the Rhine, Alsace, and the Jura beyond Bale. Near 
the stat. Leopoldshohe lies the old fortress of ffiiningen, on 
the opposite bank of the river. The terminus at Klein-Basel 
is % M. from the Rhine-bridge, to which a broad street leads 
direct, and 2 M. from the Swiss central-station at Bale. 

Bale, see R. 64. 



62. Badenweiler' and its Environs. 

Biirgeln, Blauen, Belchen, Miinsterthal. 

Hotels. *R6merhaus, R. 48 kr., B. 24 kr., D. 1 fl. 12 kr. »Stadt 
Carlsruhe, R. 40 kr., B. 20 kr., D. incl. W. 1 fl. 12 kr. — Badischer 
Hof, moderate. — Single travellers may find good and cheap accommodation 
at the Ochs and Wilder Mann atOberweiler, a village at the foot of the 
Badenweiler hill, or at the Lowe and Schwan atNiederweiler, on the 
road to Mullheim. Good wine and refreshments in the inn at Vogisheim, 
a village between Mullheim and Auggen, and 4 M. from Badenweiler, with 
which it is connected by a shady walk. 

Omnibus from the station at Mullheim to Badenweiler in 1 hr., but the 
distance may be walked in nearly the same time, as the road ascends the 
whole way. Those who wish to employ the omnibus are recommended to 
engage a seat immediately on leaving the train. 

Donkeys at Badenweiler : to the station 40 kr., Blauen 1 fl. 20 kr., Bel- 
chen 3 fl., Biirgeln 1 fl. 20 kr. , Kandern 1 fl. 48 kr. , Sophienruhe 18 kr., 
Alte-Mann 24 kr. 

Holly walking-sticks, carved, at Noll's, in Oberweiler. 



246 Route 62. BADENWEILER. 

Badenweiler, situated on the W. spurs of the Black 
Forest, 1314 ft. above the level of the sea, and 695 ft. above 
the Bhine, commands an extensive view of the vast plain of 
the Bhine as far as the Vosges. This pleasant little watering- 
place was until recently but little frequented, except by the 
inhabitants of the neighbouring towns, but has of late lost 
much of its pristine simplicity (300 patients in 1863). 

The principal rendez-vons of the gay world is the *Cur- 
saal, which contains concert, ball, drawing and reading-rooms. 
In front of this edifice stands a small fountain with two bas- 
reliefs of Jesus and the Samaritan woman, and Moses striking 
the rock. One pipe yields thermal (82° Fahr.), and the other 
common water. At the back of the Cursaal is a * Restaurant, 
■where a band plays in the morning and evening, and where 
the keys of the Roman baths are kept. 

Adjoining the Cursaal is a small *Park extending up the 
hill, which is surmounted by the ruins of the Castle, origin- 
ally built by the Romans for the protection of the baths 
below, and destroyed by the French in 1688. The fragments 
of the walls are completely enveloped in ivy; view magnificent. 

That the springs were known to the Romans was proved 
in 1784 by the discovery of the *B»oman baths (fee 12 kr.), 
which are in good preservation, and are among the finest 
specimens known. Their entire length is 324 ft., breadth 
100 ft., and the partitions, flooring, steps &c. are all well 
preserved. The larger apartments all contain two baths, cold 
baths (Jrigidaria) 33 by 21 ft., and warm (tepidaria) 29 by 
25 ft. ; there are also vapour baths (laconica), vestibules {atria), 
anointing -rooms {unctoria) &c. An inscription on the altar 
records that the baths were dedicated to "Diana Abnob(a)," or 
the Diana of the Abnoba, or Black Forest mountains. 

The environs of Badenweiler afford the most delightful 
* sylvan walks. A signpost on the Kandern road, immediately 
at the back of the village, indicates the way to the Sophien- 
ruhe; the traveller ascends the hill in about 17 min. to the 
crescent, then to the 1., in 2 min. more to the 1. again, and 
then, slightly descending to the 1., a few hundred steps farther 
the * Sophienruhe is reached. It is a large open space on 
the outskirts of the wood, in a S. E. direction from Baden- 
weiler, and about 200 ft. above the village; the view is still 
more picturesque than that from the old castle , which 
forms with Badenweiler itself a beautiful foreground to the 
landscape. 

On returning, 2 min. from the Sophienruhe, a good broad 
path ascends to the *Alter Mann (% M.), a rocky eleva- 
tion, accessible only by bridges and steps, about 100 ft. 



BURGELN. b'X Route. 247 

higher than the Sophienruhe; view similar, with wooded fore- 
ground. 

A path across the bridge descends to the Haus Baden, a 
miners' tavern (% M.), whence the pedestrian may either re- 
turn to Badenweiler, or continue his walk to Burgeln, which 
lies 5 M. to the S. By attending to the following directions, 
the road cannot be missed; but to prevent all possibility of 
mistake, a boy should be taken from Badenweiler (30 kr.) to 
the Sophienruhe, Alter Mann and Burgeln. ' Donkey 1 fl. 20 kr. 

Between the houses of Hans Baden a narrow path leads in about 4 min. 
to the carriage-road, at the^side of which are gypsum mines. Immediately 
after passing them, the turning to the r. must be taken; '/a M. farther Seh- 
ringen is reached (l 1 /, M. from Badenweiler), where the path joins the 
Badenweiler and Burgeln road. The latter is little better than a cart-track, 
and leads chiefly through wood; 1% M. farther is a signpost indicating the 
•direction of Burgeln to the 1. ; '/., M. beyond the post, the cart-road is 
crossed by the path which leads into a thick wood, and in 7 mill, another 
signpost is reached, where however the direction must not be changed; 1 M. 
more brings the pedestrian to another signpost, 1 M. beyond which another 
is reached, indicating the way to the Blaueu (6 M.) , and to the r. at a 
sharp angle to Burgeln ('/, M.). 

* Burgeln (2250), commonly called the Burgler Schloss 
{Inn, moderate), was formerly a branch of the large and 
wealthy Benedictine foundation of St. Blasien (p. 262) in the 
Black Forest. The stag, the arms of St. Blasian, still serves 
as a weather-cock. It is most beautifully situated to the S., 
and almost at .the foot of the Blauen, commanding a magni- 
ficent view, similar to that from the Blauen (see below), 
though less extensive. To the E. is seen the chain of 
mountains which bound the Wiesenthal (p. 260), S. E. the 
snow-clad Alps from the Scheerhorn to the Jungfrau (comp. 
p. 248), in front of them the Jura, and in the foreground well- 
wooded heights, on the most considerable of which Kandern 
{see below) is situated; a little farther back are Bale, Hiinin- 
gen with bridge of boats , Miihlhausen and the Rhine-Rhone 
canal, glimpses of the Rhine, and to the W. the long chain 
of the Vosges. The interior of the castle and church may 
be visited, but they contain few objects of interest. 

Schliengen (p. 245), the nearest station, lies 6 M. to the 
W. of Burgeln. Or the road may be taken to Kandern 
(1087 ft.) (Blume; Ochs; good beer at Kummich's), 3 l / 2 M. 
distant, and thence to Bale 13 M. ; or, as the road is unin- 
teresting, by carriage from Kandern to Bale (4 fl.). 

The ascent of the *Blauen (3589 ft.), one of the live 
highest points of the Black Forest, at the N. base of which 
Badenweiler lies, is one of the easiest and most beautiful ex- 
cursions from the latter place (donkey 1 fl. 20 kr.). The 
broad carriage - road through lir-woods cannot be missed, 
and the summit may easily be reached in 2 hrs. The Blauen 



248 Route 62. BELCHEN. 

is the nearest to the Rhine of all the peaks of the Black 
Forest, and the course of the river from Bale to the Kaiser- 
stuhl lies before the spectator. Four different mountain chains 
are visible to the naked eye, to the E. the Black Forest, to 
the W. the Vosges, to the S. the Jura, and in clear weather 
the snow-clad chain of the Alps in the following order: S.E. 
the broad back of the Glarnisch, the Todi and the two-peaked 
Scheerhorn, beyond these the summit of the Titlis, farther 
S., one behind the other, are the Wetterhorner, Schreckhorner 
and the Finsteraarhorn, next the Eiger, Monch, the Jungfrau, 
Bliimlisalp, Altels, and tinally to the W. the jagged Diablerets, 
Mont Blanc and the Dent du Midi. Schloss Biirgeln (p. 247) 
is 5 M. from the summit of the Blauen. 

The excursion to the Belchen and Munsterthal requires an 
entire day. To the summit of the former is a walk of 4'/ 2 
hrs., down to Neumuhl 2 hrs., thence to stat. Krotzingen on 
foot in 3 hrs., or by carriage in l 3 / 4 hr. Guide from Baden- 
weiler to the Belchen not absolutely necessary, but desirable. 
Donkey 3 fl. 

The view is still grander than that from the Blauen, as it 
comprises the beautiful Munsterthal, Wiesenthal, and other 
valleys which are not visible from the latter. 

From Badenweiler to the Belchen by a good road in an K. direc- 
tion; after l'/ a M. to the r. in the wood; */ 4 M. on the carriage-road in the 
valley to the village of Schweighof ; then the broad road which ascends at 
rirst gently, and afterwards rapidly, through woods and rocky landscapes, 
leads to Simitz (4 M.), a forester's house {Zuni Auerhahti) in a green dale, 
where refreshments may be procured. The same broad road must still be 
followed ; it ascends in '/^ hr. to the ridge from which the Belchen rises, then 
descends to the other side to the houses called an der Halde (1 M.), where 
the carriage-road must be left. Up to this point a guide is quite unnecessary, 
but the path now becomes more difficult to trace. By carefully attending to 
the following directions, however, the pedestrian may safely venture alone,, 
if the weather be tolerably clear. 

In 25 min. the wood is entered, and in 15 miu. more a small opeu spot 
is reached; here at the boundary-stone the path is crossed by the road leading 
from the Munsterthal to Neuenweg. The narrow path now leads straight on, 
keeping the peak of the Belchen quite to the 1., and ascends the narrow 
mountain ridge. In 10 min. more an open grass-plot on the N. slope of the- 
ridge is reached. Here the pedestrian must turn to the 1., and ascend by 
the fence in the direction of the two mountain peaks (Hochkelch). At the 
end of the enclosure it must be crossed, and the steep hill close past the- 
two peaks ascended; in 20 min. more level ground is reached; in 10 min. 
the ridge which connects the Hochkelch with the Belchen is then arrived at, 
a boundary-stone is passed, and in 25 inin. more the cross on the summit is 
attained. 

The *Belchen (4356 ft.) commands a most extensive and 
magnificent view of the surrounding valleys, especially the 
picturesque animated Munsterthal to the N.W. and the Wiesen- 
thal to the S. The distant view is the same as that from the 
Blauen, with the exception that the nearer part of the valley 
of the Rhine is concealed. 



MUNSTERTHAL. 63. Route. 249 

From the Bolchen into the MiiusterthaL, The row of boundary- 
stones to the N. of the cross must be followed, and in 2 or 3 rain, a good 
path is reached, which winds down over bilberry-clad slopes, and leads in 
35 min. to the Sennhutte in der Krinne (3470 ft.), where refreshments may 
be procured. The Sennhutte must now be left about 100 paces to the r., and 
the stony road to the 1. descends through wood into the valley, the bottom of 
which is reached in 50 min. Then through the valley, past some silver mines 
and stamping mill, worked by au English company, to Neuniuhl in 25 min., 
where at the "Krone inn a one-horse carriage may be had to Krotzingen 
(9 M.) for 3 fl. 

The Miinsterthal is at the top narrow, but gradually 
widens towards the mouth. It is a well -populated valley, 
irrigated by the Neumagen Bach, but is not sufficiently at- 
tractive to induce the traveller to traverse it on foot. At the 
mouth of the valley, 6 M. from Neumuhl and 3 M. from 
Krotzingen, lies the small and ancient town of Staufen (*5a- 
discher Hof), overtopped by the ruins of the Staufenburg, seat 
of a powerful race which became extinct in 1602. The vineyards 
which occupy the hill produce the "Burghalder" wine. 

Between Staufen and stat. Krotzingen an omnibus runs 
several times a day. Conveyances to be had at the * Badischer 
Hof, near the station. 

63. The Black Forest (Baden portion.) 

Vedestrian tour of ten days from Baden. 1st day. Ebersteiu- 
scliloss (p. 215), Forbach, Schonmunzach (p. 251). — 2nd. Hornisgriude, 
Mummelsee (p. 251), Alierheiligen. — 3rd. Oppenau, by carriage to Gries- 
bach, Holzwalderhohe, Rippoidsau, Schapbach (p. 255). • — 4th. Wolfach, 
Hornberg, Tryberg (p. 256). — 5th. Furtwangen, Simonswald, Waldkirch, 
(p. 257). — 6th. By carriage and railway to Freiburg. — 7th. (Carriage to 
entrance of) the Hollenthal, Feldberg (Albthal see p. 263), Todtnau (p. 260).— 
8th. Wiesenthal to Schopfheini (p. 261). — 9th. Wehrathal (p. 262), thence 
by railway to Bale (p. 264). — 10th. (Railway to) MiUlheim, Badenweiler r 
Blauen (p 245). 

The following three routes have been so planned, that after a walk 
of 2 — 3 days the railway may always be reached. The pedestrian will find 
the following maps, published by Herder at Freiburg, of great service to 
him : 1. Baden and the Kniebisbacler. 2. Environs of Freiburg. 3. Southern 
valleys of the Black Forest. Mounted, 1 fl. 12 kr. each. 

Of all the wooded districts of Germany, none offer such 
a succession of beautiful and varied landscapes as the Black 
Forest, especially the W. portion, belonging to Baden, the 
spurs of which decline precipitously towards the plain of the 
Rhine, whilst the E. slopes are more gradual. The lower 
heights are covered with fragrant fir and pine forest, and the 
populous and fertile valleys present a scene of luxurious vege- 
tation, corn, wine and fruit being abundantly produced. The 
rocks consist of gneiss, granite and sandstone. The numerous 
mineral springs have given rise to many little watering- 
places, which offer tempting retreats to the weary traveller. Even 
in the more remote districts the inns are good (trout every- 
where, but somewhat dear), and offer no mean additional 
attraction to this favoured locality. 



250 Route 63. MURGTHAL. Black Forest. 

A large proportion of the population is occupied with 
traffic in wood, which is conducted down the principal streams 
in the Forest to the Rhine, where the larger rafts are con- 
structed, and afterwards navigated down to Holland. Watch- 
making, a rapidly increasing branch of industry, engages a 
considerable number of persons. In this busy and prosperous 
district beggars are unknown. 

a. Murgthal, Hor nisgr inde , Mummelsee. 

Comp. Map R. 52. 

From Baden to Gernsbach and Allerheiligen. 

Two days' walk: 1st. From Baden to Gernsbach (6 M), thence to For- 
bach 10 M., from Forbach to Schonmiinzach 7 M. — 2nd. From Schonmiinzach 
to the summit of the Hornisgrinde 4% hrs., down to the Mummelsee % hr., 
and to Seebach 1 hr. , or to Ottenhiifen, and theuce over the hill to Aller- 
heiligen l 1 /, hr. — At Gernsbach, Fopfeach , aud Schonmiinzach conveyances 
may be procured: 2-horse carriages for 4 pers. from Gernsbach to Schon- 
miinzach, inc. driver's fee, 6 fl. 45 kr. (from Forbach to Schonmiinzach 4 fl.), 
from Schonmiinzach to the Eckle (2 M. from the Hornisgrinde) 5 fl. 36 kr. ; 
here the carriage-road ends. — Between Gernsbach and Schonmiinzach au 
•open diligence, accommodating 6 pers., runs every day in 4 hrs. (fare 1 fl.) 
to meet the coach between the latter place and Freudenstadt (fare 48 kr.) 

The Murg takes its rise on the Kniebis (p. 253) from three 
springs which unite below Baiersbronn (p. 253). After a 
course of about 45 M. it empties itself into the Rhine below 
Rastadt. The inhabitants of its banks are almost exclusively 
engaged in the wood traffic. The timber, which is cut in 
winter, is carried down by the spring floods to the Rhine, 
and large crowds often assemble to witness the large masses 
being precipitated into the stream. 

The Murgthal between Gernsbach and Schonmiinzach 
presents a series of wild and beautiful landscapes. The sides 
of the valley are richly clothed with pines, firs and beeches, 
and the scene is often varied by green meadows, and cot- 
tages in the Swiss style interspersed among the woods. As 
far as Schonmiinzach the rocks consist of granite, huge blocks 
of which lie scattered in the forest, and by the mountain 
brooks. Above Schonmiinzach the formation is of gneiss, 
hence the rounded and smooth aspect of the slopes. Varie- 
gated sandstone occasionally makes its appearance. The val- 
ley here becomes broader, and thus loses much of its peculiar 
charm. It is seen to the best advantage in descending the 
stream. 

From Baden to Gernsbach see p. 214. The road in the 
Murgthal gradually ascends at the foot of the hill on which 
the Ebersteinschloss is situated. The pedestrian descending 
the valley must take the footpath by the last house at Oberts- 
rot/t to reach the castle. 



Black Forest. SCHONMtJNZACH. 63. Route. 251 

At Hilpertsau the road crosses to the r.« bank of the Murg, 
and leads through the villages of Weissenbach, Langenbrand, 
and Gausbach. That part of the valley which lies between 
Gernsbach and Forbach is the most animated as well as the 
most picturesque. 

Forbach. (* Krone, conveyances; Adler) is the finest point 

in the whole valley; the church is picturesquely situated on 

an eminence. 

The footpath from Baden to Forbach (12 M.) diverges to the r. from 
the carriage-road, 3 / 4 M. beyond Oberbeuern (p. 214), at the signpost; 3 / 4 M. 
farther is Geisbach, and 1V 2 Af. Schmalbach. where the path to the 1. must be 
kept; 1'/, M. from Schmalbach, a broad pathway diverges from the road to 
the r., and leads for 1 M. along the E. slope of the mountain ridge, passing 
a meadow. At the end of the meadow the turning to the 1. must be taken, 
a / 4 M. beyond which a cross-way is reached , where the path which ascends 
the hill in a straight direction must be kept; '/ 4 M. more brings the pedes- 
trian to the main road, which must be followed for '/„ M., then at the signg 
post the turning to the 1. must be taken to Bermersbach (1% M.). The 
path which ascends by the village well must now be taken, and l'/ 4 M. far- 
ther Forbach is reached. 

Beyond Forbach the Murgthal becomes more deserted, but 
continues grand and beautiful, resembling some of the wildest 
Swiss valleys; at the bottom rushes the impetuous mountain 
stream over scattered fragments of rock, and on either side 
are dark overhanging pine- clad hills. Half way to Schon- 
miinzach, the Raumiinzach (on the r.) unites with the Murg. 

Schonmunzach (Glashiitte; Waldhorn) is the first village 
in the dominions of Wurttemberg, and consists of a consider- 
able glass -manufactory and a group of houses. The brook 
of the same name here falls into the Murg. (Good bathing- 
place in the latter '/ 4 M. above the post.) 



The road to the Hornisgrinde and Mummelsee 
(12 M.) leads from this point along the Schonmunzach to 
Zwiegabel (3 M.), crosses the brook, and ascends to the r. 
along the Langenbach, past V 'order -Langenbach (1% M.) to 
Hinter-Langenbach (2% M.), where, at the small village inn 
{Ziifle, tolerable wine), guides may be procured to the Hornis- 
grinde and Mummelsee. 

Here the path becomes steeper, and leads to the Eckle 
(3 M.), a strip of wood on the ridge of the mountain, where 
a stone marks the boundary between Wurttemberg and Baden, 
and where a view of the distant Vosges is obtained. At this 
point are three different paths: that most to the r. enters 
the wood and constitutes the boundary line between the two 
dominions already mentioned; the 2nd, also inclining to the 
r., leads past the Drei-Furstenstein , which bears the arms of 
Baden and Wurttemberg, to the Hornisgrinde (2 M.). The 



252 Route 63. MUMMELSEE. Black Forest. 

third path (to the Mummelsee), at first but little trodden, runs 
parallel with the road, and after a few paces joins a broad 
track, which, slightly ascending, skirts the hill-side; 10 min. 
from the Eckle, the broad stony path ascending to the r. 
must be taken, which in % hr. leads to the extremity of the 
Mummelsee. 

If the pedestrian follow the second of the above mentioned 
paths, it will conduct him to the * Hornisgrinde (3612 ft.), 
the highest point of which is marked by a massive 'square 
stone heap. The view is very extensive ; to the E. is seen 
the Schwabian Alb, the Achalm at Reutlingen, Hohentwiel, 
and other peaks of the Hohgau; to the S. the heights of the 
Black Forest, the Feldberg, Belchen, Blauen, and beyond 
them even the Alps (comp. p. 248); to the S. W. the 
Kaiserstuhl (p. 243) and Vosges; to the W. the vast and 
populous plain of the Rhine, with its numerous villages 
and towns; almost exactly opposite is visible the spire of the 
cathedral of Strasburg, and on a mountain in the foreground 
the extensive ruins of the Briyittenschloss [usually ascended from 
Ottenhofen (see below) , fine view] ; to the N. the mountains 
round Baden, the Mercuriusberg (p. 215), and even the Thurm- 
berg (p. 206) at Durlach. 

From the summit of the Hornisgrinde the path gradually 
descends in a S. W. direction, and soon becomes a more 
distinct tract, leading in % hr. to the Mummelsee, a gloomy 
looking little lake, surrounded by fir-clad mountain walls, and, 
according to an old popular tradition, inhabited by water- 
sprites and goblins, whose supposed presence contributes more 
to the interest of the spot than the natural features of the 
scene. By the Seebaeh, the brook which flows out of the lake 
on the S. side, is a hut which serves as a resting-place and 
shelter in bad weather. About 10 yds. above the lake, at the 
N. W. corner, not far from the path from the Hornisgrinde, 
a spring of excellent water issues from the rock. 

From the Mummelsee to Seebaeh (Hirsch, very unpretend- 
ing) is a distance of about 3 M. From the latter place 
two paths lead to Allerheiligen (p. 254), one arduous and un- 
interesting over the mountains, and not to be ventured upon 
without a guide (36 kr.); the other and pleasanter leads through 
the valley to Ottenhofen (2% M. ), and then follows the 
road described at p. 153. 

It has already been said that the Upper Murglhal offers 
fewer attractions than the lower part of the valley, but the 
traveller who has already visited the Mummelsee and Aller- 
heiligen should continue his way from Schonraiinzach to 



Black Forest. KNIEBIS. 63. Route. 253 

Reichenbach. (7 ] / 2 M.), formerly a monastery, where a pleasing 
retrospective view of the valley is obtained. Before reaching 
Baiersbronn the footpath descending to the r. into the valley 
may be taken, following the course of the stream through 
the picturesque and animated Mittel- and Ober-Murythal, with 
its numerous saw-mills and other signs of the industry of the 
inhabitants, to Buhlbach {* Inn near the glass-house, R. and 
B. 40 kr.), T 1 ^ M. from Baiersbronn. The large glass-house 
yields annually upwards of half a million Champagne bottles. 
Allerheiligen is 6 M. to .the W. ; footpath over the Grunde. 

The road from Buhlbach to the Kniebis ascends gradually 
through the wood the whole way. About 3 M. to the S. of 
Buhlbach the pedestrian reaches an open grass-plat where the 
road diverges to the r. at a right angle, but he must bear 
to the 1. across the grass, and 5 min. will bring him to a 
broad stony track which leads to the Wurttemberg boundary- 
stone ( 3 / 4 M.). Ten min. walk along the furrow marking the 
boundary line will now bring the traveller up the Rossbuhl to 
the Schwabenschan: (3361 ft.), an intrenchment made at the 
close of the last century by an officer of Wurttemberg. The 
view from this point comprises the valley of the Rhine, 
Strasburg and the Swiss mountains. 

Five minutes' walk S. from this point along the frontier 
line will bring the pedestrian to a large Boundary stone, 
bearing the date 1673, where, close to the E. side of the 
path, is the old Schwedenschanze (Swedish intrenchment). 
About 200 yds. to the E. of this point is the Kniebis-Zufluchts- 
haus, where wine may be procured. The path descending to 
the r. by the boundary-stone leads in 10 min. to the old 
high-road which traverses a succession of beautiful forest 
and mountain scenes to Oppenau (4 l / 2 M.) (p. 255). The 
entire distance from Schonmunzach to Buhlbach is about 
15 M. (1-horse carriage in 3 hrs. for 3 fl. and from Buhl- 
bach to Oppenau about 10 M. 

b. Allerheiligen, Waterfalls of Biittenstein, Kniebis- 
bader, Waterfalls of Tryberg, Kinzigthal. 

Comp. Map R. 52. 
Pedestrian tour 3 l /„ days. 1st. From Achern to Giiesbach 24 M., or 
better by carriage. — 2nd. To Hausach 24 M. 3d. To Tryberg and back, 
and then to Hasslach 25% M. 4th. To Offenbvrg 15 M. Should the traveller 
prefer it, he may accomplish this tour in 2 days by availing himself of the 
public and other conveyances. 1st day. From Achern to Neuhaus (1-horse car- 
riage 2 fl. 42 kr., p. 216) in V/„ hr. ; "on foot over the mountain to Allerheiligen 
in 3 / 4 hr-, from the forest-house to the foot of the waterfalls in 20 min., then 
by carriage (1-horse 3 l / 2 fl.), to Griesbach in 2'/ 4 hrs.; on foot over the 
Holzwalder Hohe to Rippoldsau in 2% hrs.; by carriage (4 fl.; omnibus, 
in the morning only, 1 fl.) to Wolfach in 2 hrs. 2nd day. By carriage to 



254 Route 63. ALLERHEILIGEN. Black Forest. 

Tryberg (visit to the waterfall on foot in 2 hrs.), and back to Wolfach (l-hors& 
5 fl.) in 5 hrs. ; from Wolfach to Offenburg (1-horse f> fl. ; omnibus in the 
morning ouly 1 fl. 48 kr.) in 4 hrs. 

Achern (p. 217) is the starting point for the above tour; 
if it be reached about the middle of the day, the Turenne 
Monument (p. 217), the Erlenbad and the Lunatic Asylum may- 
be visited in the course of the afternoon. 

The road to Allerheiligen leads through the Cappeler Thal t 
a pleasant, green dale (to the 1. on the height, the Brigitten- 
schloss, p, 252; in the valley, a Morocco leather factory), past 
the villages of Cappel (3 M.; *Ochs), Ottenhofen (3 M.) (*Linde; 
*Pflug; beer at Birk's. — The "Edelfraulein's Grab," a pic- 
turesque waterfall, about 1 M. to the S.), then into the valley 
to the r. to Neuhaus (2 M.; Erbprinz). Here the path leaves the 
road. The former skirts the hillside to the r., leading straight 
past a solitary house (5 min.: ascent to the r. to be avoided} 
into the wood. At the top is a signpost where a short cut 
descends to the r. by numerous windings to ( 3 / 4 hr.) * Aller- 
heiligen (2000 ft.). The first glance on issuing from the 
wood at the top is very striking. The grand ruins of the 
abbey, founded in 1196 by the Duchess Uta of Schauenburg, 
secularized in 1802, and partially destroyed by lightning in 
1803, occupy almost the entire breadth of the wooded dale. 
In exploring them the traveller should use the utmost caution; 
a Prussian gentleman lost his life in Aug., 1862, by falling 
from the highest point. Good accommodation at Mittenmaier's 
(pension 2 fl.). One-horse carriage to Achern in 2 hrs. 3 % fl., 
to Oppenau in 1% hr. 2'/ 2 fl., to' Griesbach in 2y 2 hrs. 5 fl. 
to stat. Appenweier in 3 1 /, hrs. for 6 fl. The Schweden- 
•schanze (p. 253) lies 6 M. to the S. E.; path through the 
wood with guide. 

Immediately below the monastery is a rugged mountain- 
cleft, through which the Grindenbach is precipitated over 
masses of granite rock in 7 falls called the "Sieben Biitten" 
(Seven Tubs), or *Buttenstein- Falls, some of them 80 ft. 
in height, into the valley beneath. A well-kept path, cut in 
some places through the rock, or supported by means of 
ladders, descends by the falls to the (20 min.) bottom of the 
valley (1700 ft.). From the second "Rondel" or platform the 
double fall is seen to the best advantage. 

At the signpost by the bridge beyond the falls the carriage- 
road from Allerheiligen is reached, and continues on the r. 
bank of the Lierbach (the name which the Grindenbach now 
assumes), high up on the slope of the hill. [Pedestrians 
coming from Oppenau must, after about one hour's walk f 
avoid descending to the r., but go straight on till the above- 



Black Forest. RirPOLDSAU. 63. Route. 255 

mentioned bridge (4 M. from Oppenau) is reached.) The road 
gradually descends to Oppenau (*Stahlbad; Post), a small 
town about 5 M. from Allerheiligen, where "Kirschwasser" is 
manufactured in large quantities, and then enters the delight- 
ful valley of the impetuous Rench, on which the Kniebis- 
Baths (4'/ 2 M.) are situated. The first of these is a sulphur- 
bath at Freyersbach , a second is at Petersthal (% M.) , and 
the last a chalybeate spring at Griesbach, about 2 M. farther,, 
where casual visitors as well as patients may find good ac- 
commodation. A feurth bath at Antogast lies about 3 M. to 
the W. 

About 1 M. beyond Griesbach, three paths diverge from 
the road to the r. ; of these the traveller should select that 
farthest to the 1., a good broad track provided with benches 
at intervals, which in y 4 hr. leads to a flight of steps on the 
1., ascending to an open space where a small waterfall is- 
seen, and a fine view of the valley of Griesbach obtained. 

A few yards farther on the path, two other paths diverge,, 
but the same path (following the wires of the electric tele- 
graph) must be kept straight up the hill. In 7 min. a sign- 
post is reached, where the pedestrian must ascend to the 1., 
and in 12 min. he will reach a bench whence a fine prospect 
is obtained of the W. slopes of the Black Forest, the valley 
of the Rhine, Strasburg, and in the background the Vosges^ 
Another % hr. leads to a signpost where the path ascends 
to the 1. ; 8 inin. farther is another fine point of view, similar 
to the last, but still more extensive, comprising the chain of 
the Vosges with the Hoh-K6nigsburg (p. 232) to the S. After 
a straight ascent of 4 min. more the Holzwalder Hbhe (3055 ft.),, 
the highest point of the walk, is attained. 

The path next descendg through a fir-wood carpeted with 
bilberry plants, and then winds across an open space down 
to the road ( 3 / 4 hr.) in the valley, by following which for 
1 M. the traveller arrives at Rippoldsau (1886 ft.), the most 
frequented of the Kniebis baths, situated in a narrow and 
secluded valley. The principal constituent of the water is 
sulphate of soda. The large bath -establishment offers every 
comfort to the traveller (R. 48 kr., D. at 1 o'clock 1 fl. 12 kr.);. 
below it is a small cafe with newspapers, where a band plays 
from 7 to 8 p.m. Omnibus (from June 15th to Sept. 15th) to 
Offenburg in 6y 2 hrs. (2 fl. 48 kr.); 1-horse carriage to 
Wolfach 4 fl. 

The old Benedictine priory or "Klosterle," founded in the 
12th cent., lies % M. below the bath-house on the road,, 
which traverses this picturesque valley (15 M. in length), 
following the course of the Wolfach. Farther on, a waterfall 



256 Route 63. TRYBERG. Black Forest. 

is seen on the roadside, and beyond it a precipitous group of 
rocks, with a summer-house. Six miles from Rippoldsau 
Schapbach (Armbruster) is reached, a long straggling village 
upwards of 6 M. in length, and remarkable for the quaint 
costume of the peasants and the curious construction of their 
cottages. (The ground-floor is a stable, the first-floor the 
dwelling-house, and above it a granary and hay-loft.) About 
14 M. from Rippoldsau Wolfach {*Salm, good Zeller wine) 
is reached; it possesses a Town-house formerly a castle of some 
importance, and is situated at the confluence of the Wolfach 
and the Kinzig. 

Those whose time is limited may take the omnibus (1 fl. 48 kr.) 
at 6% a.m., arriving at Offenburg before noon, but one day 
would be well spent in making an excursion to Hornberg and 
Tryberg (by carriage, 5 — 7 fl., in half a day). The pedestrian 
need not return the whole way to Wolfach, but on emerging 
from the valley at the Kinzig-bridge may at once proceed W. 
to Hausach and Hasslach. 

The short distance (2 M.) between Wolfach and the Kinzig 
bridge just mentioned is remarkable for the picture of industry 
which it presents, as well as for its beauty; the road then 
enters the valley of the Gutach, which at this point falls into 
the Kinzig, and traverses a succession of rich pastures and 
orchards to Gutach (3 M.; Krone; Lowe), and Hornberg 
(3 M. ; *Post), an old place of some importance, and remarkable 
for the picturesque costume of the peasantry of the neigh- 
bourhood. The castle which contributes not a little to the 
beauty of the landscape, was taken by Marshal Villars in 1703, 
but soon afterwards recovered by the peasantry. 

The most remarkable part of the whole excursion is the 
walk from Hornberg to Tryberg (7 '/ 2 M.). The road, in many 
places hewn in the rock, winds through a series of the most 
picturesque and well wooded ravines till the Tryberger Posthaus 
is reached, where the valley widens. Here the road to the 1. 
leads farther into the forest to St. Georgen and Donaueschingen ; 
that to the r. to (% M.) the small town of Tryberg (*Lowe; 
Post) situated 1850 ft. above the level of the sea, the central 
point of the Black Forest, and principal seat of the watch 
manufactories. (Furtwangler Brothers and Kellerer own the 
most considerable of these establishments.) 

The grand object of interest for the traveller is the 
** Waterfall which is visible from a considerable distance. 
The path to it ascends to the left by the Lowe; in 20 min. the 
highest bridge over the fall is attained; 280 yds. beyond this 
spot, from an open space on the 1. bank, a fine view of the 
little town and the valley is obtained. The waterfall, the 



Black Forest. HAUSACH. 63. Route. 257 

finest in W. Germany, is 542 ft. in height, and is divided into 
seven distinct parts by huge blocks of granite, over which the 
water is precipitated. The frame-work, like that of the Giess- 
bach on the Lake of Brienz in Switzerland, is formed by tall 
dark-green pines. The finest near view of the falls is obtained 
from a mass of rock which forms the dam of the lowest fall; 
the general effect is best seen from a grass-grown projecting 
rock about 50 yds. from the bottom of the fall. 

Those who have already visited the Kinzigthal will now 
proceed from Tryberg in a S. direction over the hill to 
Furtwangen (7 M.) (* Hotel Fehrenbach, good and moderate), 
another watch-manufacturing town with a school for teaching 
the art, whence a post-omnibus runs in 4 hrs. through Simons- 
wald {Krone), and the cheerful little town of Waldkirch 
(*Post; Rebstock), to the railway stat. Denzlingen. — Two-horse 
carriage from Tryberg to Simonswald (uninteresting road) 5fl.; 
from the latter place through the valleys of Simonswald and 
the Elz very pretty. One-horse carriage from Tryberg to Horn- 
berg 3, to Hausach or Wolfach 4y 2 , and to St. Georgen 3 ! / 2 fl. 

We now return to Hausach (*Post). Above the town 
stands an ancient round tower, the remains of the princely 
castle of the house of Fiirstenberg, destroyed by the French 
in 1643. 

Hasslach (*Kreuz), 3y 2 M. distant from Hausach, is the 
principal town of the district. It formerly belonged to the 
principality of Fiirstenberg, and was destroyed in 1704 by 
the French on their retreat after the battle of Hochstadt. 

Steinach (Sonne), 2'/ 4 M. farther, is an animated little 
town; from the village and post-station of Bieberach (Krone; 
Sonne), 3 M. farther, a road leads to Lahr (p. 237), 7 '/ 2 M. 
distant, passing the ruins. of the Castle of Hohen-Geroldseck 
(p. 237). 

Near (6 M.) Gengenbach. (Adler; Salm; Badischer Hof) 
the road crosses the Kinzig. The village was up to the peace 
of Luneville a free town of the empire, and owes its foundation 
to the handsome old Benedictine Abbey. 

Beyond Gengenbach the valley of the Kinzig continues to 
widen. On a vine-clad hill at its mouth (3y 2 M.) rises the 
castle of *Ortenberg, a handsome modern edifice, founded 
on the ruins of the ancient castle destroyed by Marshal Crequi, 
which formerly commanded the entrance to the valley. It is 
now surrounded by tastefully laid out and well-kept grounds, 
the flowerbeds &c. being ornamented with stalactites. The 
prospect is fine, and embraces the entire chain of the Vosges. 
The castle vineyards, as well as those of the village of Orten- 
berg at the foot of the hill, yield a good wine. 
Baedeker's Rhine. 17 



258 Route 63. HOLLENPASS. Black Forest. 

Offenhurg (p. 236) is 2 '/ 4 M. distant. Extensive tobacco 
manufactories on the road before entering the town. 

c. H811entb.al, Feldberg, Wiesenthal, Wehrathal, 
Albthal. 

Comp. Map R. G2. 
Two days. From Freiburg to the Himmelreich by carriage in l'/ 2 hr.; 
on foot through the Hollenthal to the Stern Inn (4'/ 2 M.), to the top of the 
Feldberg in 3'/ 4 hrs., descent to Todtnau in 3 hrs., where pass the night. 
From Todtnau to LiJrrach 8'/, hrs. walk, or 4 hrs. drive, or to Bale in 5 hrs. 
ly carriage. To explore the Wehrathal would require a third day. 

The broad and fertile valley of the Dreisam, bounded by 
lofty mountains, through which the road lies, is not sufficiently 
attractive to induce the traveller to traverse it on foot; it is 
therefore advisable to take a carriage as far as the Himmel- 
reich (9 M.). The road passes the Littenweiler Baths (p. 243), 
on the 1. bank of the stream, Ebnet, Burg, and Kirchzarten 
which lies to the r., and from which the upper part of the 
valley derives its name. Soon after passing it, the road enters 
a more mountainous district, the fertile tract at the commence- 
ment of which is called the Himmelreich (Kingdom of Heaven), 
on account of the contrast it presents to the deep and pre- 
cipitous ravines of the Hblle (Hell) which lies beyond, and at 
the entrance to which is situated the ruined castle of Falkenstein. 

The so-called *H6llenpass is % M. in length, and 
resembles the Munsterthal in the Jura in its towering and 
overhanging rocks. The most beautiful and wildest point of 
the whole valley is at the * Hirschensprung, an imposing and 
precipitous mass of rock, the clefts of which are overgrown 
with firs and underwood. The narrow road which winds 
through the pass, scarcely broader than required by the im- 
petuous brook, was constructed by the Austrian government 
in 1770, when the Archduchess Marie Antoinette, the bride 
of the Dauphin, afterwards Louis XVI., passed through the 
ravine on her way to France. The same pass was also the 
scene of the celebrated retreat of Moreau in October, 1796, 
when pursued by the Archduke Charles. 

At the end of the pass the picturesque Chapel of St. Os- 
wald looks down into the valley from a projecting rock. The 
Post-inn is first reached, and 1 M. farther the *Stern (R. 36 — 48, 
B. 24, A. 12 kr. ; guide over the Feldberg to the chalet of 
Todtnau 1 fl. 12 kr., not absolutely necessary). 

Here the road, which continues to wind up the hill, is quitted. 
The traveller crosses the brook to the r., and ascends by a broad 
and steep forest-track to the (40 min.) hamlet of Albersbach, 
situated in the midst of verdant meadows. In 5 min. more a 
cross is reached, where the path to the 1. must be taken; in 



Black Forest. FELDBERG. 63. Route. 259 

10 min. to the r., in the hollow, to the sawmill; in 10 min. more 
through the gate to the r. ; in 3 min. the least trodden path 
to the 1., leading to the Guschpels Ho/; after 1 / i hr. the stony- 
track into the wood must be ascended. The two paths which 
separate at the pine-stump (12 min.), soon unite again, and 
lead in 5 min. to flat pasture land with a cross on the 1. On 
entering the wood again the turning to the 1. must be avoided; 
after 8 min. another turning to the 1. must be avoided; in 5 min. 
more, to the r. again, along the grassy path by the wood in 
the direction of the white roof of the Baldenweg Chalet. In 
y a hr. 3 cottages, called Auf dem Rinken, are reached, at the 
last of which the narrow path ascends to the r. through 
meadows into the wood; in 25 min. more the above-mentioned 
chalet (" Viehhiitte") is reached, where refreshments may be 
procured, and accommodation for the night if necessary. From 
this point to the Feldberg and Seebuck there are no regular 
paths, but, unless the weather be foggy, the services of a guide 
may be dispensed with. 

The traveller now stands at the foot of the peak of the 
Feldberg, which may easily be attained in y a hr. Though the 
path can scarcely be distinguished, the pedestrian cannot well 
go wrong; he must continue to ascend round the E. and S.E. 
slopes of the mountain; he will then reach the ridge which 
connects the summit, or Hochste, with the Seebuck, which in a 
S.E. direction forms a continuation of the Feldberg table-land; 
a few min. more will bring him to the tower {Friedrich- 
Louisen-Thurm), the keys of which are kept in the Todtnau 
Chalet (see below). It occupies the summit of the Feldberg 1 
(4590 ft.), and is the highest point in the Black Forest, com- 
manding a magnificent prospect. The distant view is similar 
to that from the Blauen (p. 247). 

Another path to the Feldberg leads from the "Stern" to 
the r. to (15 min.) Hinterzarten , (30 min.) Oberzarten, (1 hr.) 
Zipfelhof; thence along the course of the Seebach to the 
(15 min.) Feldsee (see below); through forest, ascending to the 
(35 min.) Lenzkirch Chalet (refreshments in the Menzenschwand 
Chalet in the vicinity), whence, following the ridge of the 
mountain, the traveller reaches the Hochste. 

Following the ridge which connects the Hochste with the 
Seebuck in a S.E. direction, a spot opposite to the Baldenweg 
chalet is reached in about 25 min., from which a beautiful 
*view, even more picturesque than that from the tower, is 
obtained. Far below, in a basin enclosed by precipitous 
pine-clad mountains, fed by several waterfalls, lies the Feldsee, 
a small black-looking lake, drained by the Seebach, a brook 
which traverses the romantic Bcirenthal and precipitates itself, 

17* 



260 Route 63. WIESENTHAL. Black Forest. 

6 M. below, into the Titisee, the W. extremity of which is 
visible from this point. Other distant valleys are also visible, 
and the background is formed by the Swabian chain of 
mountains, to the r. the basaltic summits of the Hohgau, the 
Hohentwiel, Hohenstoffeln , Hohenkrahen, &c. — The path 
down to the Feldsee, and through the Barenthal to the Titisee 
well repays the traveller ; it emerges at the lower (N.) end of 
the Titisee on the Freiburg and Schaffhausen road, about 
5 M. to the E. of the Stern Inn (p. 258). 

Half an hour's walk W. from the Seebuck, and at the same 
distance to the S. of the Feldberg lies the Todtnau Chalet, a 
small inn, where the keys of the tower on the Feldberg are 
kept (guide 30 kr.), and whence another beautiful prospect may 
be enjoyed, especially of the Wiesenthal ; in the background 
are the snow-clad peaks of the Alps (p. 248). 

From this point a broad and tolerably good path leads through 
the ravine (Brandenburger Thai), along the Wiese (in 2 hrs.) 
to Todtnau (1995 ft.) (*Ocks, by the church, R. 30 kr., 
B. 24 kr.; Rossle), a clean and thriving little town, the highest 
in the valley of the Wiese. The principal arm of the brook 
rises below the Todtnau chalet, and emerges from its wild 
and romantic ravine immediately above the town, below which 
it is joined by the Bergerbach. At Todtnauberg (Stern), 3 M. 
to the N., the latter brook is precipitated over a rock, 200 ft. 
in height. The old arms of the town — a miner with hammer 
and pickaxe — prove that mining was the principal occupation 
of the inhabitants in very early times. 

The *Wiesenthal from Todtnau to Lorrach, below which 
it opens into the plain of the Rhine, is about 27 M. in length. 
The greater part of it is narrow and well-wooded, the most 
picturesque part being that between Schonau and Zell. One- 
horse carriage to Schonau (in 1 hr.) 1 1 / 2 A-> to Zell (in 2 hrs.) 
3 fl., to Schopfheim (in 2% hrs.) 4 ] / 2 fl., to Lorrach (in 4 hrs.) 

7 fl. Diligence to Schopfheim in the morning, thence by 
railway to Bale (see p. 264). 

At Geschwendt, iy 2 M. from Todtnau, a path to the 1. 
diverges to Prag, Todtmoos and the * * Wehrathal. 

From the little town of Schonau (*Sonne), 4'/ 2 M. from 
Geschwendt, with its extensive cotton-factory, the road leads 
through a romantic and well-wooded dale to Zell (Lowe), 
7y 2 M. farther, another busy little town of weavers and cotton- 
spinners. 

Where the ravine widens, half-way to Schopfheim, is situated 
the extensive grand-ducal iron-foundry of Hausen, the birth- 
place of the poetHebel; the village itself, concealed by fruit- 
trees, lies on the r. bank of the Wiese. The inhabitants of 



Black Forest. LORRACH. 63. Route. 261 

the upper part of the valley are Rom. Cath., those below Hausen 
Protestant. 

Schopfheim (*Pflug), 4% M. from Zell, is a clean little 
town of some importance, and carries on a considerable traffic 
with Bale; railway by Lorrach to Bale in 1 hr. ; fares 66, 48, 
33 kr. [The Wehrathal (p. 262) can be best visited from Schopf- 
heim. One-horse carriage to Wehr, along the Wehrastrasse to 
Todtnioos-Au, back to Wehr, and thence to the railway stat. 
Brennet on the Rhine above Bale, a drive of 5 hrs., for 6 fl.] 

The Wiesenthal" widens considerably below Schopfheim; 
the stream is usefully employed in the irrigation of the land, 
as well as for the supply of numerous cotton and other mills 
situated on its banks. 

Steiuen (Ochs), the next village, is 3 M. from Schopfheim. 
Above the village of Rotteln-Weiler (*Inn), about 4 V 2 M. farther, 
rise the extensive ruins of Schloss Rotteln, one of the largest 
in the Duchy, commanding a fine view. It was formerly the 
residence of the Margraves of Hochberg, and afterwards of the 
Margraves of Baden; was taken by Bernhard of Weimar in 
1638, and dismantled and blown up by the French in 1678. 

Lorrach (*Hirsch, R. 36, B. 24, D. 48 kr.), the most im- 
portant place in the valley (7V 2 M. from Schopfheim and 6 M. 
from Bale), is a modern manufacturing town, containing 
extensive shawl, cotton, cloth, and other factories. (One-horse 
carriage to Rotteln-Weiler 2 1 /,, to Kandern 4, to Zell 5, to 
the Wehrathal and stat. Brennet 7 fl. 

The *Tullinger Hohe, 2 M. to the S. of Lorrach, is a 
point well worth visiting, as it commands a magnificent view 
of the highlands of Baden, Alsace, Bale, and the Swiss 
mountains. The foreground is formed by the broad and 
fertile plain, at the spectator's feet lie the villages of Riehen 
and Weil in the midst of orchards and vineyards. From 
the terrace behind the church the view is still more extended, 
and the garden of the *inn commands the finest prospect in 
a W. direction. It was after a contest near this spot, which 
terminated unfortunately for Germany, that the French general 
Villars was elevated to the dignity of marshal. 

Below Lorrach the road enters the dominions of Bale. The 
church of St. Ch.risch.ona, formerly a favorite resort of pilgrims, 
now a Prot. missionary establishment, situated on a wooded 
eminence above Riehen, commands a fine prospect similar to 
that from the Tiillinger Hohe. The road approaches Bale 
through a succession of tasteful villas. 



Travellers coming from the Feldberg, who are already 
acquainted with the Wiesenthal, may prefer to continue their 



262 Route 63. ST. BLASIEN. 

excursion (on foot) as follows : From Todtnau to Geschwendt 
(l'/ 2 M.) in the Wiesenthal, then to the 1. to Prag (3 M.) 
(Hirsch); thence over a steep hill to Todtmoos (2527 ft.) (*Adler) 
in about 2 hrs.; from Todtmoos in the Wehrathal to (3 M.) 
Todtmoos-Au (Inn) , and from here to (9 M.) Wehr ( * Krone, 
R. 36, B. 24 kr.), a village with Grand-ducal iron-foundry. 

The * * Wehrastrasse , a road made exclusively for the 
transport of timber, winds through the grandest rocky ravine, 
which commences 3 / 4 M. beyond Todtmoos-Au, and terminates 
iy 4 M. before Wehr is reached, a length of about 7 M. It 
is enclosed on both sides by lofty wooded mountains, and is 
in many places so narrow that there is barely space for the 
road by the side of the impetuous Wehra. The variety of the 
foliage — the birch-trees, for example, contrasting with the 
sombre firs which clothe the precipitous walls — render this 
mountain-glen picturesque in the highest degree. In grandeur 
and wildness the rocks surpass even those of the Rblle (p. 258), 
and extend for a much greater distance, the latter being only 
3 / 4 M. in length. At the S. extremity of the valley the tower 
of Barenfels is seen perched on the ridge of the mountain. 

At the N.W. houses of Wehr a tract of meadow-land 
commences, in which (l 1 /, M. from Wehr, and V 2 M. before 
reaching the village of Hasel) the *Erdmdnnleinhbhle, a stalactite 
cavern, is situated. The schoolmaster, who lives next door 
to the Pflug inn at Hasel, keeps the key, and accompanies 
visitors to the cavern, which must be illuminated (fee 30 kr.). 
Like most other caverns, it contains its chapel, organ, 
dungeon, &c, formed by the stalactites. It is inferior in 
grandeur to those of the Harz mountains, but well deserves a 
visit. Travellers wishing to proceed from this point to Schopf- 
heim need not return to Wehr, as a good road leads direct 
from Hasel to Schopfheim (4 1 /, M.)- 

Beyond Oeflingen, 3 M. to the S. of Wehr, the road emerges 
from the valley of the Wehra at Brennet, a station on the 
Bale and Waldshut Railway. 



Another beautiful walk may be taken from the Feldberg 
by St. Blasien down the Albthal to the Bale and Waldshut 
Railway. From the Seebuck (p. 259) the path leads to the 
Lenzhirch Chalet ( 3 / 4 M.), then at the back of the Menzenschwand 
Chalet (8 min.) to the r. to Menzenschwand (3'/ 2 M.), the 
birthplace of the eminent painters Winterhalter, at whose 
expense a handsome new inn has been erected, in which their 
niece officiates as hostess. 

From this point a walk of 2 hrs. down the Albthal brings 
the pedestrian to St. Blasien, once celebrated for its wealthy 



WALDSHUT. 64. Route. 263 

and learned Benedictine abbey. The church, whose handsome 
dome is a conspicuous object in the distance, was built in 1786, 
after the model of the Pantheon at Rome. The buildings 
belonging to the Abbey were secularized in 1805, and have 
since served for industrial purposes, a portion having been 
converted into an inn. 

Two miles farther is Ober-Kutterau, and 3 '/ 2 M. beyond it, 
Immeneich (small iun), where the new *Albstrasse commences. 
It leads through wild, rocky scenery, and penetrates the 
perpendicular mountain walls in 6 different places by means 
of tunnels; far below rushes the mountain stream. About 
■9 M. from Immeneich the road emerges at Albbruck, a station 
on the Bale and Waldshut Railway (see below). 




64. From Waldshut to Bale. 

By the Baden Railway in l'/„— '."/„ his. Fares: 2 fl. 18, 1 n. 33 kr., 
1 fl. Finest views to the left. 

Waldshut (Rebstock), on the lofty r. bank of the Rhine, 
is a station on the Baden railway to Schaffhausen and Con- 
stance. Below Koblenz, in the canton of Aargau, 1 y 2 M. to 
the S.E. of Waldshut, the Aare falls into the Rhine, and near 
it the Swiss-junction line crosses the Rhine. 

The line only approaches the Rhine at intervals, as for 
example at Dogern and Albbruck, where the romantic xVlb- 
strasse (see above) emerges. After passing several smaller 
stations and traversing two lofty viaducts and one tunnel, the 
train arrives at the station of Kleiu-Laufenburg. 

Laufenburg (Post), opposite to the station, on the 1. bank 
of the Rhine, is in the canton of Aargau, picturesquely situated 
on a rock, below which is the Cataract of the Rhine. The 
salmon-fishery at this point is very productive. From the station 
at Klein-Laufenburg a view may be obtained of the rocks 
which here enclose the Rhine. 

The line now runs along the bank of the Rhine which 
here rushes impetuously over its rocky bed, the 1. (Swiss) bank 
being precipitous and wooded. Sackingen (Bad or Lowe) is 
a place of some importance, and contains an ancient church 
which in former times belonged to a powerful and extensive 
monastery. 

At Brennet the Wehrstrasse emerges from its mountain 
ravine. The line next traverses the vipeyards and gardens 



264 Route 65. BALE. 

of Beuggen, form erly a lodge of the Teutonic order, now an 
asylum for children and training-school for teachers. 

Rheinfelden (Sehijf; Krone), on the 1. bank of the Rhine 
in the canton of Aargau, was formerly strongly fortified and 
was one of the bulwarks of the holy Roman empire. After 
standing innumerable sieges it was at last dismantled by the 
French in 1744. Since 1801 it has belonged to Switzerland. 
Below the town another rapid of the Rhine forms a sort of 
whirlpool, termed the "Hollenhaken." 

Here the line leaves the Rhine and traverses the fruitful 
plain which lies between the spurs of the Black Forest and 
the river, passing the villages of Warmbach and Grenzach 
surrounded by vineyards, and terminating at Klein-Basel. 

65. Bftle. 

Hotels. "Three Kings (PI. a) on the Rhine, R. 2, L. '/,, B. V/„, 
D. at 5 o'clock 4, A. 1 fr. ; Schweizerhof at the Central Station, new; 
Stork (PI. b), "Wild man (PI. c) in both R. 1%— 2, B. 1, Table d'hote 
at 1 o'cl. inc. W. 3, A. ■"/„ fr.; Crown (PI. d), *Kopf (PI. e) both on the 
Rhine. — In Klein-Basel on the r. bank of the Rhine, *Bear (PI. g), 
*Kreuz (PI. h), starting point of the omnibus to the Wiesenthal (p. 260). 
Baseler Hof opp. to the Baden station, also a restaurant. 

Cafes. *Cafe des Trois Rois, two houses above the hotel of the 
same name. *Cafe national near the bridge, beer good; Cafe S child - 
hof near the Elisabethenkirche, both restaurants. Sommer-Casino, not 
far from the Monument of St. Jacob; concert on Wed. from 6 to 9 p.m. 
Thomma's beergarden, near the Central Station. 

Conveyances. Omnibus from the station to the town (50 lb. luggage 
free) % fr., from the Baden to the Swiss station 1 fr. Cabs in the market- 
place in front of the "Three Kings," and near the church of St. Clara in 
Klein-Basel &c. ; charges for a % hr. 1 — 2 persons 80 cent., 3 — 4 pers. 1 fr. 
20 c, by the hour 2—3 fr., to or from the station 1 — 4 pers. l'/ 2 fr., each 
box 20 cent, extra. Two-horse carriages for t / 2 day 15 fr., for a -whole 
day 25 fr. 

Railway stations. Baden station in Klein-Basel */ 4 M. (straight) from 
the Rhine bridge (Swiss money not taken) ; duty payable on carved wood- 
work brought from Switzerland 10 kr. per lb. — The stations of the French 
and the Swiss lines are united at the Central Station at the Steinen-Thor. 
The Baden line is preferable to the French, the country is more beautiful, 
the carriages better and the fares more moderate. Paris time is 25 miii. 
behind Bale time. 

Post and Telegraph Office (PI. 15) in the Freien-Strasse. 

Baths in the Rhine near the Miinster, entrance from the Pfalz (p. 266). 
Warm baths at Sigmund's. 

Newspapers in the Reading club by the Minister. Strangers must be in- 
troduced by a member, perhaps the landlord of their hotel. 

English Church Service in the Three Kings Hotel. 

Bale or Basel (comp. Baedeker's Switzerland), the principal 
town of the canton Basel-Stadt (pop. 41,000; 9697 Rom. Cath.), 
is first mentioned in the year 374 under the name of Basilea, 
and appears to have been founded by the Roman army when 
it fell back on the Rhine near the old Colonia Augusta Rau- 
racorum, founded B.C. 27 by L. Munatius Plancus (now called 
Basel Augst, 5 M. from Bale on the 1. bank of the Rhine). 




slu Jfetrer 



BALE. 65. Route. 265 

The wealth of Bale has become proverbial; for this the town 
is greatly indebted to its favourable position at the junction 
of the frontiers of Germany, France and Switzerland. 

The town lies on the 1. bank of the Rhine and is con- 
nected with Klein-Basel on the r. bank by a wooden bridge, 
280 yds. in length. 

The * Minister (PI. 14), an imposing edifice, the two lofty 
towers of which are visible from a considerable distance, was 
formerly the Cathedral of the see of Bale (the bishop's resi- 
dence is now at Soleure). It was built by the Emperor 
Henry II. in 1010 — 1019, and was restored in 1185, after 
having been partially destroyed by fire. In 1356 the old 
building was all but levelled by an earthquake, but is now 
rebuilt in the Gothic style. Of the original structure the N. 
portal, or St. Gallus gate-way, still exists, and is adorned with 
statues of the evangelists, John the Baptist and other saints; 
over the church-door is a relief presenting the wise and foolish 
virgins; at the sides, in 6 niches, are the works of charity, 
and at the top Christ on the Judgment seat and the angels 
at the last day. The W- front under the towers, with the 
principal gateway and two side- entrances belong to the 
14th cent.; on the front are represented the Virgin and Child, 
and under them the Emp. Henry, the founder and benefactor of 
the Church, with the Empress Helena; on the two side entrances 
are two knights, on the 1. St. George and the Dragon, and on 
the r. St. Martin. The towers, which are 205 ft. in height, 
were not completed till 1500. In the year 1431 the con- 
vocation of the great Council in the Miinster first began; it 
consisted of upwards of 500 clergymen, whose ostensible task 
was a "reformation of the Church in head and members," but 
after having disputed for years without any result, and having 
been excommunicated by Pope Eugene IV., the Convocation 
was at last dissolved in 1448. The Church is open to the 
public on Tues. and Frid. from 2 to 4 o'clock. The sacristan 
lives opposite to the principal entrance (fee y 2 fr.) ; in summer 
he is generally to be found in the Church at the above hours. 

The interior of the Miinster was bereft of its most beautiful ornaments 
in the great iconoclasm of 1529, but was re-decorated in 1852 — 1856 with 
great skill, and is now one of the finest Protestant churches iu existence. 
The beautiful rood-loft of 1381 now serves to support the organ, a very 
fine instrument, performances on which may be heard once or twice a week 
in summer from 6 to 7 p.m. (adm. 1 fr.). The pulpit is of 1424. The aisles 
and choir contain fine old monuments and tombstones built into the walls ; in 
the N. nave the old episcopal chair j also reliefs of the 11th cent, (scenes 
from the lives of the martyrs) ; the font of 1465, and, on the pillar opposite 
to it, the tombstone of the learned Erasmus of Rotterdam (d. 1536) with a 
long Latin inscription. In the passage round the choir are the monuments 
of the empress Anna (d. 1281), consort of Rudolph of Habsburg and mother 
of Albrecht I., and of her youngest son Charles. The new stained-glass 
■windows, representing Moses and David, Peter aud Paul, and the four 



266 Route 65. BALE. The Museum. 

Evangelists, are by artists of Zurich and St. Gall, and the newest, representing 
Christ as Judge of the world, is from the stained-glass Institution of Munich. 
The crypt, which belongs to the original edifice, contains relics of frescoes 
of the 13th cent., and 6 sarcophagi of members of the family of the Margraves 
of Baden-Durlach (1688 — 1709). A stair leads from the choir to the Council 
Hall, in which one of the five principal committees used to assemble. It is 
exactly in the state in which it was left 400 years ago. All that was con- 
sidered worth preserving at the restoration of the church is kept here, such 
as antiquities of the middle ages, fragments of the nine frescoes of the 
celebrated Bale Death-dance, painted in 1409 in remembrance of the plague, 
and erroneously attributed to Holbein. Here too may be seen the LdUenkSnig, 
a large head formerly placed on the clock-tower of the Rhine bridge (taken 
down in 1S39), which rolled its eyes and protruded its long tongue ("Lalli") 
at each stroke of the pendulum, erected in derision of the inhabitants of 
Klein-Basel in consequence of a dispute with them. 

On the S. side of the Choir are extensive * Cloisters, 
built in the years 1362, 1400 and 1487, connecting the church 
with the Episcopal palace, and used as family burial-places. 
Among the monuments which they contain may be mentioned 
those of the reformers (Ecolampadius (d. 1531) and Gryna?us 
(d. 1541), and that of a Frau Forcart-Merian on one of the 
E. pillars, which possesses considerable artistic merit. These 
cloisters extend to the terrace behind the Miinster, which 
overlooks the Rhine, rising 75 ft. immediately above it, and 
derives its name from an imperial Pfalz, or palace, to which 
it is said formerly to have belonged. It is planted with 
chestnuts and affords a pleasing prospect of the green river and 
the dark heights of the Black Forest. In its immediate vicinity 
are situated the swimming and bathing establishments, and near 
the most AY. of the latter is the Reading Club (p. 264). 

In the street, leading from the Miinsterplatz in a N.W. 
direction to the bridge, is the * Museum (PI. 13), open to the 
public on Sund. from 10 to 12, and Wed. from 2 to 4; on 
other days adm. 1 fr. It contains a picture-gallery and collections 
of natural and scientific curiosities belonging to the town. 

The picture-gallery is principally remarkable for the paintings and 
drawings ' which it contains of the younger Holbein (b. at Augsburg 1498, 
d. at London 1554). Ante-room. 1 — 11. Copies from Hans Holbein. — 
Collection of drawings. 1— 86. by Holbein the younger ; 132, 133, 134, by 
Direr. 157. Drawings of the "Last Judgment" in the Ludwigskirche at Munich, 
by Cornelius. Room A. contains only pictures by Holbein: 6. 7. School- 
master's signboard of 1516; *15. Erasmus of Rotterdam; *25. The Passion 
in 8 sections, for which in 1641 the Elector Maximilian of Bavaria offered 
the sum of 30,000 fl. — Room B. contains old-German pictures: 71. The 
11,000 Virgins, by Griinewald; 61. Miniature of Luther, by Cranach. — Room C. 
•or Bale-room: 113. Battle of St. Jacob, by Hieron. Hess; 127. Entrance into 
Bale of the confederate ambassadors in 1501 to take the oaths of allegiance 
to the Confederation, by Landerer; 136. Schreckhorn and Wetterhorn, by 
Calame. — Room D.: 173. Lute-player, by Teniers ; Sleep the Type of 
Death, by (Jarracci ; Macbeth and the Witches, by Koch; Abraham visited by 
the Angels, by Xe/trr. — Room E. Birmann's Collection: 267. The Nativity, 



1 Photographs from the originals, admirably executed and published 
by the directors of the Museum, are to be had of Mr. Georg, bookseller and 
dealer in works of art, near the Post-office. 



Monument of St. Jacob. BALE. 65. Route. 267 

by An. Carracci; *270. Madonna and Child, ascribed to Gherardecia di Siena; 
'281. Cardinal Fleury, by Phil, de Champaigne ; 282. The Adoration, by 
Mabuse; *289. Portrait, ascribed to Rembrandt; 201. The Smoker, by 
Teniers; 311 — 324. Pictures by Peter Birmann; 325 — 330. Pictures by Sam. 
Birmann (d. 1847). — The Cabinet of Antiquities contains Roman and 
Greek antiquities, statuettes &c. principally found at Augst (p. 264) and 
Windisch; old ecclesiastical vessels, idols, Swiss coins, Etruscan vases, 
Mosaics, &c. — The Mexican Cabinet contains a number of interesting 
* Mexican curiosities, and among other objects of interest two mummies. 

The University Library in the same building (adm. from 
1 to 3) contains 70 — 80,000 volumes and 4000 MSS.; among 
the latter are transactions of the church council, "The praise 
of Folly" of Erasmus, with mariginal drawings by Holbein, 
writings of Luther, Melancthon, &c. The University, founded 
in 1459 by Pius II., is celebrated as the school of the great 
mathematicians Bernouilli, Merian and Euler. The hall contains 
upwards of 100 portraits of the learned men of Bale, of the 
cosmographer Sebastian Miinster (d. 1552), the reformers (Eco- 
lampadius and Grynwus, &c. 

The Town-Hall (PI. 16) in the Market-place was erected 
in 1508 in the so-called Burgundian style, and renewed in 1826. 
The facade is adorned with the town-arms (a black episcopal 
staff leaning on a fisherman's grappling-iron). The two in- 
scriptions mark the height which the Rhine attained during 
inundations. In the court is erected a statue of Munatius 
Plancus, founder of Augst (p. 264), and according to some 
authorities of Bale also. 

The handsome Spahlen-Thor (St. Paul, PI. 17), erected 
about the year 1400, deserves inspection; the other gates, 
bastions and ramparts are converted into public walks. 

Among other Architectural Curiosities of the middle 
ages may be mentioned the Fischmarkt- Fountain (PI. 8), erected 
in the 14th cent., the Spahlen-Fountain, with a bagpiper from 
a design by Albert Diirer, the Roman archway in the old 
St. Alban's Monastery (PI. 1). The Barfusser-C/turch (PI. 2), 
dating from the beginning of the 13th cent., with its very 
lofty choir, now serves as a store-house. 

The Monument of St. Jacob (PI. 5), a Gothic obelisk, 
10 min. walk S.E. from the ^Eschen gate on the high-road 
to the Minister-Thai, was erected in 1824 over the burial place 
of Swiss soldiers who fell in 1444 fighting for the liberties 
of their country. Large bodies of irregular troops had assembled 
in France under the Count Armagnac, with 30)000 of which 
the Dauphin marched against the Confederates at Bale. The 
latter were stationed at the fortress of Farnsburg, about 
15 M. S.E. from the town, and on the approach of the French 
1300 men immediately attempted to force their passage to 
Bale. After a desperate conflict they were all cut to pieces 



268 Route 65. BALE. 

near the village of St. Jacob where the last and bloodiest 
struggle took place. The red wine (not of a very superior 
quality), yielded by the vineyards which now occupy the scene 
of the battle, is known by the name of " Swiss Blood." 

The Mission-house (PI. 12) educates missionaries for the promulgation of 
Christianity among the heathen. An excellent Society for the promotion of 
the public welfare has existed in Bale, for 82 years, and has a very extensive 
sphere of operations. Under its auspices are clothing-clubs, Sunday-school* 
and classes for instruction in music, singing, swimming &c, popular libraries, 
saving-banks, loan and sick-funds &c. &c. There are also similar institutions 
in the neighbourhood, supported by contributions from Bale, such as the 
Deaf and Dumb Asylum, Establishment for the Education of Protestant Sisters 
of Charity and Reformatory at Riehen, kc. 



INDEX. 

The pages printed in Italics refer to /acts of minor importance. 



Aare, the 263. 
Achern 217. 216. 254. 
Achkarren 243. 
Adenau 60. 

Adolphseck, ruin of 155, 
Aha 263. 

Ahr, valley of the 56.7.55. 
Ahrweiler 58. 
Aix-la-Chapelle 6. 
Albbruck 263. 
Albersbach 258. 
Albersweiler 195. 
Albshausen 87. 
Albstrasse, the 263. 
Aldegund 124. 
Alf 123. 120. 
Aiken 126. 

Allerheiligen 254. 210. 
Allerheiligenberg, the 91. 
Allner, castle of 40. 
Alsbacher Schloss, thel72. 
Alsenz 189. 
Altarstein, the 176. 
Alt-Breisach 244. 
Alt-Eberstein 214. 215. 
Alte Hans, the 86. 
Alte Mann, the 246. 
Altena 41. 
Altenahr 59. 
Altenbamberg 1S9. 
Altenberg, abbey of 38. 
Altenburg, ruin of 126. 
Altenhnndem 41. 
Altglashiitte 263. 
Altkonig, the 169. 1G7. 
Alt-Leiningen , castle of 

190. 
Alzette, the 116. 
St. Araarin 236. 231. 
Amerongen 15. 
Ameyde 14. 
Amsterdam 17. 
An der Haardt 231. 
An der Halde 243. 
Andernach 65. 74. 147. 
Annweiler 194. 188. 105. 
Ans 5. 

Antogast 255. 
Antonacum v. Andernach. 
Antoniusstein 71. 
Antweiler 61. 
Antwerp 6. 
Apolliuarisberg , the 62. 

53. 
Apollinarisbrunnen 58. 



St.Apollonius-Capelle,the 
243. 

Appelbach, the 189. 

Appen\veier217.i'i6. 236. 

Aqitisqramim v. Aix-la- 
Chapelle. 

Arctaunon v. Saalburg. 

Ardey mountains, the 22. 

Areniberg, castle of 61. 

Arenberg 75. 

Arenfels 63. 148. 

Argentoratum v. Stras- 
bnrg. 

Ariendorf 63. 

Arnheim 15. 11. 

Arnstein 85. 

Arnual 198. 

Arras, ruin of 123. 

Arzheim 83. 

Assenet 6. 

Assmannshausen 104. 88. 

Asterstein, the 82. 

Auerbach 173. 

Auggen 245. 

Aug. Nemetum v. Speyer. 

Aftg. Trevirorum v. Tre- 
ves. 

Aulhaiisen 108. 

Aumenan 87. 

Attrelia aquensis v. Ba- 
den. 

Baa! 11. 

Bacharach 101. 88. 147. 

Baden 210. 236. 

Baden, Haus 247. 

Badenweiler 246. 245. 

Baderlei, the 84. 

Baiersbronn 253. 

Baldenweg Chalet 259. 

Balduinstein 86. 

Bale 264. 24.5. 

Balkhausen 176. 

Barbelstein, castle of 195. 

Bardenberg 11. 

Barenfels 262. 

Barenthal, the 259. 

Barmen 21. 

Barr 232. 

Bassenheira 74. 

Bastenhaus, the 189. 

Bausenberg, the 74. 

Beckingen 114. 

Bedburg 13. 

Beerfelden 179. 175. 

BeiUtein 124. 



Belchen, the 248. 237. 
— Gebweiler, the 228. 
Bell 73. 
Bellingen 245. 
Bendorf 68. 
Bennhausen 190. 
Bemath 24. 

Bensberg, castle of 42. 
Bensheim 173. 
Bergerbach, the 260. 
Bergstrasse, the 172. 
Bergzabern 195. 
Bermersbach 251. 
Berncastel 122. 
Bertrich 123. 
Besselich, Haus 69. 
Bettenfeld 132. 
Betirwe, the 15. 
Betzdorf 41. 
Beuern 215. 
Beugnen 264. 
Beur58. 
Bexbach 197. 
Biburk 13S. 
Bickenbach 175. 172. 
Bickensohl 243. 
Bieberach 257. 
Biebrich 137. 89. 146. 
Bildstock tunnel, the 197. 
Bingen 105. 89. 146. 
Bingerbriick 109. 146. 89. 
Binger Loch, the 104. 88. 
Birgeler Kopf, the 148. 52. 
Birkenau 177. 274. 178. 
Birkenfeld 111. 109. 
Birkenhordt 195. 
Birresborn 130. 128. 
Bischofstein 125. 
Bischoffsheim 166. 
Bischweier 211. 
Bisclrweiler 222. 
Black Forest, the 249. 
Blankenberg 40. 
Blankenstein 22. 
St. Blasien 262. 
Blauen, the 247. 228. 237. 
Bleidenstadt 155. 
Bliicherthal, the 102. 
Bludenberg, the 233. 
BOckelheim, ruin of 109. 
Bockenheim 166. 
Bodendorf 57. 
Bodenheim 226. 
Bodenthal 104. 
Biidingen 40. 



270 



NDEX. 



BShl 195. 

Bolverhalin, the 55. 
Bolweiler 22S. 
Bombogen 133. 
Bonames 42. 
Bonconica v. Oppenheim. 
Bonn 43. 149. 

Alte Zoll 46. 

Miinster, the 46. 

Museum of Antiquities 
46. 

Schloss, the 45. 

Statue of Beethoven 46. 

University 45. 
Boos 110. 

Boosenhurg, the 134. 
Boppard 93. 88. 147. 
Bornhofen 95. 88. 
Bos, the 133. 136. 
Brandenburger Thai 260. 
Braubach 93. 88. 147. 
Brauneberg, the 122. 
Brauweiler 13. 
Braunfels 86. 
Breisach 244. 243. 
Breisgau, the 236. 
Breitbacher Kreuz, the 56. 
Breitenbach 235. 
Bremm 124. 
Brennet 263. 262. 
Bressoir, the 233. 
Brey 92. 147. 
Briedel 123. 
Brigittenschloss, the 252. 

254. 
Brockscheid 132. 
Brodenbach 125. 
Brohl 64. 147. 
Brohlbach, the 64. 
Brohlthal, the 69. 
Brumserburg, castle 104. 
Bruchhof, the 52. 
Bruchsal 205. 
Brudeldreis, the 131. 
Briihl 149. 

Brunhildenstein, the 169. 
Brussels 1. 
Bruttig 124. 
Bubenhausen 89. 
Buchholz near Boppard 

94. 
Buchholz near Mander- 

scheid 131. 132. 
Budenheim 89. 
Biiderich, island of 17. 
Buhl 216. 
Buhlbach 253. 
Buir 13. 
Bulach 209. 
Bullay 124. 
Bunte Kuh, the 58. 
Burbach 41. 
Burg 258. 
Burgberg, the 13. 



Burgbrohl 74. 
Burgeln 247. 
Burtscheid 9. 
Buruncum v. Worringen. 
Burweiler 193. 
Busenberg 195. 
Bussang, Col de 236. 
Biittenstein Falls 254. 
Butzbach 41. 
Calcar 17. 
Calcum 19. 
Callenfels 110. 
Callstadt 190. 
Calvarienberg 58. 
Camp 95. 88. 
Capellen 90. 147. 
Cappel 254. 

Cappeler Thai, the 254. 
Carden 125. 

Carlsberg, castle of 197. 
Carlsburg, castle of 102. 
Carlshalle, the 113. 109. 
Carlshohe, the 10. 
Carlsruhe 206. 
Casselburg, the 130. 
Castel 145. 167. 
Castell 115. 
Castellum Magontiacum 

v. Mayence. 
Caatrum Divitensium v. 

Deutz. 
Cat, the S8. 
Caub 100. 88. 
Champignon, the 173. 
Chaudfontaine 5. 
Chinee 5. 

St. Chrischona 261. 
Clarenthal 153. 
Clef, the 115. 
Clemenskirche 109. 88. 
Cleve 39. 10. 17. 
Clotten 125. 
Cobern 126. 
Coblenz 75. 126. 147. 
Cochem 125. 
Colmar 227. 244. 
Cologne 25. 149. 

•Apostles' Church 33. 

Archiepiscopal Museum 
32. 

— Palace 33. 

Arresthaus 33. 

Arsenal 32. 

Bayenthuvm 37. 

Botanical garden 38. 

•'Cathedral 28. 

St. Cecilia 34. 

Cemetery 38. 

St. Andreas 32. 

Courts of Justice 32. 

St. Cunibert 33. 

Diorama 25. 34. 

Free harbour 37. 

•St. Gereon 33. 



Cologne. 

Government - buildings 

33. 
•Gross-St. Martin 35. 
•Giirzenich, the 35. 
Hospital 34. 
Iron-bridge 37. 
Jesuits' Church 32. 

* St. Maria im Capitol 34. 
Mariensaule, the 33. 
Mauritius Church 34. 
Minoritenkirche 36. 
•Museum 36. 

St. Pantaleon 37. 
St. Peter's Church 34. 
•Rathhaus or Town- 
hall 35. 
Roman tower 33. 
Rubens' house 34. 
Safety harbour 37. 
St. Severin 36. 
Synagogue 37. 
Templars' lodge 35. 
Theatre 32. 

Town fortifications 38. 
Town garden 38. 
Town-wall 37. 
Trinity Church 37. 

• St. Ursula 32. 
Zoological garden 37. 

Colonia Agrippina v. Co- 
logne. 

Colonia Augusta Rau- 
racorum v. Bale. 

Confluentes v. Coblenz. 

Conz 115. 

Corsika 17S. 

Cramberg 86. 

Crefeld 11. 6. 

Creuzthal 41. 

Croff 122. 

Cronberg 170. 168. 

Cronthal 170. 168. 

Cues 122. 

Culeuborg 14. 

Curve 89. 

Dabo 231. 

Dachsburg 231. 

Dagsburg 227. 

Dahn 195. 188. 

Dannenfels 190. 189. 

Darmstadt 171. 

Dattenberg 63. 

Daun 12S. i27. 

Dauner Maare 128. 

Dausenau 84. 

Deidesheim 192. 

Deile, the 21. 

Denzlingen 238. ?57. 

Dernau 59. 

Deurenburg, ruin of 96. 

Deutz 38. 25. 

Devil's Ladder 103. 

Dhaun, ruins of 110. 



INDEX. 



271 



Dieblich 126. 

Diedenbergen 167. 

Dielkircheu 189. 188. 

Diemerstein, ruin of 196. 

Dietenmiihle 151. 

Dietkirchen 87. 

Dietz 86. 

Dill, valley of the 41. 

Dilldorf 21. 

Dillingen 114. 

Dilsberg, castle of 186. 

Dinglingen 237. 

Dinkholder Brunnen 93. 

Dissibodenberg 110. 114. 

Dockweiler 129. 

Dogern 263. 

Dolhain 6. 

Bombruch, the 49. 

Donaueschingen 256. 

Donnersberg,thelS9.75S. 

Donnersberger Hof, farm- 
house of 189. 

Doorenward, castle of 15. 

Dormagen 39. 

Dornach 228. 

Dortmund 22. 21. 23. 

Drachenfels, ruin of 49. 
53. 55. 

Draischbrunnen, the 148. 

DreiFurstenstein,the251. 

Dreis 129. 

Dreisam, the 237. 

— valley of the 258. 

Dreysen 190. 

Dromm, the 17S. 175. 

Dunn, the 24. 

Duinhoog 15. 

Duisburg 20. 

Duiveishuis 16. 

Diilken 11. 

Diimpelfeld 60. Gl. 

Diiren 13. 

Diirkheim 190. 188. 

Durlach 206. 

Durnomagus v. Dorma- 
gen. 

Dusemond 122. 

Diissel, the 20. 

Dusseklorf 18. G. 11. 17. 

Dusselthal 19. 

Dutenhofen 41. 

Duttweiler 187. 

Dyck, castle of 11. 

Dyle, the 1. 4. 

Eberbach in the Oden- 
wald 179. 175. 

Eberbach in the Rhein- 
gau 136. 89. 133. 

Ebernburg, ruins of 113. 
100. 188. 

Eberstadt 172. 

Eberstein 214. 

Ebersteinburg 210. 

Ebersteinschloss 215. 210. 



Ebnet 258. 

Eckfeld 127. 132. 

Eckle, the 251. 

Ede 15. 

Edelfrauleins Grab 254. 

Edenkoben 223. 188. 193. 

Ediger 124. 

Efringen 245. 

Egisheim 227. 

Ehrang 122. 

Ehrenbreitstein 80. 

Ehrenburg, ruin of 125. 
94. 

Ehrenfels 104. 88. 

Ehrenthal 96. 

Eibingen 134. 89. 

Eich 74. 

Eichberg 133. 89. 

Eifel, the 126. 

Eimeldingen 245. 

Eineburg or Emmaburg 6. 

Eisenberg 190. 

Eitorf 40. 

Elberfeld 21. 

Elisabeth spring, the 112. 

Elisenbrunnen, the 9. 

Elisenhohe near Bingen 
106. 

Elisenhohe near Elber- 
feld 21. 

Eller 124. 

Elsen 15. 

Elsenz, the 186. 

Elst 15. 

Eltville orElfeldl36. 89. 

Eltz, Schloss 125. 

Elz, the 237. 

Emmaburg 10. 

Emmendingen 238. 

Emmerich 16. 

Ems S3. 

Engeholle, the 100. 

Engelburg, the 228. 

Engelrath 33. 

Engers 68. 

Engersgau, the 68. 

Enkirch 123. 

Ennepe, the 21. 

Eusival 5. 

Epiual 236. 

Eppstein 168. 

Erbach in the Odenwald 
175. 179. 

Erbach in the Rheingau 
136. 89. 

Erdenburg, the 42. 

Erdmannleinshohle 262. 

Erensberg 129. 

Erft, the 13. 

Erkelenz 11. 

Erkrath 20. 

Erlenbach 195. 

Erlenbad, the 216. 254. 

Erpel 62. 50. 



Etpeler Lei 62. 
Ertzweiler tunnel 230. 
Erzkasten, the 243. 
Eschbach 193. 188. 
Eschhofen 87. 
Eschweiler 13. 
Esemael 4. 
Essen 23. 
Ettenheim 237. 
Ettlingen 209. 
Ettringen 74. 
Ettringer-Beller-Kopf 73. 
Fachbach 83. 
Fachingen 86. 
Fahr 66. 
Fahrbach 177. 
Falkenburg, ruin of 103. 

88. 
Falkenlei, the 124. 
Falkenlust 149. 
Falkenstein in the Breis- 

gau 258. 
— intheTaunusl69.2«#. 
Favorite, the 215. 209. 

210. 
Fecht, the 234. 
Feldberg, the, in the Black 

Forest 259. 
Feldberg, the, in the Tau- 

nus 169. 1G7. 
Feldkirche, the 66. 
Feldsee, the 259. 
Felleringen 236. 
Felsberg, the, in the Eifel 

129. 
Felsberg, the, in the Oden- 
wald 175. 
Felsenmeer, the 176. 
Fetzberg, ruin of 41. 
Fijeuoorcl 14. 
Filsen 93. 88. 
Fintheu 140. 
Fischbach on the Nahe- 

109. 111. 
Fischbach in the Taunus. 

168. 
Fleckertshohe, the 94. 
Florsheim 167. 
Forbach 251. 
Fornich 65. 
Forst 192. 
Forstberg, the 73. 
Fraipont 5. 
Frankenburg, the, near 

Aix-la-Chapelle 9. 12. 
Frankenburg, the, in the 

Vosges 232. 
Frankenstein 196. 
— , ruin of 172. 
Frankenthal 225. 
Frankfurt 156. 42. 

*Ariadneum, the 164. 

Bridge, the old 162. 

BOrse (Exchange) 160. 



272 



INDEX. 



Prank furt. 

"Cemetery 164. 
Church of St. Catherine 
162. 

— of St. Leonhard 161. 

— of St. Paul 160. 
Citizens' club 165. 
Deutscli - Ordenshaus 

162. 

Diet 165. 

•Diorama 157. 

'Bom. the 161. 

Exhibition of the Art- 
union 157. 

Goethe's house 159. 

Guard-house 163. 

Hospital 163. 

Judengasse (Jews' str.) 
163. 

Liebfrauenkirche 162. 

* Monument of Goethe 
158. 

*— of Gutenberg 158. 
— Hessian 163. 

Kicolaikirche, the 161. 

Police-station 163. 

Prehn's Picture gallerv 
162. 

*Romer, the 159. 

Saalhof, the 161. 

Senckenberg Society 
164. 

"Stadel gallery 165. 

Statue of Charlemagne 
162. 

Synagogue, the new 163. 

Town-Library 162. 

"Zeil, the 163. 

"Zoological garden, the 
166. 
Frankweiler 193. 
Frauensteiu 137. 
Freiburg 238. 
Fremersberg 210. 
Frenz, castle of 13. 
Freuden burg, castle of 115. 
Freversbach 255. 
Friedberg 42. 
Friedericlisberg, the 6S. 
Friederichstein i;6. 
Friedr. - Louisen - Thurra, 

the 259. 
Friedrichsfeld 174. 187. 
Friicht 85. 
Fiirstenberg, ruin of 102. 

SS. 
Fiirstenberg, the 17. 
Fiirstenlager, the 173. 
Fiirth 177. 
Furtwangen 256. 
Fustenburg, ruins of 102. 
Gaggenau 211. 
Gammelsbacher Thai 179. 

77.5. 



Gans, the 113. 
Gaulsheim 134. 
Gausbach 251. 
Gebweiler 228. 
Gees 130. 

Geiersburg, the 192. 
Geilenkirchen 11. 
Geilnau S6. 
Geisbach 251. 
Geisberg, the 55. 
Geisenheim 134. 89. 133 
Geldern 39. 
Gemiinden 128. 131. 
Gengenbach 257. 
St. Genovefa, church of 

74. 
St. Georgen 243. 
Georgenborn 156. 
Gernsbach 214. 210. 250. 
Geroldsau 216. 
Geroldseck 229. 
Geroldstein 102. 
Gerolstein 130. 129. 
Gerresheim 20. 
Gersprenz 179. 775. 
Geschwendt 260. 
Geul, valley of the 6. 
Geul-viaduct 10. 
Gevelsberg 21. 
Giersberg, ruin of 227. 
Giessen 41. 
Gillenfeld 127. 
Gimmeldingen 192. 
Gladbach 11. 
Glan, the 110. 
Gleiberg, ruin of 41. 
Gleisn-eiler 193. IS .5. 224. 
St. Goar 96. 88. 147. 
St. Goarshausen 97. S8. 
Goch 39. 
Godenhaus 63. 
Godesberg, castle of 148. 

48. 
Goldenfels, castle of 102. 
Gollheim 190. 
Gondorf 126. 
Gonnersdorf 75. 
Gorxheim 174. 
Gottsau 206. 
Graach 122. 
GrSfenberg, the 137. 
Grafinburg, ruin of 122. 
Griifrath 20. 
Graupenwerth, island of 

42. 
Grau-Rheindorf 42. 
Greifenstein, ruin of 229. 
Grenzach 245. 264. 
Griesbach 255. 203. 
Grieth 17. 

Grindenbach, the 254. 
Grossenbaum 20. 
Gross-Litgen 133. 
Gross-Sachsen 174. 



Gri'inde. the 253. 
Griinstadt 190. 188. 
Giildenbach, the 102. 
GUIs 126. 
Gumpen 175. 
Guntersblum 225. 
Giinthersthal, the 242. 
Gunzenbachthal, the 212. 
Gutach 256. 
Gutenfels, castle of 88. 
Gute Maun, chapel of the 

67. 
Haanenburg 56. 
Haardt 193^ 
— , the 188. 
Haberacker 231. 
Hachimette 233. 
Hagen 21. 41. 
Hagenau 223. 
Hager 231. 

— Hof 56. 

— Koppeichen 56. 
Hahnebach, the 110. 
Hain 74. 

Hallgarten 135. 89. 133. 
Hambacher Schloss 188. 
Hammerstein, ruin of 64. 
Handschuchsheim 174. 
Hanselmann's caves 84. 
Hardenstein, ruins of 22. 
Harteuburg, ruins of 192. 
Hartjesberg 16. 
Hasebiihl, the 190. 
Hasel 262. 

Haselbach valley 98. 
Haspe 21. 
Hasselt 4. 
Hasslach 257. 253. 
Hassloch 195. 
Hattenheim 135. 89. 
Hattersheim 167. 168. 
Hattingen 22. 
Hatzenport 125. 
Hauen-Eberstein 210. 
Haus Loo or Candia 16. 
Hausach 257. 253. 
Hausenin theTaunus 102. 

— in the Black Forest 
260. 

Hecklingen 237. 
Heidekamm, the 56. 
Heidelberg 179. 77.5. 
Heideubad, the 235. 
Heidenberg, the 150. 
Heidenmauer near Diirk- 

heim 192. 
Heidenmauer, the, near 

Wiesbaden 150. 
Heidenoord 16. 
Heidesheim 146. 
Heilbrunnen, the 71. 
Heiligenberg 185. 775. 
Heilig-Kreuz 233. 
Heiligkreuzsteinach 178. 



INDEX. 



273 



Heimbach G8. 
Heiniburg, ruin of 103. 88. 
Heimenberg, the 15. 
Heimersheim 58. 
Heisterbach 54. 
Heisterbacherrott 54. 
Ueitersheim 244. 
Helenenberg, the 148. 
Helfenstein, the 82. 
Heller, the 41. 
Heltorf, castle of 20. 
Heromerich 53. 50. 
Hemmersbach, castle of 13. 
Hemmessem 57. * 

Herasbach 174. 
Hennef 40. 
Heppenheim 174. 
Heppingen 57. 
Herbesthal 6. 
Herchenberg, the 74. 
Herdecke 22. 
Hergenrad 6. 
Hernsheim 225. 
Herrenberg, the 235. 231. 
Hersehwiesen 94. 
Herxheim 190. 
Herzogenrath 11. 
Hesbaye, the 4. 
Heterea 15. 
Hillesheini 128. 
Hilpertsau 251. 
Himmelreich, the 258. 
Hinter-Weidenthal 188. 
Hinterweiler 129. 
Hinterzarten 259. 
St. Hippolyte 232. 227. 

231. 
Hirschensprung, the 258. 
Hirschhorn 178. 175. 
Hlrtenfels, the 189. 
Hirzenach 96. 88. 
Hochburg, ruins of 238. 
Hochdahl 20. 
Hochheim 167. 
Hochkelch, (he 248. 
Hochkreuz, the 149. 
Hochspeyer 196. 
Hochst 166. 

Hochstadter valley 173. 
Hochsteiu, the 73. 
Hochwald, the 13. 
Hofheimer Chapel , the 

167. 168. 
Hoh-Barr, castle of 229. 

231. 
Hohkonigsburg 232. 227. 

231. 237. 
Hone Acht, the 60. 74. 

124. 
Hone Kelberg, the 124. 
Hohe Wurzel, the 155. 
Hohen- or Dreieu-Egis- 

heim 227. 
Hohenfels 129. 

BAEDEKE»' Bhino 



Hohen-Geroldseck, cattle 
of 237. 2.5 7. 

Hohen- Kandel, the 238. 

Hoheulandsberg 227. 

Hohen-Rappoltstein 227. 

Hohenstein in the Eifel 
129. 

Hohenstein in the Oden- 
■wald 176. 

Hohenstein, ruin of, near 
Schwalbach 155. 

Hohen -Syburg, ruins of 
22. 41. 

Hohneck, ruin of 103. 

Hfihr 69. 

Holle, the 258. 262. 

Hollenhaken, the 264. 

Holleupass, the 258. 

Holzwalder Hcihe 255. 

Homberg 12. 17. 

Homburg in the Palati- 
nate 197. 

Homburg in the Taunus 
170. 42. 168. 

Honnef 56. 50. 52. 

Honningen 64. 

Hontheim 126. 

Horchheim 90. 82. 

Hordt 222. 

Horn, the 60. 

Hornberg 256. 

Horngraben, the 132. 

Hornisgrinde, the 252.27$. 
227. 250. 

Horrem 13. 39. 

Hubbad 216. 

Hummelsberg, the 63. 

Hnminerich, the 67. 

Hunaweier 233. 

Hundem, valley of the 41. 

Huissen 16. 

't Huis ten Donk 14. 

Hiiningeji 229. 245. 

Hunnsrucken mountains 
109. 

Idar 111. 

Igel 121. 115. 

Ilbesheini 193. 

Ill, the 218. 

Immeneich 263. 

Inde, the 13. 

Ingelheiiner Au, the 138. 

Mich 66. 

Isenachthal, the 191. 

Isenburg in Alsace 228. 

Isenburg in Rhenish Prus- 
sia 68. 

Issel 122. 

1 stein 145. 

Jaarsveld 14. 

Jacobsberger Hof 93. 

Jesuitenhof, the 43. 

Jettenbiihl, the 185. 

St. Johann 197. 



Johannesberg 110. 
Johauuisberg near Nau 

heim 42. 
Johannisberg, castle of, 

in the Rheingau 134. 89. 

133. 146. 
St. John, church of 91. 
Jugenheim 175. 
Jungfernsprung, the 195. 
Kaiserberg, the, near Her- 
decke 22. 
Kaisersberg in Alsace 227. 

231. 233. 
Kaisersberg,the, near Linz 

63. 
Kaiserslautern 196. 
Kaiserstrasse, the 190. 
Kaiserstuhl, the, near 

Freiburg 243. 2.37. 
Kaiserstuhl , the , near 

Heidelberg 185. 
Kaiserswerth 19. 17. 
Kalkofen 86. 
Kalrnit, the 223. 
Kalscheuren 149. 
Kalsmunt, ruins of 41. 
Kaltebach, the 195. 188. 
Kaltenborn 60. 
Kaltenengers 68. 
Kambach 12. 
Kammerberger Miihle 102. 
Kander, the 245. 
Kandern 247. 
Kappeler Thai, the 243. 
Karthause, the 79. 
Kasbach 62. 
Kasbachthal, the 63. 
Kaskeller, the 123. 
Katz, castle of 97. 
Katzenbuckel, the 197. 
Kauzeuberg, ruin of 112. 
Kedrich, the 103. 
Kehl 217. 
Kelberg, the 124. 
Keltersbach 166. 
Kempen 39. 
Kempenich 60. 74. 
Kempten 134. 
Kenfuss 123. 
Kenzingen 237. 
Kerpen 13. 
Kesselheim 69. 
Kestert 88. 
Kevelaer 39. 
Kiedricn 133. 89. 137. 
Kinderdijk 14. 
Kiusheirn, castle of 227. 
Kinzig, the 237. 256. 257. 
Kippenheim 237. 
Kirchen 41. 
Kirchweiler 129. 
Kirchzarten 258. 
Kirn 110. 
Kirsch 122. 

18 



274 



INDEX. 



Kislau 205. 
Klause, the 135. 
Ktein-Basel 245. 264. 
Kleinenbruch 11. 
Kleinkembs 245 
Klein-Laufenburg 263. 
Klingel, chapel 215. 
Klopp, castle of 106. 
Klosterrath, abbey of 11. 
Klutert, the 21. 
Kniebis, the 253. 2.50. 
Kniebis-Baths 255. 
Koblenz in Switzerland 

263. 
Kohlscheid 11. 
Kolmbach 176. 
Koln in the Palatinate 189. 
Konigsbaeh 192. 190. 
Kbnigs-Born, the 140. 
Ktinigsdorf 13. 
Konigshofen 217. 
Konigskreuz 190. 
Konigssitz, the 15. 
Konigstein 168. 
K6nigsstuhl,the, near the 

Donnersberg 189. 
Konigsstuhl, the, near 

Heidelberg 185. 
Konigsstuhl, the , near 

Rhense 92. 147. 
Kouigswald, the 235. 
Kcinigswinter 48. 148. 
Korretsburg, ruins of 74. 
Krahnenberg, the 147. 
Kralingen 14. 
Kreuzberg on the Ahr 60. 
— , the, near Bonn 47. 

149. 
Kreuznaeh 112. 109. 188. 
Krimpen 14. 
Krippe 63. 

Kronenburg, ruins of 114. 
Kropsburg, ruins of 223. 
Krotzingen 244. 
Kruft 74. 

Krufter Ofeu, the 72. 
Kriith 235. 
Kiihkopf, the 79. 
Kilhr 126. 

Kiiiiostein-Engers 126. 
Kuppenheini 210. 
Kiippevsteg 24. 
Kybfelsen, the 243. 
Kyll, the 130. 131. 132. 
Kyrburg, ruins of 110. 
Laach, abbey of 72. 
— , hainlet of 59. 
Luacher See, the 72. 
Lac blanc 233. 231. 
Lac noir 233. 
Ladeuburg 174. 
Laeken 1. 
Lahu, the 41. 
Lahn, valley of the 82. 



Lalmeck, castle of 92. 83. 

147. 
Lahr in Baden 237. 257 . 
— in the Seven Mountains 

55. 
St. Lambrecht 96. 
Landau 223. 193. 
Landberg, the 174. 
Landen 4. 

Landshut, ruin of 122. 
Landskron, the, on the 

Ahr 57. 
Landskron, castle of, near 

Oppenheim 225. 
Landstuhl 196. 
Langenau, castle of 85. 
Langenbach 257. 
Langenbrand 251. 
Langenbriicken 205. 
Langenfeld 24. 
Langenlonsheim 109. 
Langen-Schwalbach 154. 
Langenthal 178. 
Langenseifen 102. 
Langerwehe 13. 
Langwertherau, island of 

136. 
Laubbach 90. 
Laubenheim 226. 
Laufenburg 263. 
Laukenmuhle 102. 
Laurenburg 86. 
Lautenbach 216. 
Lauter, the 22,'i. 
Lauterbach 176. 
Lay 126. 
Leber, the 233. 
Leberau 233. 
Leberthal, the 227. 232. 
Lehmen 126. 
Leimbach 60. 
Leiningen 190. 
Lekkerkerk 14. 
Leniaberg, the 89. 
Lenne, the 22. 
— , valley of the 41. 
Lenzkirch Chalet 259. 262. 
Leopolds-Canal, the 237. 
Leopoldshohe 245. 
Les-basses-huttes 234. 
Les-hautes-huttes 234. 
Leubsdorf 63. 
Leuk, the 115. 
Leutesdorf 65. 
Lichtenegg, castle of 237. 
Lichtenthal 212. 
Liebeneck, castle of 93. 

88. 147. 
Liebenstein 95. 88. 147. 
Liedberg, Schloss 11. 
Liege 5. 
Liepvre, la 233. 
Lierbach, the 254. 
Lieser 1U2. 



Lieser, the 131. 132. 
Limburg in Belgium 6. 

— on the Lahn 87. 

— in the Palatinate 191. 
Lindenbach, the 84. 
Lindenfels 177. 175. 179. 
Lindern 11. 

Lintorf 20. 

Linz 62. 

Linzerhausen 62. 

Lippe, the 17. 

Littenweiler 243. 258. 

Lobith 16. 

Lochmiihle, the 59. 

Lohnberg 87. 

Lohrbacher Thai 178. 

Lohrberg, the 55. 

Lohrsdorf 57. 

Longwich 122. 

Lontzen 6. 

Lorch 103. 88. 

Lorchhausen 102. 88. 

Lorettocapelle, the 242. 

Lorrach 261. 

Lorsch 174. 

St. Louis 228. 

Lousberg, the 9. 11. 

Louvain 3. 

Lowenburg, the 55. 53. 50. 

Ludwigseiehe, the 172. 

Ludwigshafen 224. 

Ludwigshohe intheOden- 
wald 177. 172. 

Ludwigsliohe in the Pala- 
tinate 193. 223. 

Lupodunum v. Laden- 
burg. 

Lurlei, the 98. 88. 147. 

Lutterbach 228. 

Lutzelburg 230. 

Lutzelstein, the 230. 

Lutzerath 124. 

Luzieberg, the 173. 

Luxembourg 116. 

Madenburg, the 193. 188. 
195. 

Mahlberg, castle of 237. 

Mahlberg-Kopf, the 84. 

Maikaramer 223. 

Mainspitze, the 145. 

Malchen, the 172. 

Marines 1. 

Mallendar 69. 

Malschbach 216. 

Manderscheid 131. 127. 

Maunheim 186. 

St. Margaretheukreuz 55. 

Marienberg in the Seven 
Mountains 56. 

Marienberg near Boppard 
94. 

Marienbnrg, ruin of 123. 

Marienhausen 108. 

Marienhohe, the 172. 



INDEX. 



275 



Marienthal on the Ahr 58. 

— in the Rheingau 134. 

— in the Palatinate 189. 

— near Strasburg 223. 
Markbrunneii, the 136. 
Markirch 233. 231. 
Marksburg.the 93.SS.147. 
Marsfeld, the 65. 

St. Martin, chapel of 93. 
Martinstein 110. 
Mastricht 6. 

St. Matthias, chapel of 126. 
Mattiaci fontes v. Wies- 
baden. . 
Maus, the 96. 147. 
Mauseberg, the 127. 
Mausethurm, the 105. 
Maxau 208. 

Maxburg, the 223. 193. 
Mayen 73. 
Mayence 138. 

* Aqueduct, the 140. 
Arsenal, the 144. 

* Cemetery 145. 
Church of St. Peter 144. 

— of St. Stephen 145. 
Citadel, the 139. 
'Dom, the 141. 
*Eigelstein, the 139. 
Fortress, the 140. 
Fruchthalle, the 143. 
Grosse Bleiche 143. 
Gutenbergsplat/. 143. 
Hall of Industry 143. 
Kastrich, the 143. 
Neue Anlage, the 145. 
Palace of the Electors 

144. 

— Grand-ducal 144. 
Statue of Gutenberg 143. 

— of Schiller 143. 
Theatre 143. 

Meerfelder Maar, the 132. 
Mermicher Hof 94. 
Mehlem 51. 49. 148. 
Mehren 128. 

Meinerswijk, castle of 15. 
Melibocus, the 172. 175. 
Menzenberg 56. 
Menzenschwand 262. 

— Chalet 262. 263. 
Mercuriusberg, the 215. 
Merl 123. 

Merode 13. 
Merten 40. 
Mertert 116. 
Merzig 114. 
Metzeburg, the 41. 
Metzeral 231. 
Michaelscapelle, the 206. 
Michelstadt 179. 
Miesenheim 74. 
Millingen 16. 
Milspe 21. 



Minderberg, the 63. 49. 
Minder-Litgen 126. 
Mingolsheim 205. 
Minheim 122. 
Mittelburg, the 179. 
Mittel-Hambach 224. 
Mittelheim 135. 
Molz-Bauer 243. 
Mombach 177. 
Mondorf 42. 
Monrepos, castle of 67. 
Mons Brisiacus v. Brei- 

sach. 
Montclair 115. 
Montroyal 123. 
Monzingen 110. 
Mooswald, the 243. 
Mordnau 236. 
Moresnet 10. 
Morgenbachthal 104. 88. 
Morlenbach 177. 
Mosbach 137. 154. 
Moselkern 125. 
Moselle, the 126. 131.236. 
Moselweis 126. 
Mosenberg, the 132. 124. 
Mouse-Tower 105.146. 88. 
Miiden 125. 
Muggensturm 209. 
Muhlbad, the 88. 
Miihlburg 208. 
Muhlbausen 228. 
Miihlheim 122, 
Miihlhofen 68. 
Mulheim 24. 
Miillenbach 125. 
Miillheim 244. 
Mummelsee, the 252. 
Miinster in Alsace 234. 
Miinster am Stein 113. 11)9. 

188. 
Miinstermaifeld 125. 
Miinsterthal, the 249. 
Mimz, the 194. 
Miinzenberg, ruins of 41. 
Munzingen 243. 
Murg, the 209. 214. 250. 
Musbach 196. 
Mutterstadt 195. 
Nackenheim 226. 
Nahe, the 88. 146. 
Namedy 65. 147. 
Nassau 85. 
Nauheim 42. 
Neander cavern, the 20. 
Neanderthal, the 20. 
Neckar, the 179. 
Neckargemiind 186. 
Neckarsteinach 179. 275. 

178. 
Neef 124. 
Neerwinden 4. 
Neidenfels, ruin of 196. 
Nennig 115. 



Neroberg, the 89. 
Neroth 129. 
Nerothal 153. 
Nerother Kopf, the 128. 
Nessonvaux 5. 
Nette, the 67. 147. 
Netterhammer 74. 
Netterhof 67. 147. 
Neu-Breisach 244. 
Neucastel, ruin of 193. 
Neudorf 137. 
Neu-Eberstein 215. 
Neuenahr, Baths of 58. 
— , castle of 58. 
Neuenburg 245. 
Neuendorf 69. 
Neuenheim 174. 186. 
Neuenweg 24S. 
Neuhaus 254. 216. 253. 
Neu-Katzenelnbogen 97. 
Neumagen 122. 
Neumagen Bach, the 249. 
Neumuhl in the Black 

Forest 249. 
Neumuhl in the Eifell32. 

133. 
Neumuhl in theVosges231. 
Neun Aussichten 173. 
Neunkirchen in the Eifel 

129. 
— near Saarbriicken 197. 

111. 
Neun Kriimme, the 176. 
Neun Linden, the 243. 
Neuss 39. 11. 
Neustadt224. 188.190.196. 
Neuwied 66. 247. 
Nickenich 74. 
Nidda, the 166. 
Niederbiber 67. 
Nieder-Breisig 64. 148. 
Niederburg s. Bromser- 

burg. 
Niederburg near Cobern 

126. 
Niederburg near Rappolts- 

weiler 227. 
Niederdollendorf 4S. 
Nieder-Ernst 124. 
Niederfell 126. 
Niedergladbach 102. 
Nieder-Hammerstein 64. 
Niederhausen 109. 
Niederheimbacli 103. 88. 
Nieder-Ingelhehn 146. 89. 
Nieder-Kestert 96. 
Niederlahnstein 90. 82.91. 
Nieder-Liitzingen 74. 
Niedermendig 73. 69. 
Niederrad 166. 
Niederschelden 41. 
Niederspay 93. 88. 
Niederwald, the 107. 
Niederwalluf 137. 89. 



276 



INDEX. 



Niedenveiler 245. 

Niederwerth, island of 69. 

Nieder-Zissen 74. 

Nierenhof 22. 

Niers, the 39. 

Nierstein 226. 

Nieuwfoort 14. 

Nievern 83. 

Nippes 64. 

Nirm 12. 

Nollicht or Nollingen, 

ruins of 103. 88. 
Nonnenstromberg, the 53. 
Nonnenwerth, island of 

52. 
Norheim 109. 
North Canal, the 11. 
Nothberg 13. 
Novesium v. Nenss. 
Niirburg, ruin of 60. 124. 
Oherabsteinach 178. 
Oberbeuern 251. 
Oberburg near Cobern 

126. 
— near Riidesheim 134. 
Oberrassel 48. 11. 
Oberdollendorf 48. 
Ober-Ernst 124. 
Oberfell 126. 
Ober-Hammerstein 64. 
Oberhausen near Diissel- 

dorf 24. 12. 23. 
Oberhausen on the Nahe 

109. 
Oherkireh 216. 
Ober-Kutterau 263. 
Oberlahnstein 91. 82. «8. 
Ober-Liitzingen 74. 
Ohermossau 179. 
Obemhof 85. 
Ober-Reiffenberg, ruin of 

169. 
Ober-Rimsingen 243. 
Oberschaffhausen 243. 
Ob.-Schonmattenwag 178. 
Oberstein 111. 100. 
Oberstroth 250. 
Oberweiler 245. 
Oberwerth 90. 147. 
Oberwesel 99. 88. 
Oberwinter 52. 148. 
Ober-Zissen 74. 71. 
Ochsenstein, ruin of 231. 
Ochtendung 74. 
Oekenfels, ruins of 62. 
Odenkirchen 11. 
Odenthal 38. 
Odenwald, the 175. 
Oderen 235. 
Oeflingen 262. 
Oelberg, the 54. 53. 
Octrich 135. 80. 
Ofenkaulen-Berg, the 55. 
Offenburg 236. 253. 258. 



Oggersheim 225. 

Ohligsberg, the 122. 

Olbriick, ruin of 74. 

Oos 209. 216. 

Oos- or Oelbach, the 211. 

Oosterbeek 15. 

Opheusden 15. 

Oppenau255. 216. 253. 

Oppenheim 225. 

Oranienstein, castle of 87. 

Orbey 233. 231. 

Orscholz 115. 

Orschweier 237. 

Orsclrweiler 227. 

Orsoy 17. 

Ortenau 236. 

Ortenberg, castle of 257. 
237. 

Ortenberg, village of 257. 

Ostend 6. 

Ostern 179. 775. 

Osterrath 39. 

Osterspay 88. 147. 

St. Oswald, chapel of 258. 

Ottenau 211. 

Ottenhofen 254. 250. 252. 

Ottersweier 216. 

Ottilienberg, the 232. 

Otzberg, the 177. 

Ourthe, the 5. 

Palatinate, the Bavarian- 
Rhenish 188. 

Pannerden 16. 

Papenkaul, the 130. 

Paris 7. 

Patersberg 98. 

Paulinenberg, the 155. 

Pelm 130. 120. 

Pepinster 5. 

Perler Kopf, the 74. 

Petersau, island of 138. 

Petersberg near Coblenz 
80. 147. 

Petersberg in the Seven 
Mountains 53. 54. 

Peterskopf, the 192. 

Petersthal 255. 

Petrusbach, the 116. 

Pfaffendorf 90. 82. 

Pfaffendorfer Hc'ihe 81. 82. 

Pfalz or Pfalzgrafenstein 
100. 88. 

Pfalzel 121. 

Pfingstbach, the 75. 

Philippshalle, saline baths 
of 191. 

Pisport 122. 

Plaidt 74. 

Platte, the 89. 

Plittersdorf 48. 

Poppelsdorf 47. 

Prag 262. 260. 

Pulvermaar, the 127. 

Pulverthal, the 116. 



Piinderich 123. 
Pyrmont, ruin of 125. 
Queich, the 193. 223. 
Quint, the 122. 
Rabenlei, the 48. 
Radscheck 73. 
Rambach 151. 
Ramersdorf 48. 
Randeck, ruin of 189. 
Rappoltsweiler 227. 231. 

233. 
Rasselstein 66. 
Rastadt 209. 
Rauenthal 155. 80. 137. 
Rauhmiinzach, the 251. 
Raunheim 166. 
Rech 59. 
Rees 17. 
Reichartshausen, chateau 

of 135. 80. 
Reichelsheim 179. 
Reichenbach in the Black 

Forest 253. 
Reichenbach in the Oden- 

wald 176. 
Reichenberg, castle of, 

near St.Goarshansen 98. 
Reichenberg, ruin nf, near 

Neckarsteinach 179. 
Reichenstein, ruins of 103. 
Reichenweier 233. 
Reichsbusch, the 12. 
Reifer Miihle, the 73. 
Reil 123. 

Reimerzhofen 59. 
Reisberg 234. 231. 
Reissen 177. 
Remagen 61. 53. 148. 
Remiremont 236. 
Rench, the 255. 
Renchen 216. 217. 
Renkum 15. 
Renneberg, the 63. 
Reuschenberg 24. 
Rheinau, island of 136. 
Rheinbollen 102. 
Rheinbreitbach 56. 50. 52. 
Rheinbrohl 64. 147. 
Rheindiebach 88. 
Rheineek, castle of 64. 

74. 148. 
Rheinfelden 264. 
Rheinfels, ruin of 97. 88. 

147. 
Rheingau, the 133. 
Rheingrafenstein 113. 188. 
Rheinstein 104. 88. 
Rhenen 15. 
Rhense 92. 88. 147. 
Rheydt 11. 
Rhine-Manic Canal 229. 

230. 
Rhine-Rhone Canal 228. 
Rhodt 193. 



INDEX. 



277 



Rhbndorf 55. 50. 52. 
Ribeauviller 227. 
Richterich 11. 
Riegel 237. 
Riehen 261. 
Riesensaule, the 176. 
Rietburg or Rippurg 193. 
Rigomagus v. Remagen. 
Rimbach 177. 
Rimburg, castle of 11. 
Rimmerich 129. 
Rinken 259. 
Riol 122. 

Rippoldsau 255. • 

Rittershausen 21. 
Rixheim 228. 
Rochusberg, the 89. 134. 
Rochuscapelle, the 106. 

134. 
Rochette, la, castle of 5. 
Kockenhausen 189. 
Rodenstein, ruin of 179. 
Roderberg, the 52. 
Roer, the 11. 
Roisdorf 149. 
Rolandseck 51. 148. 
Rolandswerth v. Nonnen- 

werth. 
Romerkessel, the 123. 
Romersberg, the 127. 
Rommersdorf 68. 
Ronheide 6. 9. 
Rosenau, the 53. 
Rossbiihl, the 253. 
Rossel, the 108. 
Rossert, the 168. 
Rosskopf, the 243. 
Rossstein, the 88. 
Rothenfels 210. 
Rothenfels, the 114. 109. 
Rotteln 261. 
Rotterdam 14. 
Rottger Schloss, the 261. 
Rubeacum v. Ruffach. 
Riibenach 74. 
Riidesheim 133. 89. 107. 
Riidesheimer Berg 105. 
Ruffach 228. 
Ruhr, the 12. 
Ruhrort 12. 6. 17. 
Riingsdorf 48. 
Runkel 87. 
Rupel, the 3. 
Ruppertsberg 196. 
Riisselsheim 166. 
Ruwer 121. 
Saalburg, the 170. 
Saar, the 197. 
Saarbriicken 147. 111. 
Saarburg in Alsace 230. 
Saarburg in Rhenish- 

. Prussia 115. 
Saarlouis 114. 
Sachsenhausen 162. 



Sackingen 263. 
Saffenburg, the 59. 
Sahler Foundry 102. 
Salvatorberg, the 9. 
Salzig 95. 
Sandau 136. 
Saresdorf 130. 
Sassbach 217. 
Sassbachwalden 217. 
Saner, valley of the 103. 
Sauerburg, the 103. 
Saverne 229. 
Saxler 127. 
Sayn, Schloss 6S. 
Saynbach, the 68. 
Schaafberg, the 215. 
Schaefershof 231. 
Schalkenmehren 127. 
Schallerberg, the 55. 
Schallstadt 244. 
Schanzel, the 193. 
Schapbach 256. 
Scharfeneck, ruin of 193. 
Scharfenstein 89. 
Scharlachkopf, the 107. 
Scharteberg, the 129. 
Schau ins Land, the 243. 

257. 
Schaumburg, castle of 86. 
Scheerkopfe, the 55. 
Scheid 86. 

Scheiderwald, the 74. 
Schenkenschanz, the 16. 
Scheuern 52. 
Schierstein 137. 89. 
Schifferstadt 195, 
Schladern 40. 
Schlangenbad 155. 102. 

137. 
Schlettstadt 227. 
Schliengen 245. 247. 
Schlossberg, the 242. 
Schluchsee, the 263. 
Schmalbach 251. 
Schmalenstein , ruin of 

206. 
Schneidhain 168. 
Schonau in the Black 

Forest 260. 
Schonau in the Odenwald 

178. 775. 
Schonberg near Freiburg 

243. 
Schonberg near Heidel- 
berg 176. 173. 
Schonbornslust SO. 
Schonburg, ruin of 10D.88. 
Schonmiin/.ach 251. 250. 
Schonstatt 69. 
Schonstein, castle of 40. 
Schoonhoven 14. 
Schopfheim 261. 
Schriesheim 174. 
Schuld 61. 



Schwabenschanz, the 253. 
Sclrwalbach 154. 102. 137. 
Schwanheim 166. 
Schwarzbach, the 16S. 
Schwarz-Rheindorf 214. 
Schwedenschanze,the 253. 
Schweich 122. 
Schweighof 248. 
Schwelm 21. 
Schweppenburg, castle of 

71. 
Schweppenhausen 102. 
Schwetzingen 187. 
St. Sebastian 69. 
Sechtem 149. 
Seebach in the Black 

Forest 252. 250. 
Seebach in the Palatinate 

192. 
Seebuck, the 259. 202. 
Seelach 210. 
Sehringen 247. 
Senhals 124. 
Senne, the 1. 
Seven Mountains, the 53. 
Seven Virgins, the 99. 
Siebeldingen 193. 
Siedelsbrunn 178. 
Sieg, the 40. 
Siegburg 40. 
Siegen 41. 
Simonswald 257. 
Sinzig 63. 148. 
Sirnitz, the 24S. 
Sobernheim 110. 
Soden 169. 168. 
Soersthal, the 9. 
Solingen 20. 
Sonnborn 21. 
Sonnenberg, ruin of 151. 
Sooneck, castle of 103. 88. 
Sophienruhe, the 246. 
Spa 5. 

Speyer 200. 186. 
Speyerbach, the 196. 
Sponheim 110. 
Sprendliugen 113. 
Sprink 127. 
Stahlberg, ruin of 102. 
Stahleck, ruin of 102. 88. 
Stammheim, Schloss 24. 
Starkenburg, the 174. 
Staudernheim 110. 
Staufen 249. 
Staufenberg 236. 214. 
Staufenburg, castle of 244. 
Stauffen, the 215. 
Steeg 102. 
Steele 21 
Stefflen 12S. 
Steigerkopf, the 193. 
Stein, ruin of 85. 
Steinach 257. 

valley of the 17S. 



278 



INDEX. 



Steinbaeh 216. 
-, the 186. 
Steinberg, the 136. 
Steinborn 130. 129. 
Stein-Callenfels, ruin of 
. HO. 

Steinen 261. 

Steinhausen, castle of 22. 
Stenzelberg, the 54. 53. 
Sternberg 126. 
Sternerhiitte, the 63. 
Sterrenberg 95. 88. 147. 
Stockhausen 87. 
Stolberg 12. 
Stolzenfels, castle of 90. 

147. 
Stossweier 234. 
Strahlenburg, the 174. 
Strasburg 217. 

Academy 222. 

Artillery Barracks 222. 

Bishop's residence 220. 

•Cathedral 218. 

* Church of St. Thomas 
221. 

Citadel 222. 

Desaix monument 222. 

Gutenberg place and 
statue 220. 

*Kleber statue 222. 

Museum of natural hi- 
story 222. 

New Church 221. 

Statue of the Marquis de 
Lezay-Marnesia 221. 

Theatre 221. 

Town-hall 221. 

Town Library 221. 

University 222. 
Strasserhof 38. 
Streefkerk 14. 
Strohn 127. 
Stromberg 102. 
Strotzbiisch 126. 
Stuben 124. 
Siichteln 11. 
Sultz 228. 
Sultzeren 234. 
Sulzbach 111. 197. 
Sundgau, the 228. 
Swiss Valley, the 98. 
Tabernae v. Zabern. 
Taunus, the 166. 
Temple, the, on the Nie- 

derwald 108. 
Tempelhof, the 126. 
Teufelsberg, the 193. 
Teufelshaus, the 66. 
Teufelskanzel near Ade- 

nau 60. 
Teufelskanzel near Baden 

214. 215. 
Teufelsleiter, the 196. 
Teufelsstein, the 192. 



Thann 228. 236. 

Theodorshalle 113. 109. 

Thiengen 243. 

St. Thomas (Lunatic Asy- 
lum) 147. 

Thur, the 228. 

Thurant, ruin of 126. 

Thurmberg, the 206. 

Thuruberg, ruin of 96. 

Tirlemont 4. 

Titisee, the 260. 

Todtmoos 262. 260. 

Todtmoos-Au 262. 

Todtnau 260. 

Todtnauberg 260. 

Todtnau Chalet 260. 239. 

Tonnisstein 71. 

Traben 123. 

Trarbach 122. 

Trautzberg 126. 

Trechtingshausen 103. 88. 

Treis 125. 

Treves 111. 

Trifels, ruin of 194. 188. 
195. 

Trimborn 10. 

Trips, castle of 11. 

Ttittenheim 122. 

St. Trond 4. 

Trooz, le 5. 

Trutzbingen 109. 

Trutz-Eltz 125. 

Tryberg 256. 253. 

Tschiflik 197. 

Tullinger Hohe, the 261. 

Uedersdorf 131. 

Uerdingen 12. 17. 

Uerzig 122. 

Uesbach, the 123. 

Uffgau, the 236. 

Ungstein 190. 

Unkel 52. 50. 

Unter-Grombach 206. 

Unter-Reidelbach 176. 

Unter - Schonmattenwag 
178. 175. 

Urbar 69. 

Urmitz 68. 

Utrecht 17. 

Vallendar 69. 

Valwig 124. 

Veitskopf, the 71. 

Velp 16. 

Veluwe 15. 

Verviers 5. 

Vesdre, the 5. 

Viauen 14. 

Vieille Montagne 10. 

Viersen 11. 

Vilmar 87. 

Vilvorde 1. 

Virneberg 56. 
Virneburg 61. 

IVohwinkel 20. 



Vollraths, castle of 9,9.133. 
Volmarstein 22. 
Volme, the 22. 
Vorder-Laugenbach 251. 
Vosges, the 229. 231. 193. 
Vreeswijk 14. 
Wachenheim 192. 
Wachten- or Geiersburg, 

ruin of 192. 
Wadenheim 58. 57. 
Wagenberg, the 177. 
Wageningen 15. 
Waldbockelheim 110. 
Waldkirch 257. 238. 
Waldmichelbach 178. 175. 
Waldshut 263. 
Wallersheim 69. 
Wallhausen 111. 
Walporzheim 58. 
Wambach 156. 
Waremme 4. 
Warmbach 264. 
Wartenstein, castle of 110. 
Wartesberg, the 127. 
Wasseiiach 71. 
Wasserbillig 115. 
Weberlei, the 131. 
Wceze 39. 

Weghiibler Kopf, the 65. 
Wehr 262. 
Wehra, the 262. 
Wehrathal, the 262. 
Weiher 193. 
Weil 261. 
Weilbach 167. 
VVeilburg 87. 
WeinfelderMaar, the 127. 

126. 131. 
Weingarten 206. 
Weinheim 174. 
Weiss, the 234. 
Weissenau 226. 
Weissenauer Lager, the 

141. 
Weissenbach 251. 
Weissenburg 223. 
Weissenthurm 67. 14 7. 
Weitcn 115. 
Weitersweiler 189. 
Welkenhau'sen, castle off. 
Welmich 102. **. 155. 
St. Wendel 111. 
Wendenheim 229. 
Werden 24. 

St. Werner, church of 101. 
Werth 13. 
Weschnitz, the. 174. 175. 

177. 
Wesel 17. 
Wespelaer 3. 
Wesserling 236. 
Westrich, the 196. 
Wetter 22. 
Wetzlar 41. 87. 



INDEX. 



279 



Weyersbach 131. 
Wichelshof, the 43. 
Wickrath 11. 
Wiebelskirehen 111. 
Wiedbaeh, the 66. 
Wiesbaden 149. 89. 
Wiese, tlie 260. 
Wiesenthal, the 260. 
Wildbad 210. 
Wildenburg 111. 
Wildenstein 235. 231. 
Willgartswiesen 194. 188. 
Windeck, ruins of, near 

Baden 216. 
Windeck, ruins of, near 

Schladern 40. 
Windeck, castle of, near 

Weinheim 174. 
Winden 195. 
Windesheim 102. 



Winkel 135. 89. 
Winneburg, ruins of 125. 
Winningen 126. 
Winterberg, the 84. 
Winzingen, ruins of 192. 

196. 224. 
Wisper, the 103. 
Wissen 40. 
Witten 22. 
Wittlich 133. 12C. 
Wolf 122. 
Wolfach 256. 
Wolfsbrunnen, the 185. 
Wolfsburg, ruin of 196. 

224. 
Wolkenbnrg, the 53. .5.5. 
Worms 198. 225. 
Worringen 39. 
Wupper, the 21. 24. 
Wurmthal, the 11. 



Wyk by Duurstede 15. 
Xanten 17. 
Yburg, ruin of 215. 
Yssel, the 14. 10. 
Ysselmonde 14. 
Zabern 229. 
Zahlbach 140. 
Zahringen, ruin of 238. 

243. 
Zauberhohle, the 108. 
Zell on the Moselle 123. 
Zell in the Wiesenthal 260. 
Zeltingen 122. 
Zicklenburg 56. 
Zipfelhof 259. 
Zorn, the 222. 230. 
Zweibriicken 197. 
Zweibruggen, castle of 11. 
Zwiegabel 251. 
Zwiugenberg 172. 



Printed by F. A. Brockhaus, Leipzig.